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Tetrahydrofuran

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Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spec Data Center, S.E. Stein, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column typeActive phaseTemperature (C)IReferenceComment
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.609.9Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000He; Column length: 3.3 m
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.609.8Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992Chromosorb G HP; Column length: 3.3 m
PackedApolane130.611.Dutoit, 1991Column length: 3.7 m
PackedSE-30150.630.Tiess, 1984Ar, Gas Chrom Q (80-100 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedSE-30100.626.Winskowski, 1983Gaschrom Q; Column length: 2. m
PackedApiezon L120.620.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978Celite 545
PackedApiezon L160.631.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978Celite 545
PackedApiezon L70.618.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978 
PackedApolane130.612.9Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976He, Chromosorb; Column length: 2.4 m
PackedApolane190.623.2Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976He, Chromosorb; Column length: 2.4 m
PackedSilicon High Vacuum Grease (obsolete)170.640.Jonas, Janák, et al., 1966H2
PackedSilicon High Vacuum Grease (obsolete)170.640.Janák, Jonas, et al., 1965H2, Celite
PackedApiezon L130.631.Wehrli and Kováts, 1959Celite; Column length: 2.25 m
PackedApiezon L70.618.Wehrli and Kováts, 1959Celite; Column length: 2.25 m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column typeActive phaseIReferenceComment
CapillaryCBP-1617.Shimadzu, 200325. m/0.2 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 200. C
CapillarySE-54621.Rembold, Wallner, et al., 198930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 0. C @ 12. min, 12. K/min; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryOV-101609.Yamaguchi and Shibamoto, 1979N2, 2. K/min; Column length: 70. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-101610.Yamaguchi and Shibamoto, 1979N2, 2. K/min; Column length: 70. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column typeActive phaseTemperature (C)IReferenceComment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M70.868.Annino and Villalobos, 199931.3 m/0.53 mm/0.54 «mu»m
PackedCarbowax 20M75.895.Goebel, 1982N2, Kieselgur (60-100 mesh); Column length: 2. m
PackedPEG-2000150.888.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000152.907.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000179.915.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000180.900.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000200.903.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m

Kovats' RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column typeActive phaseIReferenceComment
CapillaryCBP-20868.Shimadzu, 200325. m/0.2 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-Wax861.Umano, Hagi, et al., 1994He, 40. C @ 2. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M866.Yamaguchi and Shibamoto, 1979N2, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M867.Yamaguchi and Shibamoto, 1979N2, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column typeActive phaseIReferenceComment
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB632.Elmore, Campo, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB629.Elmore, Mottram, et al., 200060. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column typeActive phaseIReferenceComment
CapillaryHP-5623.Engel, Baty, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 5C(5min) => 3C/min => 20C => 5C/min => 100C 15C/min => 150C (5min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column typeActive phaseIReferenceComment
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB854.Alasalvar, Taylor, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 35. C @ 4. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 203. C
CapillarySupelcowax-10857.Elmore, Nisyrios, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column typeActive phaseTemperature (C)IReferenceComment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone100.622.Lebrón-Aguilar, Quintanilla-López, et al., 2007 
CapillaryMethyl Silicone120.626.Lebrón-Aguilar, Quintanilla-López, et al., 2007 
CapillaryMethyl Silicone140.629.Lebrón-Aguilar, Quintanilla-López, et al., 2007 
CapillaryMethyl Silicone80.620.Lebrón-Aguilar, Quintanilla-López, et al., 2007 
CapillaryDB-160.620.Shimadzu, 2003, 260. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He
PackedApieson L120.624.Kurdina, Markovich, et al., 1969not specified, not specified
PackedDC-400150.630.Anderson, 1968Helium, Gas-Pak (60-80 mesh); Column length: 3.0 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column typeActive phaseIReferenceComment
CapillaryVF-5 MS614.Leffingwell and Alford, 201160. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 28. min; Tstart: 30. C
CapillaryVF-5 MS618.Leffingwell and Alford, 201160. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 28. min; Tstart: 30. C
CapillaryMDN-5620.van Loon, Linssen, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 4. min, 4. K/min, 270. C @ 5. min
CapillaryHP-5633.Jung, Wichmann, et al., 199925. m/0.20 mm/0.33 «mu»m, 50. C @ 3. min, 5. K/min; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryDB-1615.Habu, Flath, et al., 19853. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tstart: 0. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillarySF-96618.Donetzhuber, Johansson, et al., 1976Nitrogen, 3. K/min, 130. C @ 40. min; Column length: 111. m; Column diameter: 0.76 mm; Initial hold: 8. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column typeActive phaseIReferenceComment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone619.Farkas, Héberger, et al., 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySE-30636.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1615.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillaryDB-5624.Mateo and Zumalacárregui, 199650. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (10min) => 3C/min => 95C => 10C/min => 270C (10min)
CapillarySPB-1615.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillarySPB-1638.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-1608.Kawai, Ishida, et al., 199160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-1612.Kawai, Ishida, et al., 199160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB629.Weller and Wolf, 198940. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 30 0C (1 min) 15 0C/min -> 45 0C 3 0C/min -> 120 0C
CapillarySE-30627.P'yanova, Zvereva, et al., 1987Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1638.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column typeActive phaseTemperature (C)IReferenceComment
CapillaryDB-Wax60.887.Shimadzu, 2003, 250. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column typeActive phaseIReferenceComment
CapillaryDB-Wax829.Welke, Manfroi, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillarySOLGel-Wax854.Johanningsmeier and McFeeters, 201130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (2 min) 5 0C/min -> 140 0C 10 0C/min -> 250 0C (3 min)
CapillaryCarbowax 20M898.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M872.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000
Dallos, A.; Sisak, A.; Kulcsár, Z.; Kováts, E., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography VII. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with secondary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr. A, 2000, 904, 2, 211-242. [doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00908-0] [all data]

Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992
Reddy, K.S.; Dutoit, J.-Cl.; Kovats, E. sz., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography. I. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with non-associated primary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 609, 1-2, 229-259. [doi:10.1016/0021-9673(92)80167-S] [all data]

Dutoit, 1991
Dutoit, J., Gas chromatographic retention behaviour of some solutes on structurally similar polar and non-polar stationary phases, J. Chromatogr., 1991, 555, 1-2, 191-204. [doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(01)87179-X] [all data]

Tiess, 1984
Tiess, D., Gaschromatographische Retentionsindices von 125 leicht- bis mittelflüchtigen organischen Substanzen toxikologisch-analytischer Relevanz auf SE-30, Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock Math. Naturwiss. Reihe, 1984, 33, 6-9. [all data]

Winskowski, 1983
Winskowski, J., Gaschromatographische Identifizierung von Stoffen anhand von Indexziffem und unterschiedlichen Detektoren, Chromatographia, 1983, 17, 3, 160-165. [doi:10.1007/BF02271041] [all data]

Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978
Bogoslovsky, Yu.N.; Anvaer, B.I.; Vigdergauz, M.S., Chromatographic constants in gas chromatography (in Russian), Standards Publ. House, Moscow, 1978, 192. [all data]

Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976
Riedo, F.; Fritz, D.; Tarján, G.; Kováts, E.Sz., A tailor-made C87 hydrocarbon as a possible non-polar standard stationary phase for gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 63-83. [doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84063-2] [all data]

Jonas, Janák, et al., 1966
Jonas, J.; Janák, J.; Kratochvíl, M., Structural investigations with the aid of Kovats retention index system on one (nonpolar) stationary phase, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1966, 4, 9, 332-335. [doi:10.1093/chromsci/4.9.332] [all data]

Janák, Jonas, et al., 1965
Janák, J.; Jonas, J.; Kratochvíl, M., Identification of some acetals of the tetrahydrofurane sereis by gas chromatography with the aid of the Kováts indices, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun., 1965, 30, 1, 265-276. [doi:10.1135/cccc19650265] [all data]

Wehrli and Kováts, 1959
Wehrli, A.; Kováts, E., Gas-chromatographische Charakterisierung ogranischer Verbindungen. Teil 3: Berechnung der Retentionsindices aliphatischer, alicyclischer und aromatischer Verbindungen, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1959, 7, 7, 2709-2736. [doi:10.1002/hlca.19590420745] [all data]

Shimadzu, 2003
Shimadzu, Gas chromatography analysis of organic solvents using capillary columns (No. 2), 2003, retrieved from http://www.shimadzu.com/apps/form.cfm. [all data]

Rembold, Wallner, et al., 1989
Rembold, H.; Wallner, P.; Nitz, S.; Kollmannsberger, H.; Drawert, F., Volatile components of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seed, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1989, 37, 3, 659-662. [doi:10.1021/jf00087a018] [all data]

Yamaguchi and Shibamoto, 1979
Yamaguchi, K.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile constituents of Castanopsis flower, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1979, 27, 4, 847-850. [doi:10.1021/jf60224a025] [all data]

Annino and Villalobos, 1999
Annino, R.; Villalobos, R., A strategy for the simplification and solution of complex chromatographic analysis problems utilizing two-dimensional mapping of retention indexes followed by computer modeling of heart cuts from serially coupled columns containing different stationary phases, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1999, 22, 10, 589-593. [all data]

Goebel, 1982
Goebel, K.-J., Gaschromatographische Identifizierung Niedrig Siedender Substanzen Mittels Retentionsindices und Rechnerhilfe, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 235, 1, 119-127. [doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)95793-5] [all data]

Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973
Anderson, A.; Jurel, S.; Shymanska, M.; Golender, L., Gas-liquid chromatography of some aliphatic and heterocyclic mono- and pollyfunctional amines. VII. Retention indices of amines in some polar and unpolar stationary phases, Latv. PSR Zinat. Akad. Vestis Kim. Ser., 1973, 1, 51-63. [all data]

Umano, Hagi, et al., 1994
Umano, K.; Hagi, Y.; Tamura, T.; Shoji, A.; Shibamoto, T., Identification of volatile compounds isolated from round kumquat (Fortunella japonica Swingle), J. Agric. Food Chem., 1994, 42, 9, 1888-1890. [doi:10.1021/jf00045a011] [all data]

Elmore, Campo, et al., 2002
Elmore, J.S.; Campo, M.M.; Enser, M.; Mottram, D.S., Effect of lipid composition on meat-like model systems containing cysteine, ribose, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 5, 1126-1132. [doi:10.1021/jf0108718] [all data]

Elmore, Mottram, et al., 2000
Elmore, J.S.; Mottram, D.S.; Hierro, E., Two-fibre solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile aroma compounds in cooked pork, J. Chromatogr. A, 2000, 905, 1-2, 233-240. [doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00990-0] [all data]

Engel, Baty, et al., 2002
Engel, E.; Baty, C.; le Corre, D.; Souchon, I.; Martin, N., Flavor-active compounds potentially implicated in cooked cauliflower acceptance, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 22, 6459-6467. [doi:10.1021/jf025579u] [all data]

Alasalvar, Taylor, et al., 2005
Alasalvar, C.; Taylor, K.D.A.; Shahidi, F., Comparison of volatiles of cultured and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata) during storage in ice by dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 7, 2616-2622. [doi:10.1021/jf0483826] [all data]

Elmore, Nisyrios, et al., 2005
Elmore, J.S.; Nisyrios, I.; Mottram, D.S., Analysis of the headspace aroma compounds of walnuts (Juglans regia L.), Flavour Fragr. J., 2005, 20, 5, 501-506. [doi:10.1002/ffj.1477] [all data]

Lebrón-Aguilar, Quintanilla-López, et al., 2007
Lebrón-Aguilar, R.; Quintanilla-López, J.E.; Tello, A.M.; Santiuste, J.M., Isothermal retention indices on poly (3,3,3-trifluoropropylmethylsiloxane) stationary phases, J. Chromatogr. A, 2007, 1160, 1-2, 276-288. [doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.05.025] [all data]

Shimadzu, 2003, 2
Shimadzu, Gas chromatography analysis of organic solvents using capillary columns (No. 3), 2003, retrieved from http://www.shimadzu.com/apps/form.cfm. [all data]

Kurdina, Markovich, et al., 1969
Kurdina, Z.G.; Markovich, V.E.; Sakharov, V.M., Gas chromatography of cyclic O-containing compounds in Gas chromatography, Issue # 10, NIITEKhim, Moscow, 1969, 128-133. [all data]

Anderson, 1968
Anderson, D.G., USe of Kovats retention indices and response factors for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of coating solvents, J. Paint Technol., 1968, 40, 527, 549-557. [all data]

Leffingwell and Alford, 2011
Leffingwell, J.; Alford, E.D., Volatile constituents of the giant pufball mushroom (Calvatia gigantea), Leffingwell Rep., 2011, 4, 1-17. [all data]

van Loon, Linssen, et al., 2005
van Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Posthumus, M.A.; Voragen, A.G.J., Identification and olfactometry of French fries flavour extracted at mouth conditions, Food Chem., 2005, 90, 3, 417-425. [doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.005] [all data]

Jung, Wichmann, et al., 1999
Jung, A.; Wichmann, K.-H.; Kolb, M., VOC emission of polymeric packaging materials, LaborPraxis, 1999, 23, 9, 20-22. [all data]

Habu, Flath, et al., 1985
Habu, T.; Flath, R.A.; Mon, T.R.; Morton, J.F., Volatile components of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis), J. Agric. Food Chem., 1985, 33, 2, 249-254. [doi:10.1021/jf00062a024] [all data]

Donetzhuber, Johansson, et al., 1976
Donetzhuber, A.; Johansson, K.; Sandstroem, C., Gas phase characterization of wood, pulp, and paper, Appl. Polymer Symp., 1976, 28, 889-901. [all data]

Farkas, Héberger, et al., 2004
Farkas, O.; Héberger, K.; Zenkevich, I.G., Quantitative structure-retention relationships. XIV. Prediction of gas chromatographic retention indices for saturated O-, N-, and S-heterocyclic compounds, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst., 2004, 72, 2, 173-184. [doi:10.1016/j.chemolab.2004.01.012] [all data]

Vinogradov, 2004
Vinogradov, B.A., Production, composition, properties and application of essential oils, 2004, retrieved from http://viness.narod.ru. [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Mateo and Zumalacárregui, 1996
Mateo, J.; Zumalacárregui, J.M., Volatile compounds in chorizo and their changes during ripening, Meat Sci., 1996, 44, 4, 255-273. [doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(96)00028-9] [all data]

Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992
Strete, P.J.; Ruprah, M.; Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning, Analyst, 1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127. [doi:10.1039/an9921701111] [all data]

Kawai, Ishida, et al., 1991
Kawai, T.; Ishida, Y.; Kakiuchi, H.; Ikeda, N.; Higashida, T.; Nakamura, S., Flavor components of dried squid, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 4, 770-777. [doi:10.1021/jf00004a031] [all data]

Weller and Wolf, 1989
Weller, J.-P.; Wolf, M., Massenspektroskopie und Headspace-GC, Beitr. Gerichtl. Med., 1989, 47, 525-532. [all data]

P'yanova, Zvereva, et al., 1987
P'yanova, V.P.; Zvereva, M.N.; Tsypysheva, LG.; Portnova, T.V.; Kruglov, E.A., Investigating the products of thiophane synthesis, Abstr. IX All-Union Conference on Gas Chromatography, Kuibyshev State University, Kuibyshev, 1987, 308. [all data]

Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982
Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood by Headspace Gas Chromatography as an Aid to the Diagnosis of Solvent Abuse, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 240, 2, 423-444. [doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)99622-5] [all data]

Welke, Manfroi, et al., 2012
Welke, J.E.; Manfroi, V.; Zanus, M.; Lazarotto, M.; Zini, C.A., Characterization of the volatile profile of Brazilian merlot wines through comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection, J. Chromatogr. A, 2012, 1226, 124-139. [doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2012.01.002] [all data]

Johanningsmeier and McFeeters, 2011
Johanningsmeier, S.D.; McFeeters, R.F., Detection of volatile spoilage metabolites in fermented cucumbers using nontargeted, comprehensive 2-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGCxTOFMS), J. Food Sci., 2011, 76, 1, c168-c177. [doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01918.x] [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, References