Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Propanenitrile

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas12.30kcal/molCcrHall and Baldt, 1971 

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid3.70kcal/molCcrHall and Baldt, 1971ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-465.65 ± 0.13kcal/molCcrHall and Baldt, 1971ALS
Deltacliquid-458.5kcal/molCcbLemoult and Jungfleisch, 1909ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid45.251cal/mol*KN/AWeber and Kilpatrick, 1962DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
25.17298.15Mirzaliev, Shakhuradov, et al., 1987T = 193 to 353 K. Unsmoothed experimental datum given as 1.845 kJ/kg*K at 293 K. Cp(liq) = 1.9082 + 0.0027614T/K + 9.3056x10-6T2/K2 kJ/kg*K (193 to 353 K). Note, second term should be negative.; DH
25.33303.15Guseinov and Mirzaliev, 1985T = 303 to 363 K. p = 0.1 MPa. Unsoothed experimental datum given as 1.9250 kJ/kg*K.; DH
26.98297.Hall and Baldt, 1971DH
28.561298.15Weber and Kilpatrick, 1962T = 15 to 300 K.; DH

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing
CAL - James S. Chickos, William E. Acree, Jr., Joel F. Liebman, Students of Chem 202 (Introduction to the Literature of Chemistry), University of Missouri -- St. Louis

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil370. ± 1.KAVGN/AAverage of 31 out of 35 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus180. ± 7.KAVGN/AAverage of 8 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple180.37KN/AWeber and Kilpatrick, 1962, 2Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc561.3KN/ACastillo-Lopez and Trejo Rodriguez, 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; Visual, TE with digital voltmeter calibr. by meas. on alkanes.; TRC
Tc558.7KN/AGuye and Mallet, 1902Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Tc558.85KN/AGuye and Mallet, 1902, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Tc558.85KN/AGuye and Mallet, 1902, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc42.04atmN/ACastillo-Lopez and Trejo Rodriguez, 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.099 atm; Visual; TRC
Pc41.25atmN/AGuye and Mallet, 1902Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.9000 atm; TRC
Pc41.2000atmN/AGuye and Mallet, 1902, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.8000 atm; TRC
Pc41.4000atmN/AGuye and Mallet, 1902, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.8000 atm; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap8.7 ± 0.2kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
8.6319298.15N/AWeber and Kilpatrick, 1962P = 6.29 kPa; DH
7.603371.N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
8.63303.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 288. - 371. K.; AC
8.77326.BGBaldt and Hall, 1971Based on data from 308. - 363. K.; AC
8.72280.N/AMilazzo, 1956Based on data from 189. - 295. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC
8.58323.N/ADreisbach and Shrader, 1949Based on data from 308. - 370. K. See also Dreisbach and Martin, 1949 and Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC

Entropy of vaporization

DeltavapS (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
28.94298.15Weber and Kilpatrick, 1962P; DH

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (atm)
    T = temperature (K)

View plot Requires a JavaScript / HTML 5 canvas capable browser.

Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
308.7 - 370.503.611611036.424-83.76Dreisbach and Shrader, 1949Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
1.20180.4Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
2.31177.0Domalski and Hearing, 1996CAL
6.671180.4

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
0.40791176.96crystaline, IIcrystaline, IWeber and Kilpatrick, 1962DH
1.2022180.37crystaline, IliquidWeber and Kilpatrick, 1962DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
2.30176.96crystaline, IIcrystaline, IWeber and Kilpatrick, 1962DH
6.666180.37crystaline, IliquidWeber and Kilpatrick, 1962DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
RCD - Robert C. Dunbar
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C3H4N- + Hydrogen cation = Propanenitrile

By formula: C3H4N- + H+ = C3H5N

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar375.0 ± 2.1kcal/molG+TSBartmess, Scott, et al., 1979gas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar367.4 ± 2.0kcal/molIMREBartmess, Scott, et al., 1979gas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B

C3H4N- + Hydrogen cation = Propanenitrile

By formula: C3H4N- + H+ = C3H5N

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar392.0 ± 5.1kcal/molG+TSMerrill, Dahlke, et al., 1996gas phase; comparable to H2O.; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar384.0 ± 5.0kcal/molIMRBMerrill, Dahlke, et al., 1996gas phase; comparable to H2O.; B

Sodium ion (1+) + Propanenitrile = (Sodium ion (1+) bullet Propanenitrile)

By formula: Na+ + C3H5N = (Na+ bullet C3H5N)

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
24.6298.IMREMcMahon and Ohanessian, 2000Anchor alanine=39.89; RCD

Ethyl isocyanide = Propanenitrile

By formula: C3H5N = C3H5N

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-21.5 ± 1.0kcal/molCmBaghal-Vayjooee, Collister, et al., 1977gas phase; Heat of isomerization; ALS

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

IR spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived.

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Sadtler Research Labs Under US-EPA Contract
State gas

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

Mass spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW- 774
NIST MS number 227644

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Takehiko Shimanouchi

Symmetry:   Cs     Symmetry Number sigma = 1


 Sym.   No   Approximate   Selected Freq.  Infrared   Raman   Comments 
 Species   type of mode   Value   Rating   Value  Phase  Value  Phase

a' 1 CH3 d-str 3001  C 3001 VS liq. 2999 S liq. OV(«nu»14)
a' 2 CH2 s-str 2955  C 2955 VS liq. 2949 VS p liq.
a' 3 CH3 s-str 2900  C 2900 S liq. 2898 S p liq.
a' 4 CN str 2254  C 2254 VS liq. 2251 VS p liq.
a' 5 CH3 d-deform 1465  C 1465 S liq. 1466 VS p liq. SF(«nu»16)
a' 6 CH2 scis 1433  C 1433 S liq. 1436 M p liq.
a' 7 CH3 s-deform 1387  C 1387 M liq. 1374 VW p liq.
a' 8 CH2 wag 1319  C 1319 M liq. 1322 W p liq.
a' 9 C-CN str 1077  C 1077 S liq. 1078 M p liq.
a' 10 CC str 1005  C 1005 M liq. 1010 S p liq.
a' 11 CH3 rock 836  C 836 W liq. 838 S p liq.
a' 12 CCC deform 545  C 545 M liq. 548 M p liq.
a' 13 CCN bend 226  C 226 M liq. 226 M p liq.
a 14 CH3 d-str 3001  C 3001 VS liq. 2999 S liq. OV(«nu»1)
a 15 CH2 a-str 2849  C 2849 S liq. 2850 M liq.
a 16 CH3 d-deform 1465  C 1465 S liq. 1466 VS dp liq. SF(«nu»5)
a 17 CH2 twist 1256  C 1256 VW liq. 1270 VW dp liq.
a 18 CH3 rock 1022  E CF
a 19 CH2 rock 786  C 786 M liq. 784 VW dp liq.
a 20 CCN bend 378  C 378 M liq. 378 M dp liq.
a 21 Torsion 222  C MW

Source: Shimanouchi, 1972

Notes

VSVery strong
SStrong
MMedium
WWeak
VWVery weak
pPolarized
dpDepolarized
CFCalculated frequency
SFCalculation shows that the frequency approximately equals that of the vibration indicated in the parentheses.
OVOverlapped by band indicated in parentheses.
MWTorsional Frequency calculated from microwave spectroscopic data.
C3~6 cm-1 uncertainty
E15~30 cm-1 uncertainty

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Hall and Baldt, 1971
Hall, H.K., Jr.; Baldt, J.H., Thermochemistry of strained-ring bridgehead nitriles and esters, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1971, 93, 140-145. [all data]

Lemoult and Jungfleisch, 1909
Lemoult, M.P.; Jungfleisch, M.E., Thermochimie. - Comparaisons entre les nitriles et les carbylamines, Compt. Rend., 1909, 148, 1602-1604. [all data]

Weber and Kilpatrick, 1962
Weber, L.A.; Kilpatrick, J.E., Entropy and related thermodynamic properties of propionitrile, J. Chem. Phys., 1962, 36, 829-834. [all data]

Mirzaliev, Shakhuradov, et al., 1987
Mirzaliev, A.A.; Shakhuradov, Sh.G.; Guseinov, S.O., Investigation of the isobaric heat capacity of nitriles at different temperatures, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Neft i Gaz, 1987, 30(4), 55-58. [all data]

Guseinov and Mirzaliev, 1985
Guseinov, S.O.; Mirzaliev, A.A., Experimental investigation of volumetric and isobaric heat capacity of saturated nitriles at elevated temperatures and different pressures, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Neft i Gaz, 1985, 28(5), 58-62. [all data]

Weber and Kilpatrick, 1962, 2
Weber, L.A.; Kilpatrick, J.E., Entropy and related thermodynamic properties of propionitrile, J. Chem. Phys., 1962, 36, 829. [all data]

Castillo-Lopez and Trejo Rodriguez, 1987
Castillo-Lopez, N.; Trejo Rodriguez, A., The critical temperatures and pressures of several n-alkanenitriles, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1987, 19, 671. [all data]

Guye and Mallet, 1902
Guye, P.A.; Mallet, E., Critical Constant and Molecular Complexity of Several Organic Compds., C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci., 1902, 133, 168. [all data]

Guye and Mallet, 1902, 2
Guye, P.A.; Mallet, E., Measurement of Critical Constants, Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat., 1902, 13, 274-296. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Baldt and Hall, 1971
Baldt, J.H.; Hall, H.K.K., Jr., Thermochemistry of strained-ring bridgehead nitriles and esters, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1971, 93, 140-145. [all data]

Milazzo, 1956
Milazzo, G., Ann. Chim. (Rome), 1956, 46, 1105. [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

Dreisbach and Shrader, 1949
Dreisbach, R.R.; Shrader, S.A., Vapor Pressure--Temperature Data on Some Organic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1949, 41, 12, 2879-2880, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50480a054 . [all data]

Dreisbach and Martin, 1949
Dreisbach, R.R.; Martin, R.A., Physical Data on Some Organic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1949, 41, 12, 2875-2878, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50480a053 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Bartmess, Scott, et al., 1979
Bartmess, J.E.; Scott, J.A.; McIver, R.T., Jr., The gas phase acidity scale from methanol to phenol, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, 101, 6047. [all data]

Merrill, Dahlke, et al., 1996
Merrill, G.N.; Dahlke, G.D.; Kass, S.R., beta-Cyanoethyl Anion: Lusus Naturae, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1996, 118, 18, 4462, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja953796o . [all data]

McMahon and Ohanessian, 2000
McMahon, T.B.; Ohanessian, G., An Experimental and Ab Initio Study of the Nature of the Binding in Gas-Phase Complexes of Sodium Ions, Chem. Eur. J., 2000, 6, 16, 2931, https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3765(20000818)6:16<2931::AID-CHEM2931>3.0.CO;2-7 . [all data]

Baghal-Vayjooee, Collister, et al., 1977
Baghal-Vayjooee, M.H.; Collister, J.L.; Pritchard, H.O., The enthalpy of isomerisation of methyl isocyanide, Can. J. Chem., 1977, 55, 2634-2636. [all data]

Shimanouchi, 1972
Shimanouchi, T., Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies Consolidated Volume I, National Bureau of Standards, 1972, 1-160. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References