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Hydronium cation


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Reaction thermochemistry data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas,1 bar45.949cal/mol*KReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in June, 1966

Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Reactions 1 to 50

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 3H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar17.3 ± 0.9kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 9 out of 16 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28. ± 2.cal/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 6 out of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar9.4kcal/molFABierbaum, Golde, et al., 1976gas phase

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
9.1300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase
9.2296.SAMSPuckett and Teague, 1971gas phase
8.4300.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970gas phase
8.3307.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970, 2gas phase

Hydronium cation + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet Water)

By formula: H3O+ + H2O = (H3O+ bullet H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar32. ± 2.kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 7 out of 14 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28. ± 7.cal/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 7 values; Individual data points

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
8.1300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 2H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar20. ± 1.kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 7 out of 14 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22. ± 4.cal/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 7 values; Individual data points

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
8.6300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 4Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 4H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar13. ± 4.kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 6 out of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar24. ± 5.cal/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 7 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar5.5kcal/molFABierbaum, Golde, et al., 1976gas phase

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
5.8293.ES/HPMSKlassen, Blades, et al., 1995gas phase
5.4296.SAMSPuckett and Teague, 1971gas phase
5.0300.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970gas phase
5.0307.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970, 2gas phase
7.0300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 4Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 5Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 4H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 5H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar12. ± 2.kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 8 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar24. ± 4.cal/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 4 out of 6 values; Individual data points

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
4.5293.ES/HPMSKlassen, Blades, et al., 1995gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 5Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 6Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 5H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 6H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.7kcal/molPHPMSLau, Ikuta, et al., 1982gas phase
Deltar11.7kcal/molHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar16.09kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable
Deltar6.7kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar26.1cal/mol*KPHPMSLau, Ikuta, et al., 1982gas phase
Deltar29.6cal/mol*KHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar82.69cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable

(Hydronium cation bullet 6Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 7Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 6H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 7H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar6.7kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Deltar10.3kcal/molHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar12.03kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar27.cal/mol*KHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar52.31cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable

Hydronium cation + Carbon dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Carbon dioxide)

By formula: H3O+ + CO2 = (H3O+ bullet CO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar14.3kcal/molPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase
Deltar15.3kcal/molPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Deltar14.4kcal/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Field, 1977gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar21.2cal/mol*KPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase
Deltar24.6cal/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Deltar20.7cal/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Field, 1977gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 12Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 13Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 12H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 13H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.30kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.7kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar37.92cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 13Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 14Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 13H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 14H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.60kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.8kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar39.85cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 14Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 15Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 14H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 15H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.72kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.7kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar40.38cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 15Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 16Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 15H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 16H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.82kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.0kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar42.15cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 16Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 17Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 16H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 17H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.76kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.6kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar41.38cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 17Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 18Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 17H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 18H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.75kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.3kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar40.62cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 18Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 19Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 18H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 19H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.66kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar7.0kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar41.00cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 19Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 20Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 19H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 20H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.54kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar9.1kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar39.62cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 20Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 21Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 20H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 21H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.43kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar7.3kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar37.46cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 21Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 22Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 21H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 22H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.32kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar5.9kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar39.46cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 22Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 23Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 22H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 23H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.45kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.4kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar38.92cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 23Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 24Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 23H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 24H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.28kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.6kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar37.46cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 24Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 25Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 24H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 25H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.06kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar7.1kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar36.16cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 10Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 11Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 10H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 11H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar9.30kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.7kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar26.92cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 11Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 12Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 11H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 12H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar9.83kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.9kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar33.62cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 25Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 26Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 25H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 26H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar9.72kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.3kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar32.85cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 26Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 27Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 26H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 27H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar9.41kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar8.2kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar30.92cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 9Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 10Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 9H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 10H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar8.88kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar6.7kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar25.77cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 8Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 9Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 8H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 9H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar8.78kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar5.7kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar26.92cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 7Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 8Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 7H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 8H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar9.77kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar5.1kcal/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar33.46cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 3Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 3H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet 3H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1.2kcal/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar6.4cal/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrous oxide) + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 4Nitrous oxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3N2O) + N2O = (H3O+ bullet 4N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar5.2kcal/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar21.cal/mol*KN/AHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 4Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 4N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar3.kcal/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar12.cal/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate

(Hydronium cation bullet 27Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 28Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 27H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 28H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar9.06kcal/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar27.77cal/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Methane) + Methane = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Methane)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet CH4) + CH4 = (H3O+ bullet 2CH4)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar3.4kcal/molHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase; Entropy change is questionable
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar8.1cal/mol*KHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase; Entropy change is questionable

(Hydronium cation bullet 4Water) + Sulfur dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Sulfur dioxide bullet 4Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 4H2O) + O2S = (H3O+ bullet O2S bullet 4H2O)

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
2.6300.HPMSBanic and Iribarne, 1985gas phase; electric fields
2.6300.HPMSBanic and Iribarne, 1985gas phase; electric fields

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar9.0 ± 2.7kcal/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.4cal/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Water) + Hydrogen cyanide = (Hydronium cation bullet Hydrogen cyanide bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2H2O) + CHN = (H3O+ bullet CHN bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar19.8kcal/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Speller, 1989gas phase; n
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar29.3cal/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Speller, 1989gas phase; n

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar8. ± 2.kcal/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.cal/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar5.2kcal/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar16.6cal/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet 3Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet 3H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 3H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar4.4kcal/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar15.7cal/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar4.9kcal/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar13.1cal/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrous oxide) + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrous oxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2O) + N2O = (H3O+ bullet 3N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.2kcal/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar26.cal/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar5.0kcal/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar14.3cal/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrous oxide) + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrous oxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2O) + N2O = (H3O+ bullet 2N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar12.1kcal/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar23.cal/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar5.3kcal/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar13.9cal/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Carbon dioxide) + Carbon dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Carbon dioxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2CO2) + CO2 = (H3O+ bullet 3CO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.5kcal/molPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar26.9cal/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Carbon dioxide) + Carbon dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Carbon dioxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet CO2) + CO2 = (H3O+ bullet 2CO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar12.4kcal/molPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar26.5cal/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase

Hydronium cation + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Nitrous oxide)

By formula: H3O+ + N2O = (H3O+ bullet N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar16.9kcal/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar27.cal/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase

Hydronium cation + Sulfur dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Sulfur dioxide)

By formula: H3O+ + O2S = (H3O+ bullet O2S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.0kcal/molPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.7cal/mol*KPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase

Hydronium cation + Methane = (Hydronium cation bullet Methane)

By formula: H3O+ + CH4 = (H3O+ bullet CH4)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar8.0kcal/molHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar20.4cal/mol*KHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Water) + Sulfur dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Sulfur dioxide bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3H2O) + O2S = (H3O+ bullet O2S bullet 3H2O)

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
4.2300.HPMSBanic and Iribarne, 1985gas phase; electric fields

Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Marilyn E. Jacox

State:   X


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

a1 1 OH stretch 3491.17 I gas LD Tang and Oka, 1999
1 OH stretch 3389.66 I gas LD Tang and Oka, 1999
1 OH stretch 3490 T H gas PF Okumura, Yeh, et al., 1990
2 Umbrella 954.40 I gas DL Haese and Oka, 1984
Lemoine and Destombes, 1984
Davies, Hamilton, et al., 1985
Liu, Haese, et al., 1985
Zheng, Wang, et al., 2007
2 Umbrella 525.82 I gas DL Davies, Hamilton, et al., 1985
Liu and Oka, 1985
Liu, Haese, et al., 1985
(H2)H-O stretch 3120 H gas PF Okumura, Yeh, et al., 1990
e 3 OH stretch 3535.56 I gas CC Begemann, Gudeman, et al., 1983
Begemann and Saykally, 1985
Stahn, Solka, et al., 1987
Ho, Pursell, et al., 1991
3 OH stretch 3518.95 I gas CC Begemann, Gudeman, et al., 1983
Begemann and Saykally, 1985
Stahn, Solka, et al., 1987
Keim, Polak, et al., 1990
Ho, Pursell, et al., 1991
3 OH stretch 3560 H gas PF Okumura, Yeh, et al., 1990
3 OH stretch 3550 H gas PF Okumura, Yeh, et al., 1990
4 Deformation 1625.95 I gas DL Grubele, Polak, et al., 1987
4 Deformation 1638.53 I gas DL Grubele, Polak, et al., 1987

Additional references: Jacox, 1994, page 129; Jacox, 2003, page 160; Sears, Bunker, et al., 1985; Liu, Oka, et al., 1986; Verhoeve, Versluis, et al., 1989; Petek, Nesbitt, et al., 1990; Uy, White, et al., 1997; Araki, Ozeki, et al., 1998; Araki, Ozeki, et al., 1999; Dong, Uy, et al., 2005; Dong and Nesbitt, 2006; Furuya, Saito, et al., 2007; Furuya and Saito, 2008

Notes

H(1/2)(2nu)
IComponent of an inversion doublet
TTentative assignment or approximate value

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Chase, 1998
Chase, M.W., Jr., NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, Fourth Edition, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 9, 1998, 1-1951. [all data]

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Bierbaum, V.M.; Golde, M.F.; Kaufman, F., Flowing Afterglow Studies of Hydronium Ion Clustering Including Diffusion Effects, J. Chem. Phys., 1976, 65, 7, 2715, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.433415 . [all data]

Arifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971
Arifov, U.A.; Pozharov, S.L.; Chernov, I.G., High Energy Chem., 1971, 5, 1. [all data]

Puckett and Teague, 1971
Puckett, L.J.; Teague, A.W., Production of H3O+.nH2O from NO+ Precursor in NO - H2O Gas Mixtures, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 54, 6, 2564, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1675213 . [all data]

Good, Durden, et al., 1970
Good, A.; Durden, D.A.; Kebarle, P., Ion-Molecule Reactions in Pure Nitrogen and Nitrogen Containing Traces of Water at Total Pressures 0.5 - 4 torr. Kinetics of Clustering Reactions Forming H+(H2O)n, J. Chem. Phys., 1970, 52, 1, 212, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1672667 . [all data]

Good, Durden, et al., 1970, 2
Good, A.; Durden, D.A.; Kebarle, P., Mechanism and Rate Constants of Ion-Molecule Reactions Leading to Formation of H+(H2O)n in Moist Oxygen and Air, J. Chem. Phys., 1970, 52, 1, 222, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1672668 . [all data]

Klassen, Blades, et al., 1995
Klassen, J.S.; Blades, A.T.; Kebarle, P., Determinations of Ion-Molecule Equilibria Involving Ions Produced by Electrospray. Hydration of Protonated Amines, Diamines, and Some Small Peptides, J. Phys. Chem., 1995, 99, 42, 15509, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100042a027 . [all data]

Lau, Ikuta, et al., 1982
Lau, Y.K.; Ikuta, S.; Kebarle, P., Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Gas - Phase Reactions: H3O+(H2O)n - 1 + H2O = H3O+(H2O)n, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 6, 1462, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00370a002 . [all data]

Kebarle, Searles, et al., 1967
Kebarle, P.; Searles, S.K.; Zolla, A.; Scarborough, J.; Arshadi, M., The Solvation of the Hydrogen Ion by Water Molecules in the Gas Phase. Heats and Entropies of Solvation of the Individual Reactions: H+(H2O)n-1 + H2O = H+(H2O)n, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1967, 89, 25, 6393, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01001a001 . [all data]

Shi, Ford, et al., 1993
Shi, Z.; Ford, V.; Wei, S.; Castleman, A.W., Water Clusters - Contributions of Binding Energy and Entropy to Stability, J. Chem. Phys., 1993, 99, 10, 8009, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.465678 . [all data]

Magnera, David, et al., 1991
Magnera, T.F.; David, D.E.; Michl, J., The First Twenty - Eight Proton Hydration Energies, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1991, 182, 3-4, 363, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(91)80230-U . [all data]

Szulejko and McMahon, 1992
Szulejko, J.; McMahon, T.B., personal communication, 1992. [all data]

Hiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986
Hiraoka, K.; Shoda, T.; Morise, K.; Yamabe, S.; Kawai, E.; Hirao, K., Stability and structure of cluster ions in the gas phase: Carbon dioxide with Cl-, H3O+, HCO2+ and HCO+, J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 2091. [all data]

Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Field, 1977
Meot-Ner (Mautner), M.; Field, F.H., Proton Affinity and Ion - Molecule Clustering in CO2 and CS2. Applications in Martian Ionospheric Chemistry, J. Chem. Phys., 1977, 66, 10, 4527, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.433706 . [all data]

Gheno and Fitaire, 1987
Gheno, F.; Fitaire, M., Association of N2 with NH4+ and H3O+(H2O)n, n = 1,2,3, J. Chem. Phys., 1987, 87, 2, 953, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.453250 . [all data]

Hiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994
Hiraoka, K.; Fujimaki, S.; Aruga, K.; Sato, T.; Yamabe, S., Gas-Phase Solavtion of NO+, O2+, N2O+, and H3O+ with N2O, J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 101, 5, 4073, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.467524 . [all data]

Bennet and Field, 1972
Bennet, S.L.; Field, F.H., Reversible Reactions of Gaseous Ions. V. The Methane - Water System at Low Temperatures, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1972, 94, 15, 5188, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00770a008 . [all data]

Banic and Iribarne, 1985
Banic, C.M.; Iribarne, J.V., Equilibrium Constants for Clustering of Neutral Molecules about Gaseous Ions, J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 83, 12, 6432, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.449543 . [all data]

Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Speller, 1989
Meot-Ner (Mautner), M.; Speller, C.V., Multicomponent Cluster Ions.3. Comparative Stabilities of Cationic and Anionic Hydrogen Bonded Networks. Mixed Clusters of Water and Hydrogen Cyanide, J. Phys. Chem., 1989, 93, 6580. [all data]

Tang and Oka, 1999
Tang, J.; Oka, T., Infrared Spectroscopy of H3O+: The «nu»1 Fundamental Band, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1999, 196, 1, 120, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsp.1999.7844 . [all data]

Okumura, Yeh, et al., 1990
Okumura, M.; Yeh, L.I.; Myers, J.D.; Lee, Y.T., Infrared Spectra of the Solvated Hydronium Ion: Vibrational Predissociation Spectroscopy of Mass-Selected H3O+.(H2O)n.(H2)m, J. Phys. Chem., 1990, 94, 9, 3416, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100372a014 . [all data]

Haese and Oka, 1984
Haese, N.N.; Oka, T., Observation of the «nu»2 (1-<--0+) inversion mode band in H3O+ by high resolution infrared spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 1984, 80, 1, 572, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.446436 . [all data]

Lemoine and Destombes, 1984
Lemoine, B.; Destombes, J.L., Infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions in a magnetically confined glow discharge, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1984, 111, 3, 284, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(84)85507-4 . [all data]

Davies, Hamilton, et al., 1985
Davies, P.B.; Hamilton, P.A.; Johnson, S.A., Infrared laser spectroscopy of H_3O^+ between 510 and 1150 cm^-1, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 1985, 2, 5, 794, https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.2.000794 . [all data]

Liu, Haese, et al., 1985
Liu, D.-J.; Haese, N.N.; Oka, T., Infrared spectrum of the «nu»2 vibration-inversion band of H3O+, J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 82, 12, 5368, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.448620 . [all data]

Zheng, Wang, et al., 2007
Zheng, R.; Wang, R.-B.; Li, S.; Huang, G.-M.; Duan, C.-X., Extended Measurement of the, Chin. Phys. Lett., 2007, 24, 9, 2569, https://doi.org/10.1088/0256-307X/24/9/029 . [all data]

Liu and Oka, 1985
Liu, D.-J.; Oka, T., Experimental Determination of the Ground-State Inversion Splitting in H_{3}O^{+}, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1985, 54, 16, 1787, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.54.1787 . [all data]

Begemann, Gudeman, et al., 1983
Begemann, M.H.; Gudeman, C.S.; Pfaff, J.; Saykally, R., Detection of the Hydronium Ion (H_{3}O^{+}) by High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1983, 51, 7, 554, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.554 . [all data]

Begemann and Saykally, 1985
Begemann, M.H.; Saykally, R.J., A study of the structure and dynamics of the hydronium ion by high-resolution infrared laser spectroscopy. I. The «nu»3 band of H3 16O+, J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 82, 8, 3570, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.448914 . [all data]

Stahn, Solka, et al., 1987
Stahn, A.; Solka, H.; Adams, H.; Urban, W., The, Mol. Phys., 1987, 60, 1, 121, https://doi.org/10.1080/00268978700100091 . [all data]

Ho, Pursell, et al., 1991
Ho, W.C.; Pursell, C.J.; Oka, T., Infrared spectroscopy in an H2«58872»O2«58872»He discharge: H3O+, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1991, 149, 2, 530, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2852(91)90308-W . [all data]

Keim, Polak, et al., 1990
Keim, E.R.; Polak, M.L.; Owrutsky, J.C.; Coe, J.V.; Saykally, R.J., Absolute infrared vibrational band intensities of molecular ions determined by direct laser absorption spectroscopy in fast ion beams, J. Chem. Phys., 1990, 93, 5, 3111, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.458845 . [all data]

Grubele, Polak, et al., 1987
Grubele, M.; Polak, M.; Saykally, R.J., A study of the structure and dynamics of the hydronium ion by high resolution infrared laser spectroscopy. II. The «nu»4 perpendicular bending mode of H3 16O+, J. Chem. Phys., 1987, 87, 6, 3347, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.453029 . [all data]

Jacox, 1994
Jacox, M.E., Vibrational and electronic energy levels of polyatomic transient molecules, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1994, 464. [all data]

Jacox, 2003
Jacox, M.E., Vibrational and electronic energy levels of polyatomic transient molecules: supplement B, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2003, 32, 1, 1-441, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1497629 . [all data]

Sears, Bunker, et al., 1985
Sears, T.J.; Bunker, P.R.; Davies, P.B.; Johnson, S.A.; Spirko, V., Diode laser absorption spectroscopy of D3O+: Determination of the equilibrium structure and potential function of the oxonium ion, J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 83, 6, 2676, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.449270 . [all data]

Liu, Oka, et al., 1986
Liu, D.-J.; Oka, T.; Sears, T.J., The calculated «nu»2 (inversion) spectrum of H3O+, J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 3, 1312, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.450522 . [all data]

Verhoeve, Versluis, et al., 1989
Verhoeve, P.; Versluis, M.; Ter Meulen, J.J.; Meerts, W.L.; Dymanus, A., Far infrared laser sideband spectroscopy of H3O+: the pure inversion spectrum around 55 cm-1, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1989, 161, 3, 195, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(89)87059-9 . [all data]

Petek, Nesbitt, et al., 1990
Petek, H.; Nesbitt, D.J.; Owrutsky, J.C.; Gudeman, C.S.; Yang, X.; Harris, D.O.; Moore, C.B.; Saykally, R.J., A study of the structure and dynamics of the hydronium ion by high resolution infrared laser spectroscopy. III. The «nu»3 band of D3O+, J. Chem. Phys., 1990, 92, 6, 3257, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.457884 . [all data]

Uy, White, et al., 1997
Uy, D.; White, E.T.; Oka, T., Observation of «DELTA»|k - l| = 3 Transitions in the «nu»3Band of H3O+, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1997, 183, 2, 240, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsp.1997.7270 . [all data]

Araki, Ozeki, et al., 1998
Araki, M.; Ozeki, H.; Saito, S., Experimental determination of the ground-state inversion splitting in D[sub 3]O[sup +] by microwave spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 198, 14, 5707, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.477191 . [all data]

Araki, Ozeki, et al., 1999
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Dong, Uy, et al., 2005
Dong, F.; Uy, D.; Davis, S.; Child, M.; Nesbitt, D.J., Supersonically cooled hydronium ions in a slit-jet discharge: High-resolution infrared spectroscopy and tunneling dynamics of HD[sub 2]O[sup +], J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 122, 22, 224301, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1924699 . [all data]

Dong and Nesbitt, 2006
Dong, F.; Nesbitt, D.J., Jet cooled spectroscopy of H[sub 2]DO[sup +]: Barrier heights and isotope-dependent tunneling dynamics from H[sub 3]O[sup +] to D[sub 3]O[sup +], J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 125, 14, 144311, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2338520 . [all data]

Furuya, Saito, et al., 2007
Furuya, T.; Saito, S.; Araki, M., Microwave spectrum of the H[sub 2]DO[sup +] ion: Inversion-rotation transitions and inversion splitting, J. Chem. Phys., 2007, 127, 24, 244314, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2813352 . [all data]

Furuya and Saito, 2008
Furuya, T.; Saito, S., Microwave spectrum of the HD[sub 2]O[sup +] ion: Inversion-rotation transitions and inversion splitting, J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 128, 3, 034311, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2822284 . [all data]


Notes

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