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Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
MM - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner)
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C6H6+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.24378 ± 0.00007eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)750.4kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity725.4kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Proton affinity at 298K

Proton affinity (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
746.4Aue, Guidoni, et al., 2000Experimental literature data re-evaluated by the authors using ab initio protonation entropies; MM

Gas basicity at 298K

Gas basicity (review) (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
721.7Aue, Guidoni, et al., 2000Experimental literature data re-evaluated by the authors using ab initio protonation entropies; MM

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.24384 ± 0.00006TENemeth, Selzle, et al., 1993LL
9.24372 ± 0.00005TEChewter, Sander, et al., 1987LBLHLM
9.20EIStahl and Maquin, 1984LBLHLM
9.2459 ± 0.0002SGrubb, Whetten, et al., 1984LBLHLM
9.23 ± 0.03EIArimura and Yoshikawa, 1984LBLHLM
9.25PEKlasinc, Kovac, et al., 1983LBLHLM
9.23PECetinkaya, Lappert, et al., 1983LBLHLM
9.25PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981LLK
9.240 ± 0.002LSDuncan, Dietz, et al., 1981LLK
9.44EIClare and Sowerby, 1981LLK
9.25PEBieri and Asbrink, 1980LLK
9.22PESell, Mintz, et al., 1978LLK
9.24PEMattsson, Karlsson, et al., 1977LLK
9.25 ± 0.02PEBieri, Burger, et al., 1977LLK
9.25 ± 0.07EISelim, 1976LLK
9.24PEBehan, Johnstone, et al., 1976LLK
9.70EIBaldwin, Loudon, et al., 1976LLK
9.25CTSPitt, 1973LLK
9.2 ± 0.1EITajima, Shimizu, et al., 1972LLK
9.26 ± 0.06EIFinney and Harrison, 1972LLK
9.27PEChizhov, Kleimenov, et al., 1972LLK
9.24 ± 0.01PISergeev, Akopyan, et al., 1970RDSH
9.25 ± 0.01PIDemeo and El-Sayed, 1970RDSH
9.36 ± 0.05EIBuchs, 1970RDSH
9.241 ± 0.001PEAsbrink, Lindholm, et al., 1970RDSH
9.241TEPeatman, Borne, et al., 1969RDSH
9.24 ± 0.01PEDewar and Worley, 1969RDSH
9.25 ± 0.01PIMomigny, Goffart, et al., 1968RDSH
9.20 ± 0.04EIBock, Seidl, et al., 1968RDSH
9.24PEBaker, May, et al., 1968RDSH
9.25PEBaker, Brundle, et al., 1968RDSH
9.25 ± 0.02PEClark and Frost, 1967RDSH
9.26 ± 0.02EINounou, 1966RDSH
9.246 ± 0.005PIBrehm, 1966RDSH
9.241 ± 0.006PINicholson, 1965RDSH
9.24 ± 0.01PIDibeler and Reese, 1964RDSH
9.25PEAl-Joboury and Turner, 1964RDSH
9.2PITerenin, 1961RDSH
9.248SEl-Sayed, Kaaba, et al., 1961RDSH
9.247 ± 0.002SWilkinson, 1956RDSH
9.25 ± 0.01PIWatanabe, 1954RDSH
9.8 ± 0.1EIHustrulid, Kusch, et al., 1938RDSH
9.242 ± 0.005SPrice and Wood, 1935RDSH
9.23PEHowell, Goncalves, et al., 1984Vertical value; LBLHLM
9.25PEKovac, Mohraz, et al., 1980Vertical value; LLK
9.25PEKaim, Tesmann, et al., 1980Vertical value; LLK
9.22PESell and Kupperman, 1978Vertical value; LLK
9.23PEKobayashi, 1978Vertical value; LLK
9.3PEKlasinc, Novak, et al., 1978Vertical value; LLK
9.24 ± 0.02PESchmidt, 1977Vertical value; LLK
9.25 ± 0.05PEGower, Kane-Maguire, et al., 1977Vertical value; LLK
9.24PEBock, Kaim, et al., 1977Vertical value; LLK
9.24PEClar and Schmidt, 1976Vertical value; LLK
9.23PEKobayashi and Nagakura, 1975Vertical value; LLK
9.24PEBischof, Dewar, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK
9.24PESchafer and Schweig, 1972Vertical value; LLK
9.25 ± 0.03PEKlessinger, 1972Vertical value; LLK
9.24PEBock, Wagner, et al., 1972Vertical value; LLK
9.2PECarlson and Anderson, 1971Vertical value; LLK
9.24PEBock and Fuss, 1971Vertical value; LLK
9.24PEGleiter, Heilbronner, et al., 1970Vertical value; RDSH

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
CH3+28.2 ± 0.2?EIOlmsted, Street, et al., 1964RDSH
C2H2+19. ± 0.4?EILifshitz and Reuben, 1969RDSH
C2H2+18.6?EINatalis and Franklin, 1965RDSH
C2H2+32.6 ± 0.2?EIOlmsted, Street, et al., 1964RDSH
C2H3+19. ± 0.4?EILifshitz and Reuben, 1969RDSH
C3H3+13.43?LSKuhlewind, Kiermeier, et al., 1986LBLHLM
C3H3+15.34 ± 0.06C3H3EISelim, 1976LLK
C3H3+16.90C3H3PEEland, Frey, et al., 1976LLK
C3H3+13.79C3H3PIRosenstock, Larkins, et al., 1973LLK
C3H3+14.7 ± 0.1?EILifshitz and Reuben, 1969RDSH
C4H2+17.5 ± 0.3?EILifshitz and Reuben, 1969RDSH
C4H3+18.48 ± 0.07H+C2H2EISelim, 1976LLK
C4H3+17.6 ± 0.1?EILifshitz and Reuben, 1969RDSH
C4H4+13.40C2H2LSKuhlewind, Kiermeier, et al., 1986T = 0K; LBLHLM
C4H4+13.9 ± 0.1C2H2EIRosenstock, McCulloh, et al., 1977LLK
C4H4+14.17 ± 0.08C2H2PIRosenstock, McCulloh, et al., 1977LLK
C4H4+14.85C2H2PEEland, Frey, et al., 1976LLK
C4H4+13.85C2H2PIRosenstock, Larkins, et al., 1973LLK
C4H4+14.1C2H2EIHickling and Jennings, 1970RDSH
C4H4+14.5 ± 0.2C2H2EILifshitz and Reuben, 1969RDSH
C5H3+15.7 ± 0.1CH3EILifshitz and Reuben, 1969RDSH
C6H+29. ± 2.?EILifshitz and Reuben, 1969RDSH
C6H4+12.93H2LSKuhlewind, Kiermeier, et al., 1986T = 0K; LBLHLM
C6H4+14.14 ± 0.08H2EISelim, 1976LLK
C6H4+12.94H2PIRosenstock, Larkins, et al., 1973LLK
C6H4+14.04 ± 0.06H2EIBentley, Johnstone, et al., 1973LLK
C6H4+14.09 ± 0.07H2EINatalis and Franklin, 1965RDSH
C6H5+13.12 ± 0.05HEVALKlippenstein, Faulk, et al., 1993T = 0K; LL
C6H5+12.90HLSKuhlewind, Kiermeier, et al., 1986T = 0K; LBLHLM
C6H5+13.7 ± 0.1HEIRosenstock, McCulloh, et al., 1977LLK
C6H5+13.78 ± 0.08HPIRosenstock, McCulloh, et al., 1977LLK
C6H5+14.56 ± 0.07HEISelim, 1976LLK
C6H5+12.94HPIRosenstock, Larkins, et al., 1973LLK
C6H5+13.97 ± 0.06HEIBentley, Johnstone, et al., 1973LLK
C6H5+14.1 ± 0.1HEIGross, 1972LLK
C6H5+13.80 ± 0.03HPISergeev, Akopyan, et al., 1970RDSH
C6H5+14.1 ± 0.1HEILifshitz and Reuben, 1969RDSH
C6H5+13.8 ± 0.1HPIBrehm, 1966RDSH
C6H71-43-24+14.2 ± 0.2H2EILifshitz and Reuben, 1969RDSH

De-protonation reactions

C6H5- + Hydrogen cation = Benzene

By formula: C6H5- + H+ = C6H6

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Δr1678.7 ± 2.1kJ/molG+TSDavico, Bierbaum, et al., 1995gas phase; Revised per Ervin and DeTuro, 2002 change in NH3 acidity. Alecu, Gao, et al., 2007 using thermal methods, agrees with this BDE: 112.8±0.6; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Δr1678.5 ± 0.88kJ/molD-EAGunion, Gilles, et al., 1992gas phase; B
Δr1677. ± 10.kJ/molTDEqMeot-ner and Sieck, 1986gas phase; B
Δr1680. ± 42.kJ/molCIDTGraul and Squires, 1990gas phase; B
Δr1665. ± 23.kJ/molG+TSBohme and Young, 1971gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Δr1641.8 ± 1.7kJ/molIMREDavico, Bierbaum, et al., 1995gas phase; Revised per Ervin and DeTuro, 2002 change in NH3 acidity. Alecu, Gao, et al., 2007 using thermal methods, agrees with this BDE: 112.8±0.6; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Δr1636. ± 8.4kJ/molTDEqMeot-ner and Sieck, 1986gas phase; B
Δr1632. ± 27.kJ/molIMRBBartmess and McIver Jr., 1979gas phase; B
Δr1628. ± 23.kJ/molIMRBBohme and Young, 1971gas phase; B


Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, . [all data]

Aue, Guidoni, et al., 2000
Aue, D.H.; Guidoni, M.; Betowski, L.D., Ab initio calculated gas-phase basicities of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 2000, 201, 283. [all data]

Nemeth, Selzle, et al., 1993
Nemeth, G.I.; Selzle, H.L.; Schlag, E.W., Magnetic ZEKE experiments with mass analysis, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1993, 215, 151. [all data]

Chewter, Sander, et al., 1987
Chewter, L.A.; Sander, M.; Muller-Dethlefs, K.; Schalg, E.W., High resolution zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy of benzene and determination of the ionization potential, J. Chem. Phys., 1987, 86, 4737. [all data]

Stahl and Maquin, 1984
Stahl, D.; Maquin, F., Charge-stripping mass spectrometry of molecular ions from polyacenes and molecular orbital theory, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1984, 108, 613. [all data]

Grubb, Whetten, et al., 1984
Grubb, S.G.; Whetten, R.L.; Albrecht, A.C.; Grant, E.R., A precise determination of the first ionization potential of benzene, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1984, 108, 420. [all data]

Arimura and Yoshikawa, 1984
Arimura, M.; Yoshikawa, Y., Ionization efficiency and ionization energy of cyclic compounds by electron impact, Mass Spectrosc. (Tokyo), 1984, 32, 375. [all data]

Klasinc, Kovac, et al., 1983
Klasinc, L.; Kovac, B.; Gusten, H., Photoelectron spectra of acenes. Electronic structure and substituent effects, Pure Appl. Chem., 1983, 55, 289. [all data]

Cetinkaya, Lappert, et al., 1983
Cetinkaya, B.; Lappert, M.F.; Suffolk, R.J., Photoelectron spectra of some sterically hindered phenols and related compounds, J. Chem. Res. Synop., 1983, 316. [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Achiba, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Iwata, S., Ionization energies, Ab initio assignments, and valence electronic structure for 200 molecules in Handbook of HeI Photoelectron Spectra of Fundamental Organic Compounds, Japan Scientific Soc. Press, Tokyo, 1981. [all data]

Duncan, Dietz, et al., 1981
Duncan, M.A.; Dietz, T.G.; Smalley, R.E., Two-color photoionization of naphthalene and benzene at threshold, J. Chem. Phys., 1981, 75, 2118. [all data]

Clare and Sowerby, 1981
Clare, P.; Sowerby, D.B., Electron impact ionisation energies of some halo-cyclotriphosphazenes, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 1981, 43, 477. [all data]

Bieri and Asbrink, 1980
Bieri, G.; Asbrink, L., 30.4-nm He(II) photoelectron spectra of organic molecules, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 20, 149. [all data]

Sell, Mintz, et al., 1978
Sell, J.A.; Mintz, D.M.; Kupperman, A., Photoelectron angular distributions of carbon-carbon π electrons in ethylene, benzene, and their fluorinated derivatives, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1978, 58, 601. [all data]

Mattsson, Karlsson, et al., 1977
Mattsson, L.; Karlsson, L.; Jadrny, R.; Siegbahn, K., Valence electron spectrum of C6H6 excited by linearly polarized HeI radiation, Phys. Scr., 1977, 16, 221. [all data]

Bieri, Burger, et al., 1977
Bieri, G.; Burger, F.; Heilbronner, E.; Maier, J.P., Valence ionization enrgies of hydrocarbons, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1977, 60, 2213. [all data]

Selim, 1976
Selim, E.T.M., Electron impact study of benzene, Egypt. J. Phys., 1976, 7, 91. [all data]

Behan, Johnstone, et al., 1976
Behan, J.M.; Johnstone, R.A.W.; Bentley, T.W., An evaluation of empirical methods for calculating the ionization potentials of substituted benzenes, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1976, 11, 207. [all data]

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Baldwin, M.A.; Loudon, A.G.; Maccoll, A.; Webb, K.S., The nature and fragmentation pathways of the molecular ions of some arylureas, arylthioureas, acetanilides, thioacetanilides and related compounds, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1976, 11, 1181. [all data]

Pitt, 1973
Pitt, C.G., Hyperconjugation and its role in group IV chemistry, J. Organomet. Chem., 1973, 61, 49. [all data]

Tajima, Shimizu, et al., 1972
Tajima, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Tsuchiya, T., The effect of the shield voltage on appearance potential measurements using a mass spectrometer, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1972, 45, 931. [all data]

Finney and Harrison, 1972
Finney, C.D.; Harrison, A.G., A third-derivative method for determining electron-impact onset potentials, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1972, 9, 221. [all data]

Chizhov, Kleimenov, et al., 1972
Chizhov, Yu.V.; Kleimenov, V.I.; Medynskii, G.S.; Vilesov, F.I., Photoelectron spectra of some bromoethylenes and 2-bromopropene, Can. J. Chem., 1972, 50, 2642. [all data]

Sergeev, Akopyan, et al., 1970
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Demeo and El-Sayed, 1970
Demeo, D.A.; El-Sayed, M.A., Ionization potential and structure of olefins, J. Chem. Phys., 1970, 52, 2622. [all data]

Buchs, 1970
Buchs, A., Etude par spectrometrie de masse de l'ionisation de benzonitriles, de phenylacetonitriles et de N,N-dimethylanilines substitues, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1970, 53, 2026. [all data]

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Asbrink, L.; Lindholm, E.; Edqvist, O., Jahn-Teller effect in the vibrational structure of the photoelectron spectrum of benzene, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1970, 5, 609. [all data]

Peatman, Borne, et al., 1969
Peatman, W.B.; Borne, T.B.; Schlag, E.W., Photoionization resonance spectra. I. Nitric oxide and benzene, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1969, 3, 492. [all data]

Dewar and Worley, 1969
Dewar, M.J.S.; Worley, S.D., Photoelectron spectra of molecules. I. Ionization potentials of some organic molecules and their interpretation, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 50, 654. [all data]

Momigny, Goffart, et al., 1968
Momigny, J.; Goffart, C.; D'Or, L., Photoionization studies by total ionization measurements. I. Benzene and its monohalogeno derivatives, Intern. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1968, 1, 53. [all data]

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Bock, H.; Seidl, H.; Fochler, M., d-Orbitaleffekte in silicium-substituierten π-Elektronensystemen. X. Vertikale Ionisierungsenergien von Alkyl- und Silyl-benzolen, Chem. Ber., 1968, 101, 2815. [all data]

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Clark and Frost, 1967
Clark, I.D.; Frost, D.C., A study of the energy levels in benzene and some fluorobenzenes by photoelectron spectroscopy, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1967, 89, 244. [all data]

Nounou, 1966
Nounou, P., Etude des composes aromatiques par spectrometrie de masse. I. Mesure des potentials d'ionisation et d'apparition par la methode du potential retardateur et interpretation des courbes d'ionisation differentielle, J. Chim. Phys., 1966, 63, 994. [all data]

Brehm, 1966
Brehm, B., Massenspektrometrische Untersuchung der Photoionisation von Molekulen, Z. Naturforsch., 1966, 21a, 196. [all data]

Nicholson, 1965
Nicholson, A.J.C., Photoionization-efficiency curves. II. False and genuine structure, J. Chem. Phys., 1965, 43, 1171. [all data]

Dibeler and Reese, 1964
Dibeler, V.H.; Reese, R.M., Mass spectrometric study of photoionization. I. Apparatus and initial observations on acetylene, acetylene-d2, benzene, and benzene-d6, J. Res. NBS, 1964, 68A, 409. [all data]

Al-Joboury and Turner, 1964
Al-Joboury, M.I.; Turner, D.W., Molecular photoelectron spectroscopy. Part II. A summary of ionization potentials, J. Chem. Soc., 1964, 4434. [all data]

Terenin, 1961
Terenin, A., Charge transfer in organic solids, induced by light, Proc. Chem. Soc., London, 1961, 321. [all data]

El-Sayed, Kaaba, et al., 1961
El-Sayed, M.F.A.; Kaaba, M.; Tanaka, Y., Ionization potentials of benzene, hexadeuterobenzene, and pyridine from their observed Rydberg series in the region 600-2000 A, J. Chem. Phys., 1961, 34, 334. [all data]

Wilkinson, 1956
Wilkinson, P.G., Absorption spectra and ionization potentials of benzene and benzene-d6, J. Chem. Phys., 1956, 24, 917. [all data]

Watanabe, 1954
Watanabe, K., Photoionization and total absorption cross section of gases. I. Ionization potentials of several molecules. Cross sections of NH3 and NO, J. Chem. Phys., 1954, 22, 1564. [all data]

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Hustrulid, A.; Kusch, P.; Tate, J.T., The dissociation of benzene (C6H6), pyridine (C5H5N) and cyclohexane (C6H12) by electron impact, Phys. Rev., 1938, 54, 1037. [all data]

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Price, W.C.; Wood, R.W., The far ultraviolet absorption spectra and ionization potentials of C6H6 and C6D6, J. Chem. Phys., 1935, 3, 439. [all data]

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Howell, J.O.; Goncalves, J.M.; Amatore, C.; Klasinc, L.; Wightman, R.M.; Kochi, J.K., Electron transfer from aromatic hydrocarbons and their π-complexes with metals. Comparison of the standard oxidation potentials and vertical ionization potentials, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1984, 106, 3968. [all data]

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Schmidt, W., Photoelectron spectra of polynuclear aromatics. V. Correlations with ultraviolet absorption spectra in the catacondensed series, J. Chem. Phys., 1977, 66, 828. [all data]

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