Isobaric Properties for Water

Fluid Data

Isobaric Data for P = 0.10130 MPa

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Auxiliary Data

Reference States, default for fluid

Additional fluid properties

References and Notes

Equation of state

Wagner, W.; Pruss, A., The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2002, 31, 2, 387-535, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1461829 . [all data]

International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS R6-95, Revised Release on the IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use, 2016. http://www.iapws.org/relguide/IAPWS-95.html

The uncertainty in density of the equation of state is 0.0001% at 1 atm in the liquid phase, and 0.001% at other liquid states at pressures up to 10 MPa and temperatures to 423 K. In the vapor phase, the uncertainty is 0.05% or less. The uncertainties rise at higher temperatures and/or pressures, but are generally less than 0.1% in density except at extreme conditions. The uncertainty in pressure in the critical region is 0.1%. The uncertainty of the speed of sound is 0.15% in the vapor and 0.1% or less in the liquid, and increases near the critical region and at high temperatures and pressures. The uncertainty in isobaric heat capacity is 0.2% in the vapor and 0.1% in the liquid, with increasing values in the critical region and at high pressures. The uncertainties of saturation conditions are 0.025% in vapor pressure, 0.0025% in saturated liquid density, and 0.1% in saturated vapor density. The uncertainties in the saturated densities increase substantially as the critical region is approached.

Auxillary model, Cp0

Wagner, W. and Pruss, A., 2002.

Auxillary model, PX0

Wagner, W. and Pruss, A., 2002.

Auxillary model, PH0

Wagner, W. and Pruss, A., 2002.

Viscosity

Huber, M.L.; Perkins, R.A.; Laesecke, A.; Friend, D.G.; Sengers, J.V.; Assael, M.J.; Metaxa, I.N.; Vogel, E.; Mares, R.; Miyagawa, K., New International Formulation for the Viscosity of H2O, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2009, 38, 2, 101-125, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3088050 . [all data]

International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, "Release on the IAPWS Formulation 2008 for the Viscosity of Ordinary Water Substance," Sept. 2008, Berlin. http://www.iapws.org/relguide/viscosity.html

For the uncertainties, see the IAPWS Release or the publication cited above. NOTE: To use in faster 'industrial' mode, change critical model at end of this VS0 block to NUL instead of I08.

Thermal conductivity

Huber, M.L.; Perkins, R.A.; Friend, D.G.; Sengers, J.V.; Assael, M.J.; Metaxa, I.N.; Miyagawa, K.; Hellmann, R.; Vogel, E., New International Formulation for the Thermal Conductivity of H2O, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2012, 41, 3, 033102, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4738955 . [all data]

International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, "Release on the IAPWS Formulation 2011 for the Thermal Conductivity of Ordinary Water Substance," Sept. 2011, Plzen, Czech Republic. http://www.iapws.org/relguide/ThCond.html

For the uncertainties, see the IAPWS Release or publication cited above.

Auxillary model, the thermal conductivity critical enhancement

Huber, M.L.; Perkins, R.A.; Friend, D.G.; Sengers, J.V.; Assael, M.J.; Metaxa, I.N.; Miyagawa, K.; Hellmann, R.; Vogel, E., New International Formulation for the Thermal Conductivity of H2O, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2012, 41, 3, 033102, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4738955 . [all data]

Surface tension

International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, "Revised Release on Surface Tension of Ordinary Water Substance," IAPWS R1-76, June 2014. http://www.iapws.org/relguide/Surf-H2O.html

For the uncertainties in surface tension, see the IAPWS Release.

Dielectric constant

Fernandez, D.P.; Goodwin, A.R.H.; Lemmon, E.W.; Levelt Sengers, J.M.; Williams, R.C., A Formulation for the Static Permittivity of Water and Steam at Temperatures from 238 K to 873 K at Pressures up to 1200 MPa, Including Derivatives and Debye-Huckel Coefficients, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1997, 26, 4, 1125-1165, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555997 . [all data]

Metling line

Wagner, W.; Riethmann, T.; Feistel, R.; Harvey, A.H., New Equations for the Sublimation Pressure and Melting Pressure of H2O Ice Ih, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2011, 40, 4, 043103, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3657937 . [all data]

Sublimation line

Wagner, W.; Riethmann, T.; Feistel, R.; Harvey, A.H., New Equations for the Sublimation Pressure and Melting Pressure of H2O Ice Ih, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2011, 40, 4, 043103, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3657937 . [all data]

Vapor pressure

Wagner, W. and Pruss, A., 2002.

Functional Form: P=Pc*EXP[SUM(Ni*Theta^ti)*Tc/T] where Theta=1-T/Tc, Tc and Pc are the reducing parameters below, which are followed by rows containing Ni and ti.

Saturated liquid density

Wagner, W. and Pruss, A., 2002.

Functional Form: D=Dc*[1+SUM(Ni*Theta^(ti/3))] where Theta=1-T/Tc, Tc and Dc are the reducing parameters below, which are followed by rows containing Ni and ti.

Saturated liquid volume

Wagner, W. and Pruss, A., 2002.

Functional Form: D=Dc*EXP[SUM(Ni*Theta^(ti/3))] where Theta=1-T/Tc, Tc and Dc are the reducing parameters below, which are followed by rows containing Ni and ti.

The fluid data above is also available from the NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database. This product includes additional features not available from this web site.

Notes