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Butanal

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-211.8 ± 0.92kJ/molCmWiberg, Crocker, et al., 1991ALS
Deltafgas-204.4 ± 1.4kJ/molChydBuckley and Cox, 1967ALS
Deltafgas-206.7kJ/molN/ANicholson, 1960Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of -240.3 kj/mol from Nicholson, 1960 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 33.6 kj/mol from Wiberg, Crocker, et al., 1991.; DRB
Deltafgas-205.1kJ/molN/ATjebbes, 1960Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of -238.7±0.7 kj/mol from Tjebbes, 1960 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 33.6 kj/mol from Wiberg, Crocker, et al., 1991.; DRB
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas344.8 ± 4.2J/mol*KN/AChermin, 1961This value calculated from calorimetric data is close to value of 345.5(2.3) J/mol*K obtained from equilibrium measurements [ Buckley E., 1967].; GT

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-245.4 ± 0.84kJ/molCmWiberg, Crocker, et al., 1991ALS
Deltafliquid-238.1 ± 1.5kJ/molChydBuckley and Cox, 1967ALS
Deltafliquid-240.3kJ/molCcbNicholson, 1960ALS
Deltafliquid-238.7 ± 0.71kJ/molCcbTjebbes, 1960ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-2477.1 ± 1.4kJ/molCcbNicholson, 1960Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -240.2 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacliquid-2478.7 ± 0.71kJ/molCcbTjebbes, 1960Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -238.7 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid242.7J/mol*KN/AVasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989DH
liquid246.9J/mol*KN/AParks, Kennedy, et al., 1956Extrapolation below 80 K, 43.93 J/mol*K.; DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
164.7298.15Vasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989T = 11 to 330 K.; DH
163.51298.15Parks, Kennedy, et al., 1956T = 80 to 300 K.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil348. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 32 out of 34 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus176. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple176.28KN/AVasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; corrected to 100 % purity by extrapolation; TRC
Ttriple176.8KN/AWilhoit, Chao, et al., 1985Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Ttriple176.8KN/AParks, Kennedy, et al., 1956, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc537.1KN/AAnselme and Teja, 1990Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 4. K; TRC
Tc537.2KN/ATeja and Rosenthal, 1990Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.8 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc43.20barN/ATeja and Rosenthal, 1990Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1.00 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc3.88mol/lN/AAnselme and Teja, 1990Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.07 mol/l; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap33.2kJ/molCGCChickos, Hosseini, et al., 1995Based on data from 313. - 353. K.; AC
Deltavap33.6kJ/molN/AWiberg, Crocker, et al., 1991DRB
Deltavap33.7 ± 0.4kJ/molEBBuckley and Cox, 1967, 2See also Verevkin, Krasnykh, et al., 2003.; AC
Deltavap33.7 ± 0.4kJ/molVBuckley and Cox, 1967ALS
Deltavap33.7kJ/molN/ABuckley and Cox, 1967DRB

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
34.2308.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 293. - 349. K.; AC
32.9339.EBWojtasinski, 1963Based on data from 330. - 348. K.; AC
33.3319.N/ASeprakova, Paulech, et al., 1959Based on data from 304. - 347. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC
33.9306.N/AKuchinskaya, 1938Based on data from 258. - 353. K.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
303.86 - 347.183.59112952.851-82.569Seprakova, Paulech, et al., 1959, 2Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
10.773176.28Vasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989DH
11.09176.8Domalski and Hearing, 1996See also Vasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989, 2.; AC
11.104176.8Parks, Kennedy, et al., 1956DH

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
61.11176.28Vasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989DH
62.81176.8Parks, Kennedy, et al., 1956DH

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
0.0769192.2liquidliquidVasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989T = 180 to 210 K.; DH
0.0634284.8liquidliquidVasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989T = 260 to 280 K.; DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
0.388192.2liquidliquidVasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989T; DH
0.223284.8liquidliquidVasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989T; DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C4H7O- + Hydrogen cation = Butanal

By formula: C4H7O- + H+ = C4H8O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1526. ± 8.8kJ/molD-EAAlconcel, Deyerl, et al., 2001gas phase; B
Deltar1523. ± 9.6kJ/molD-EAZimmerman, Reed, et al., 1977gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1499. ± 9.6kJ/molH-TSAlconcel, Deyerl, et al., 2001gas phase; B
Deltar1496. ± 10.kJ/molH-TSZimmerman, Reed, et al., 1977gas phase; B

Nitric oxide anion + Butanal = (Nitric oxide anion bullet Butanal)

By formula: NO- + C4H8O = (NO- bullet C4H8O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar164.kJ/molICRReents and Freiser, 1981gas phase; switching reaction,Thermochemical ladder(NO+)C2H5OH, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Farid and McMahon, 1978; M

Butane, 1,1-dimethoxy + Water = Butanal + 2Methyl Alcohol

By formula: C6H14O2 + H2O = C4H8O + 2CH4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar36.2 ± 0.1kJ/molCmWiberg, Morgan, et al., 1994liquid phase; ALS
Deltar36.53 ± 0.096kJ/molEqkWiberg and Squires, 1981liquid phase; ALS

Hydrogen + 2-Butenal = Butanal

By formula: H2 + C4H6O = C4H8O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-104.2 ± 0.42kJ/molChydDolliver, Gresham, et al., 1938gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -105.3 ± 0.4 kJ/mol; At 355°K; ALS

(CAS Reg. No. 26232-84-8 bullet 4294967295Butanal) + Butanal = CAS Reg. No. 26232-84-8

By formula: (CAS Reg. No. 26232-84-8 bullet 4294967295C4H8O) + C4H8O = CAS Reg. No. 26232-84-8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar175. ± 9.2kJ/molN/ABartmess, Scott, et al., 1979gas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B

Butanal + Hydrogen = 1-Butanol

By formula: C4H8O + H2 = C4H10O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-81.88 ± 0.75kJ/molCmWiberg, Crocker, et al., 1991liquid phase; ALS
Deltar-70.5 ± 1.3kJ/molChydBuckley and Cox, 1967gas phase; ALS

Magnesium ion (1+) + Butanal = (Magnesium ion (1+) bullet Butanal)

By formula: Mg+ + C4H8O = (Mg+ bullet C4H8O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar280. ± 20.kJ/molICROperti, Tews, et al., 1988gas phase; switching reaction,Thermochemical ladder(Mg+)CH3OH; M

Butanal + 2Methyl Alcohol = Butane, 1,1-dimethoxy + Water

By formula: C4H8O + 2CH4O = C6H14O2 + H2O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-59. ± 1.kJ/molCmWiberg, Morgan, et al., 1994gas phase; ALS

3Butanal = 1,3,5-Trioxane, 2,4,6-tripropyl-

By formula: 3C4H8O = C12H24O3

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-29.45kJ/molEqkOgorodnikov, Katsnel'son, et al., 1990liquid phase; PMR; ALS

Henry's Law data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference Comment
9.66200.MN/AThe data from Table 1 by missing citation was used to redo the regression analysis. The data for acetone in their Table 2 is wrong.
5.44000.XN/A 
8.6 MButtery, Ling, et al., 1969 

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C4H8O+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.82 ± 0.04eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)792.7kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity760.8kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
0.000694EFDDesfrancois, Abdoul-Carime, et al., 1994EA: 0.7 meV. Dipole-bound state.; B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.83PITraeger and McAdoo, 1986LBLHLM
9.8EIMcAdoo and Hudson, 1983LBLHLM
9.73 ± 0.015EIEl-Sherbini, Allam, et al., 1981LLK
9.836 ± 0.005PEHernandez, Masclet, et al., 1977LLK
9.73 ± 0.03PECocksey, Eland, et al., 1971LLK
9.86 ± 0.02PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
9.85PEBenoit and Harrison, 1977Vertical value; LLK
9.83PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1975Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C2H3O+10.19C2H5PITraeger and McAdoo, 1986LBLHLM
C2H4O+10.52C2H4EIHolmes, Terlouw, et al., 1976LLK
C3H5O+10.22?EIMouvier and Hernandez, 1975LLK

De-protonation reactions

C4H7O- + Hydrogen cation = Butanal

By formula: C4H7O- + H+ = C4H8O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1526. ± 8.8kJ/molD-EAAlconcel, Deyerl, et al., 2001gas phase; B
Deltar1523. ± 9.6kJ/molD-EAZimmerman, Reed, et al., 1977gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1499. ± 9.6kJ/molH-TSAlconcel, Deyerl, et al., 2001gas phase; B
Deltar1496. ± 10.kJ/molH-TSZimmerman, Reed, et al., 1977gas phase; B

Ion clustering data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

Magnesium ion (1+) + Butanal = (Magnesium ion (1+) bullet Butanal)

By formula: Mg+ + C4H8O = (Mg+ bullet C4H8O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar280. ± 20.kJ/molICROperti, Tews, et al., 1988gas phase; switching reaction,Thermochemical ladder(Mg+)CH3OH

Nitric oxide anion + Butanal = (Nitric oxide anion bullet Butanal)

By formula: NO- + C4H8O = (NO- bullet C4H8O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar164.kJ/molICRReents and Freiser, 1981gas phase; switching reaction,Thermochemical ladder(NO+)C2H5OH, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Farid and McMahon, 1978

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Sadtler Research Labs Under US-EPA Contract
State gas

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
NIST MS number 19131

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Fihtengolts, et al., 1969
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 20173
Instrument SF-4
Boiling point 75

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-1313.571.50Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1323.570.91Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1333.568.78Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1343.569.15Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1353.571.57Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1363.573.77Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1373.575.99Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1383.578.18Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1393.580.49Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1403.583.70Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1413.587.66Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1423.588.95Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-5343.615.44Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryDB-5353.618.79Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryHP-1110.573.33Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-120.570.9Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-130.570.7Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-150.571.10Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-170.571.9Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-190.572.54Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.542.1Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000He; Column length: 3.3 m
CapillaryHP-1110.573.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryHP-150.571.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryHP-170.572.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryHP-190.572.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
PackedSE-30100.574.Winskowski, 1983Gaschrom Q; Column length: 2. m
PackedSE-30150.574.Haken, Nguyen, et al., 1979Celatom AW silanized; Column length: 3.7 m
PackedApiezon L120.556.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978Celite 545
PackedApiezon L160.563.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978Celite 545
PackedApiezon L70.553.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978 
PackedApiezon L100.554.Brown, Chapman, et al., 1968N2, DCMS-treated Chromosorb W; Column length: 2.3 m
PackedApiezon L150.568.Brown, Chapman, et al., 1968N2, DCMS-treated Chromosorb W; Column length: 2.3 m
PackedApiezon L130.555.von Kováts, 1958Celite (40:60 Gewichtsverhaltnis)
PackedApiezon L70.553.von Kováts, 1958Celite (40:60 Gewichtsverhaltnis)

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-30586.Greenberg, 1981He, 40. C @ 3. min, 3. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm; Tend: 170. C
CapillarySE-30586.Greenberg, 1981He, 40. C @ 3. min, 3. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm; Tend: 170. C

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
PackedSE-30605.Minyard, Tumlinson, et al., 1967He, Chromasorb W; Column length: 6.1 m; Program: 150C (10min) => 15C/min => 200C(16min) => 10C/min => 240C
PackedApiezon L594.Minyard, Tumlinson, et al., 1967N2, Gas Chrom P; Column length: 3.0 m; Program: not specified

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax70.854.46Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryDB-Wax80.867.47Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryDB-Wax90.874.62Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryDB-Wax100.891.30Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryDB-Wax110.911.46Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryHP-Innowax110.907.2Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-Innowax50.894.8Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-Innowax70.897.8Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-Innowax90.901.8Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
PackedCarbowax 4000105.906.Minyard, Tumlinson, et al., 1967N2, GAS Chrom P; Column length: 10. m

Kovats' RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax867.Umano and Shibamoto, 1987He, 40. C @ 10. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 200. C

Kovats' RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
PackedCarbowax 20M853.Kevei and Kozma, 1976Chromosorb; Program: not specified

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySPB-5593.Engel and Ratel, 200760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 10. min
CapillaryCP-Sil 8CB-MS600.Elmore, Cooper, et al., 20050. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 5. min
CapillaryHP-5561.Insausti, Goñi, et al., 200550. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 15. min, 8. K/min, 220. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5589.5Xu, van Stee, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 2.5 K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCP-Sil 8CB-MS593.Bruna, Hierro, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB600.Pino, Marbot, et al., 200150. m/0.32 mm/0.4 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min, 280. C @ 60. min
CapillaryDB-1575.Bartelt, 199730. m/0.32 mm/5. «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 1. min, 10. K/min; Tend: 270. C
CapillaryDB-1571.Helmig, Pollock, et al., 199630. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, 6. K/min; Tstart: -50. C; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryDB-1570.Kaiser and Siegl, 199460. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, -50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryHP-1613.Zhang, Dorjpalam, et al., 199250. m/0.32 mm/1.5 «mu»m, 2. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min; Tstart: 40. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySPB-5598.Majcher and Jelen, 200730. m/0.53 mm/1.5 «mu»m; Program: 40C(1min) => 6C/min => 180C => 20C/min => 280C
CapillaryDB-5596.Majcher and Jelén, 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(1min) => 6C/min => 180C => 20C/min => 280C
CapillaryHP-5595.Engel, Baty, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 5C(5min) => 3C/min => 20C => 5C/min => 100C 15C/min => 150C (5min)
CapillaryRTX-5596.Fuhrmann and Grosch, 2002Program: not specified

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax839.Lopez-Galilea I., Fournier N., et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min, 240. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB875.Alasalvar, Taylor, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 35. C @ 4. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 203. C
CapillarySupelcowax-10875.Elmore, Nisyrios, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryDB-Wax904.Malliaa, Fernandez-Garcia, et al., 200560. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 45. C @ 1. min, 5. K/min, 250. C @ 12. min
CapillaryDB-Wax867.Nielsen, Larsen, et al., 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 45. C @ 10. min, 6. K/min, 240. C @ 30. min
CapillaryDB-Wax867.Nielsen, Larsen, et al., 2004, 230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 45. C @ 10. min, 6. K/min, 240. C @ 30. min
CapillaryDB-Wax867.Nielsen, Larsen, et al., 2004, 330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 45. C @ 10. min, 6. K/min, 240. C @ 30. min
CapillaryDB-Wax877.Nielsen and Poll, 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 45. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min, 240. C @ 30. min
CapillaryDB-Wax899.Peng, 200015. m/0.53 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 3. min, 5. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillaryHP-Wax891.Peng, 200015. m/0.53 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 3. min, 5. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillaryFFAP877.Ott, Fay, et al., 199730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 20. C @ 1. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 1. min
PackedCarbowax 20M866.van den Dool and Kratz, 1963Celite 545, 4.6 K/min; Tstart: 75. C; Tend: 228. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-10883.Bianchi, Cantoni, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 220C(1min)
CapillarySupelcowax-10878.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillarySupelcowax-10880.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillarySupelcowax-10883.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillarySupelcowax-10881.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillarySupelcowax-10830.Majcher and Jelen, 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 40C(2min) => 40C/min => 60C(2min) => 5C/min => 240C
CapillarySupelcowax-10831.Majcher and Jelén, 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(2min) => 40C/min => 60(2min)C => 5C/min => 240C
CapillaryFFAP862.Yasuhara, 198750. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 20C (5min) => 2C/min => 70C => 4C/min => 210C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-160.571.Amboni, Junkes, et al., 2002 
PackedApieson L120.562.Kurdina, Markovich, et al., 1969not specified, not specified
PackedSqualane125.545.Cremer and Nonn, 1964H2, Chromosorb W (80-100 mesh); Column length: 3. m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySPB-5593.Sivadier, Ratel, et al., 200960. m/0.32 mm/1.00 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 10. min
CapillaryHP-5598.Isidorov, Purzynska, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-5601.Pino, Marbot, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Hydrogen, 70. C @ 4. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryMDN-5593.Mildner-Szkudlarz, Jelen, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 1. min, 20. K/min, 280. C @ 1. min
CapillaryMethyl Silicone563.31Baraldi, Rapparini, et al., 199960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 10. min, 5. K/min; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryDB-5595.Lee, Macku, et al., 199160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryDB-5596.Macku and Shibamoto, 1991He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 160. C
CapillaryDB-5596.Macku and Shibamoto, 1991, 2He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 160. C
CapillaryOV-101587.Misharina, Golovnya, et al., 199150. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryDB-1564.Habu, Flath, et al., 19853. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tstart: 0. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillarySP 2100565.Labropoulos, Palmer, et al., 1982Helium, 10. K/min; Column length: 40. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillarySF-96576.Donetzhuber, Johansson, et al., 1976Nitrogen, 3. K/min, 130. C @ 40. min; Column length: 111. m; Column diameter: 0.76 mm; Initial hold: 8. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5583.Miyazaki, Plotto, et al., 201160. m/0.25 mm/1.00 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C 4 0C/min -> 230 0C 100 0C/min -> 260 0C (11.7 min)
CapillaryVB-5582.Karlshøj, Nielsen, et al., 200760. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(1min) => 4C/min => 175C => 10C/min => 260C
CapillaryBPX-5614.van Ruth, Floris, et al., 200660. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(4min) => 2C/min => 90C => 4C/min => 130C => 8C/min => 250C
CapillaryMethyl Silicone572.Blunden, Aneja, et al., 200560. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: -50 0C (2 min) 8 0C/min -> 200 0C (7.75 min) 25 0C -> 225 0C (8 min)
CapillaryHP-5591.Garcia-Estaban, Ansorena, et al., 200450. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m; Program: 40C(10min) => 5C/min => 200C => 20C/min => 250C(5min)
CapillaryHP-1571.Junkes, Amboni, et al., 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySE-30550.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane571.Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-5593.Qian and Reineccius, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m; Program: 35C(4min) => 2C/min => 130C => 4C/min => 250C
CapillarySF-96564.Kawasaki, Matsui, et al., 1998Column length: 40. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Program: 75C => 3C/min => 190C(25min) => 3C/min => 210C
CapillaryHP-5607.Timón, Ventanas, et al., 199850. m/0.32 mm/0.52 «mu»m, He; Program: 35 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C (20 min) 5 0C/min -> 230 0C (50 min)
CapillarySPB-1568.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillaryDB-1563.Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 199460. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-1563.Ciccioli, Brancaleoni, et al., 199360. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 3 min at 5 C; 5 - 50 C at 3 deg/min; 50 - 220 C at 5 deg/min
CapillarySPB-1568.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB589.Weller and Wolf, 198940. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 30 0C (1 min) 15 0C/min -> 45 0C 3 0C/min -> 120 0C
CapillarySF96+Igepal575.Flath, Altieri, et al., 1984Column length: 152. m; Column diameter: 0.76 mm; Program: 25C(1min) => 5C/min => 50C (4min) => 1.25C/min => 180C
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.574.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-Innowax887.Feng, Zhuang, et al., 201160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 60. C @ 1. min, 3. K/min, 220. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-Wax878.Rochat, Egger, et al., 200930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 60. C @ 3. min, 8. K/min, 200. C @ 9.5 min
CapillaryDB-Wax895.Rochat, Egger, et al., 200930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 60. C @ 3. min, 8. K/min, 200. C @ 9.5 min
CapillaryDB-Wax899.Rochat, Egger, et al., 200930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 60. C @ 3. min, 8. K/min, 200. C @ 9.5 min
CapillaryDB-Wax905.Rochat, Egger, et al., 200930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 60. C @ 3. min, 8. K/min, 200. C @ 9.5 min
CapillaryDB-Wax880.Ganeko, Shoda, et al., 20084. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.35 mm; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillarySupelcowax-10895.Rochat and Chaintreau, 200560. m/0.53 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 240. C @ 20. min
CapillarySupelcowax-10895.Rochat and Chaintreau, 200560. m/0.53 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 240. C @ 20. min
CapillaryTC-Wax886.Ishikawa, Ito, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 8. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryPEG-20M867.Narain, Almeida, et al., 200450. m/0.20 mm/0.20 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 180. C @ 30. min
CapillaryHP-Wax839.Sanz, Maeztu, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryHP-Wax839.Maeztu, Sanz, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryHP-Wax839.Sanz, Ansorena, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillarySupelcowax-10877.Girard and Durance, 200060. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 10. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-Wax890.Horiuchi, Umano, et al., 199860. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 40. min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M864.Kawakami and Kobayashi, 1991He, 60. C @ 4. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M875.Labropoulos, Palmer, et al., 1982Helium, 10. K/min; Column length: 31. m; Column diameter: 0.50 mm; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-Innowax891.Feng, Zhuang, et al., 201160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax861.Miyazaki, Plotto, et al., 201160. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C 4 0C/min -> 230 0C 100 0C/min -> 260 0C (11.7 min)
CapillaryDB-Wax866.Rochat, Egger, et al., 200930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillarySupelcowax 10861.Soria, Martinez-Castro, et al., 200850. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 45 0C (15 min) 3 0C/min -> 75 0C 5 0C/min -> 180 0C (10 min)
CapillarySupelcowax-10878.Berard, Bianchi, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 6C/min => 60C => 4C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillarySupelcowax-10880.Berard, Bianchi, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 6C/min => 60C => 4C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillaryHP-Innowax859.Viegas and Bassoli, 200760. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (5 min) 4 0C/min -> 60 0C (5 min) 8 0C/min -> 250 0C (3 min)
CapillaryHP-Innowax867.Viegas and Bassoli, 200760. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax837.Mattheis, Fan, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(5min) => 2C/min => 50C => 5C/min => 200C (5min)
CapillaryInnowax895.Junkes, Amboni, et al., 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax877.Kim. J.H., Ahn, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 60 0C (3 min) 2 0C/min -> 150 0C 4 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M865.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax832.Qian and Reineccius, 200360. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(4min) => 2C/min => 130C => 4C/min => 250C
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB885.Muresan, Eillebrecht, et al., 200050. m/0.32 mm/1.2 «mu»m; Program: 40C(10min) => 3C/min => 190C => 10C/min => 250C(5min)
CapillarySupelcowax 10875.Castioni and Kapetanidis, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 60 0C (10 min) 2 0C/min -> 80 0C 3 0C/min -> 100 0C 4 0C/min -> 220 0C (30 min)
CapillarySupelcowax 10880.Castioni and Kapetanidis, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax898.Mattheis, Buchanan, et al., 199260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C (5min) => 2C/min => 50C => 5C/min => 200C(5min)
CapillaryDB-Wax910.Peng, Yang, et al., 1991Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Wiberg, Crocker, et al., 1991
Wiberg, K.B.; Crocker, L.S.; Morgan, K.M., Thermochemical studies of carbonyl compounds. 5. Enthalpies of reduction of carbonyl groups, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 3447-3450. [all data]

Buckley and Cox, 1967
Buckley, E.; Cox, J.D., Chemical equilibria. Part 2.-Dehydrogenation of propanol and butanol, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1967, 63, 895-901. [all data]

Nicholson, 1960
Nicholson, G.R., 478. The heats of combustion of butanal and heptanal, J. Chem. Soc., 1960, 2377-2378. [all data]

Tjebbes, 1960
Tjebbes, J., Heats of combustion of butannal and some related compounds, Acta Chem. Scand., 1960, 14, 180-188. [all data]

Chermin, 1961
Chermin, H.A.G., Thermo data for petrochemicals. Part 27: Gaseous normal aldehydes. The important thermo properties are presented for all the gaseous normal aldehydes from formaldehyde through decaldehyde, Pet. Refin., 1961, 40, 181-184. [all data]

Buckley E., 1967
Buckley E., Chemical equilibria. Part 2. Dehydrogenation of propanol and butanol, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1967, 63, 895-901. [all data]

Vasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989
Vasil'ev, V.G.; Lebedev, B.V., Thermodynamics of butanal in the temperature range 0-330K, Zh. Obshch. Khim., 1989, 59(11), 2415-2420. [all data]

Parks, Kennedy, et al., 1956
Parks, G.S.; Kennedy, W.D.; Gates, R.R.; Mosley, J.R.; Moore, G.E.; Renquist, M.L., Thermal data on organic compounds. XXVI. Some heat capacity, entropy and free energy data for seven compounds containing oxygen., Not In System, 1956, 78, 56-59. [all data]

Vasil'ev and Lebedev, 1989, 2
Vasil'ev, V.G.; Lebedev, B.V., Thermodynamics of butanal in the temperature range 0-330 K, Zh. Obshch. Khim., 1989, 59, 11, 2415. [all data]

Wilhoit, Chao, et al., 1985
Wilhoit, R.C.; Chao, J.; Hall, K.R., Thermodynamic Properties of Key Organic Compounds in the Carbon Range C1 to C4. Part 1. Properties of Condensed Phases, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1985, 14, 1. [all data]

Parks, Kennedy, et al., 1956, 2
Parks, G.S.; Kennedy, W.D.; Gates, R.R.; Mosley, J.R.; Moore, G.E.; Renquist, M.L., Thermal Data on Organic Compounds XXVI. Some Heat Capacity, Entropy and Free Energy Data for Seven Compounds Containing Oxygen, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1956, 78, 56-9. [all data]

Anselme and Teja, 1990
Anselme, M.J.; Teja, A.S., The critical properties of rapidly reacting substances, AIChE Symp. Ser., 1990, 86, 279, 128-32. [all data]

Teja and Rosenthal, 1990
Teja, A.S.; Rosenthal, D.J., The Critical Pressures and Temperatures of Twelve Substances Using A Low Residence Time Flow Apparatus, AIChE Symp. Ser., 1990, 86, 279, 133-7. [all data]

Chickos, Hosseini, et al., 1995
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Notes

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