Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Chlorine atom

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - E.P. Hunter and S.G. Lias
L - S.G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - J.E. Bartmess
LL - S.G. Lias and J.F. Liebman
LBLHLM - S.G. Lias, J.E. Bartmess, J.F. Liebman, J.L. Holmes, R.D. Levin, and W.G. Mallard
LLK - S.G. Lias, R.D. Levin, and S.A. Kafafi
RDSH - H.M. Rosenstock, K. Draxl, B.W. Steiner, and J.T. Herron

View reactions leading to Cl+ (ion structure unspecified)

IE (evaluated)12.96764eVN/AN/AL
Proton affinity (review)513.6kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Gas basicity490.1kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV)MethodReferenceComment
3.6131D-EAMartin and Hepburn, 1998Given: «DELTA»Hacid(0K)=116288.7±0.6 cm-1, or 332.486±0.002 kcal/mol; B
3.612709 ± 0.000087LPDTrainham, Fletcher, et al., 1987reported: 29138.3±0.5 cm-1; B
3.613577 ± 0.000044LPDBerzinsh, Gustafsson, et al., 1995EA(35Cl) = 0.000049 kcal/mol < EA(37Cl); B
3.6130 ± 0.0030N/ABerry and Reimann, 1963B
3.71518N/ACheck, Faust, et al., 2001FeCC-(q); ; «DELTA»S(EA)=5.0; B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV)MethodReferenceComment
12.96764EVALLide, 1992LL
12.968SKelly, 1987LBLHLM
12.97PEKimura, Yamazaki, et al., 1978LLK
12.97 ± 0.02PEDe Leeuw, Mooyman, et al., 1978LLK
12.967SCermak, 1975LLK
12.967SMoore, 1970RDSH
12.96763 ± 0.00004SRadziemski and Kaufman, 1969RDSH

Anion protonation reactions

Chlorine anion + Hydrogen cation = Hydrogen chloride

By formula: Cl- + H+ = HCl

Deltar1394.9kJ/molN/AMartin and Hepburn, 1998gas phase; Given: «DELTA»Hacid(0K)=116288.7±0.6 cm-1, or 332.486±0.002 kcal/mol; B
Deltar1396. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSFujio, McIver, et al., 1981gas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Deltar1377.0kJ/molN/ACheck, Faust, et al., 2001gas phase; FeCC-(q); ; «DELTA»S(EA)=5.0; B
Deltar1372.8 ± 0.42kJ/molH-TSMartin and Hepburn, 1998gas phase; Given: «DELTA»Hacid(0K)=116288.7±0.6 cm-1, or 332.486±0.002 kcal/mol; B
Deltar1374. ± 8.4kJ/molIMREFujio, McIver, et al., 1981gas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Deltar1354.4kJ/molN/ACheck, Faust, et al., 2001gas phase; FeCC-(q); ; «DELTA»S(EA)=5.0; B


Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656. [doi:10.1063/1.556018] [all data]

Martin and Hepburn, 1998
Martin, J.D.D.; Hepburn, J.W., Determination of bond dissociation energies by threshold ion-pair production spectroscopy: An improved D-0(HCl), J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 109, 19, 8139-8142. [doi:10.1063/1.477476] [all data]

Trainham, Fletcher, et al., 1987
Trainham, R.; Fletcher, G.D.; Larson, D.J., One- and Two-Photon Detachment of the Negative Chlorine Ion, J. Phys. B: Atom. Mol. Phys., 1987, 20, 23, L777. [doi:10.1088/0022-3700/20/23/002] [all data]

Berzinsh, Gustafsson, et al., 1995
Berzinsh, U.; Gustafsson, M.; Hanstorp, D.; Klinkmuller, A.; Ljungblad, U.; Martenssonpendrill, A.M., Isotope shift in the electron affinity of chlorine, Phys. Rev. A, 1995, 51, 1, 231. [doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.51.231] [all data]

Berry and Reimann, 1963
Berry, R.S.; Reimann, C.W., Absorption Spectrum of Gaseous Fluoride and the Electron Affinities of the Halogen Atoms, J. Chem. Phys., 1963, 38, 7, 1540. [doi:10.1063/1.1776916] [all data]

Check, Faust, et al., 2001
Check, C.E.; Faust, T.O.; Bailey, J.M.; Wright, B.J.; Gilbert, T.M.; Sunderlin, L.S., Addition of Polarization and Diffuse Functions to the LANL2DZ Basis Set for P-Block Elements, J. Phys. Chem. A,, 2001, 105, 34, 8111. [doi:10.1021/jp011945l] [all data]

Lide, 1992
Lide, D.R. (Editor), Ionization potentials of atoms and atomic ions in Handbook of Chem. and Phys., 1992, 10-211. [all data]

Kelly, 1987
Kelly, R.L., Atomic and ionic spectrum lines of hydrogen through kryton, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1987, 16. [all data]

Kimura, Yamazaki, et al., 1978
Kimura, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Achiba, Y., He I (584 A) photoelectron spectra and photoionization cross sections of atomic chlorine and bromine, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1978, 58, 104. [all data]

De Leeuw, Mooyman, et al., 1978
De Leeuw, D.M.; Mooyman, R.; De Lange, C.A., He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy of halogen atoms, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1978, 54, 231. [all data]

Cermak, 1975
Cermak, V., Electron spectroscopy of autoionizing states of oxygen, chlorine and bromine atoms, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1975, 6, 135. [all data]

Moore, 1970
Moore, C.E., Ionization potentials and ionization limits derived from the analyses of optical spectra, Natl. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., (U.S. Natl. Bur. Stand.), 1970, 34, 1. [all data]

Radziemski and Kaufman, 1969
Radziemski, L.J., Jr.; Kaufman, V., Wavelengths, energy levels, and analysis of neutral atomic chlorine (Cl I), J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1969, 59, 424. [all data]

Fujio, McIver, et al., 1981
Fujio, M.; McIver, R.T., Jr.; Taft, R.W., Effects on the acidities of phenols from specific substituent-solvent interactions. Inherent substituent parameters from gas phase acidities, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 4017. [all data]


Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, References