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Nitrogen

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Constants of diatomic molecules

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Klaus P. Huber and Gerhard H. Herzberg

Data collected through February, 1977

Symbols used in the table of constants
SymbolMeaning
State electronic state and / or symmetry symbol
Te minimum electronic energy (cm-1)
ωe vibrational constant – first term (cm-1)
ωexe vibrational constant – second term (cm-1)
ωeye vibrational constant – third term (cm-1)
Be rotational constant in equilibrium position (cm-1)
αe rotational constant – first term (cm-1)
γe rotation-vibration interaction constant (cm-1)
De centrifugal distortion constant (cm-1)
βe rotational constant – first term, centrifugal force (cm-1)
re internuclear distance (Å)
Trans. observed transition(s) corresponding to electronic state
ν00 position of 0-0 band (units noted in table)
Diatomic constants for 14N2
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
For a very detailed and critical review of the spectrum of nitrogen and its ions see the recent publication by Lofthus and Krupenie Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977. An Atlas of the VUV absorption spectrum 1060 - 1520 Å and table of absorption lines Tilford, Wilkinson, et al., 1966. Tables of band head wavelengths Wallace, 1962 Pearse and Gaydon, 1963 Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977. Photoionization and absorption cross sections Huffman, Tanaka, et al., 1963 Cook and Metzger, 1964 Carter, 1972. Potential functions Gilmore, 1965 Benesch, Vanderslice, et al., 1965 Gartner and Thrush, 1975 Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977.
Several Rydberg series (excitation of 1sN) with limit (K edge) at 409.5 eV.
Nakamura, Sasanuma, et al., 1969; Werme, Grennberg, et al., 1973; Vinogradov, Shlarbaum, et al., 1974; Vinogradov, Zimkina, et al., 1974
x" (1Sigmau+) 1           x" larrow X 405.59 $eV
Nakamura, Sasanuma, et al., 1969; Werme, Grennberg, et al., 1973; Vinogradov, Shlarbaum, et al., 1974; Vinogradov, Zimkina, et al., 1974
x' (1Piu) 2           x'lrarrow X 400.84 $eV
Nakamura, Sasanuma, et al., 1969; Werme, Grennberg, et al., 1973; Vinogradov, Shlarbaum, et al., 1974; Vinogradov, Zimkina, et al., 1974
Photoionization and dissociative photoionization processes corresponding to various excited states of N2+. 3
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
v 1Pig 4           v larrow X 253000
Lee, Wong, et al., 1975
u5 (183640) (2100) (15) 5        u5larrowX (183510)
Codling, 1966; Lee, Carlson, et al., 1973
u4 (178565) (2070) (15) 5        u4 larrow X (178420)
Codling, 1966; Lee, Carlson, et al., 1973
HopfieldHopfields Rydberg series converging to B 2 Sigmau+(v=0) of N2+:
...2sigmau1piu43sigmag2nssigma nu = 151233 - R/(m+0.141 - 0.199/m)2, m=3...11 (apparent emission series)6
Hopfield, 1930; missing citation; missing citation
...2sigmau1piu43sigmag2ndsigma nu = 151233 - R/(m+0.070 - 0.041/m)2, m=3...20 (absorption series)7 8 9
Hopfield, 1930; missing citation; missing citation
WorleyWorley's ("third") Rydberg series joining on to o3, o4, o5 and converging to A 2Piu1/2(v=0) of N2+:
...2sigmau21piu33sigmag2nssigma nu = 134721 - R/(n - 1.06)2, n = 3...16.10 11 12 13
Worley, 1943; missing citation; missing citation
OgawaOgawa and Tanaka's Rydberg series joining on to O4, O5 and converging to A 2Piu3/2(v=0) of N2+:
...2sigmau21piu33sigmag2nssigma nu = 134644 - R/(n*)2, n* = 2.84, 3.85, 4.86, ..., 14.91.10 11 12 13
missing citation; missing citation
Several dissociation continua in the region 100000 - 160000 cm-1.
Comes and Weber, 1969; Cook, Ogawa, et al., 1973
Several unidentified bands in the region 126100 - 131550 cm-1.
Ogawa, 1964
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
s 133355 14 1885 H (12) 15        s larrow X 133119 H
Ogawa, 1964
133316 14 H ( ) 15        s larrow X 133080 H
Ogawa, 1964
r 132878 14 1903 H (15) 16        r larrow X R 132650 H
Ogawa, 1964
q 132136 14 1900 H (18) 17        q larrow X 18 131906 H
Ogawa, 1964
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
p 129136 14 1869 H (10) 19        p larrow X R 128892 H
Ogawa, 1964
o5 1Piu (127868) (1935) 20 (19)        o5 larrow X R 127655 HQ
missing citation; missing citation
O5 (3Piu) 127445 1925 HQ 18.4        O5 larrow X R 127227 HQ
missing citation; missing citation
c'n and cn Rydberg series converging to X 2Sigmag+(v=0) of N2+:
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
c'n 1Sigmau+ 21           c'n larrow X 
Carroll and Yoshino, 1967; missing citation; Johns and Lepard, 1975
cn 1Piu 22           cn larrow a" 
missing citation
cn 1Piu 26           cn larrow X 23 24 25 
Worley and Jenkins, 1938; missing citation; missing citation; missing citation
o4 1Piu 122419 [1824.1] H   [1.7338] 27   [4E-6]  [1.1784] o4 larrow X R 122155.4 Z
Ogawa and Tanaka, 1962; Yoshino, Tanaka, et al., 1975
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
O4 (3Piu) 121263 1982 H 27.0        O4larrowX R 121071.1 H
Ogawa and Tanaka, 1962
c'5 1Sigmau+ (115876) [2221.8] Z 28  [1.345] 29      c'5larrowX R 115849.8 Z
Carroll and Collins, 1970; missing citation
c4 1Piu 115635.9 2220.3 Z 19.4  [1.9261] 30 0.015  [6.3E-6] 30  1.116 c4 larrow a" 16725.12 Z
missing citation
c4 1Piu 31           c4larrowX R 115565.53 Z
missing citation; missing citation
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
z 1Deltag (115435) (1700)   1.761 0.0153    1.169 z rarrow w V 43411.2 32 Z
Lofthus, 1957
y 1Pig 114305.2 33 1906.43 33 37.51 33  1.739 33 34 0.017 33  (5.8E-6)  1.177 y rarrow w V 42467.5 35 Z
missing citation; Carroll and Subbaram, 1975
           y rarrow a' V 46426.7 35 Z
missing citation; Carroll and Subbaram, 1975
k 1Pig (113808) 36 [2182.32] 33   1.959 33 0.031 33  (5.9E-6)  1.109 k rarrow w V 41932.4 35 Z
missing citation
           k rarrow a' V 45891.7 35 Z
missing citation
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
x 1Sigmag- 113438.0 1910.0 Z 20.7  1.750 37 0.0225  (6E-6)  1.173 x rarrow a' V 45472.8 Z
Gaydon, 1944; missing citation; Rajan, 1974
d' 1Sigmau- or 1Deltau [112500] 38          d' rarrow a 42373 H
Herman-Montagne, 1945; Gaydon and Herman, 1946; Dressler, 1969
o3 1Piu 105869 39 1987.4 39 16.3 39  1.7339 39 0.0088 39  (5.3E-6)  1.1784 o3rarrowa V 36731
Janin and Crozet, 1946; Janin, 1950
           o3 larrow X 40 R 105683
Worley, 1943; Yoshino, Tanaka, et al., 1975
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
H 3Phiu (105720) 924.21 Z 12.29 -0.173 1.0873 0.0191  [7.0E-6] 41  1.4881 (H rarrow ?) 42 12407.2 H
Herman, 1951; Carroll and Sayers, 1953
           H rarrow G 43 V 17897.08 44 Z
Gaydon, 1944, 2; Herman-Montagne, 1945; Grun, 1954; missing citation
c'4 1Sigmau+ 104519 45 2201.78 45 25.199 45  1.9612 45 0.0436 45    1.1080 c'4 rarrow a VR 35371.2 Z
missing citation
           c'4 lrarrow X 46 R 104323.3 47 Z
Tilford and Wilkinson, 1964; Carroll and Yoshino, 1967; Carroll and Collins, 1969; Dressler, 1969; Carroll and Collins, 1970
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
c3 1Piu 104476 2192.20 48 14.70 48  1.9320 48 0.0395 48    1.1163 c3 rarrow a RV (35187.0) (Z
Janin, 1950
           c3 lrarrow X 49 R 104138.2 50 Z
Carroll and Collins, 1969; Dressler, 1969
b' 1Sigmau+ 104498 51 760.08 51 4.418 51 0.1093 1.1549 51 52 0.007387 51 -7.50E-5   1.4439 b' rarrow a R 53
Lofthus, 1957
           b' lrarrow X 49 R 103673.8 54 Z
Wilkinson and Houk, 1956; Carroll and Collins, 1970
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
D 3Sigmau+ [104746.6] 55    [1.961]   [20E-6]  [1.1080] D rarrow B 56 V 44264.1 57 Z
Gero and Schmid, 1940
b 1Piu (101675) [634.8] 58   [1.4483] 59 60 -0.00362  [29E-6] 61  1.2841 62 b rarrow a R (31865.7) Z
Gaydon, 1944; Herman-Montagne, 1945; Lofthus, 1957; Rajan, 1974
           b lrarrow X 49 R 100816.9 Z
Carroll and Collins, 1969; Yoshino, Tanaka, et al., 1975
a" 1Sigmag+ [100016.0]    [1.9133] 63   [6.2E-6] 63  [1.1218] a" larrow X 64 98840.30 63 Z
Lutz, 1969
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
C' 3Piu 98351 65 791 33.5  [1.04976] 66  [10.9E-6] 67  [1.5146] C' lrarrow B R 38255.5 68 Z
missing citation; missing citation; missing citation
E 3Sigmag+ (95858) [2185] H   [1.927.3]   [6.0E-6]  [1.1177] E rarrow B V (36467.9) Z
Freund, 1969
           E rarrow A V 46019.72 Z
missing citation
           E larrow X 69 
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
C" 5Piu (93500) 70           
C 3Piu 89136.88 71 2047.178 Z 28.4450 72  1.82473 73 0.01868 74    1,14869 C rarrow B 75 76 V 29671.0 Z
Coster, Brons, et al., 1933; Dieke and Heath, 1959; missing citation; missing citation; missing citation
           C larrow X 77 R 88977.89 Z
Tanaka, 1955; Tanaka, Ogawa, et al., 1964; missing citation
G 3Deltag (87900) 78 [742.49] Z (11.85) H  0.9280 0.0161  [5.0E-6]  1.6107  
Carroll, Collins, et al., 1972
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
A' 5Sigmag+ (78800) 79 (650) 79 80        (1.55) 81  
w 1Deltau 72097.4 1559.26 82 H 11.63  1.498 83 0.0166    1.268 w rarrow a 84 R 2747.29 Z
McFarlane, 1966
           w larrow X 77 85 R 71698.4 86 Z
Tanaka, Ogawa, et al., 1964; Chutjian, Cartwright, et al., 1973
a 1Pig 69283.06 1694.208 Z 13.9491 87 7.935E-3 1.6169 88 0.01793 -2.93E-5 (5.89E-6)  1.2203 a rarrow a' 84 V 1212.28 Z
McFarlane, 1965; McFarlane, 1966, 2
           a lrarrow X 89 90 R 68951.20 Z
missing citation; Miller, 1970
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
a' 1Sigmau- 68152.66 1530.254 Z 12.0747 91 .04129 1.4799 0.01657 2.41E-5 (5.55E-6)  1.2755 a' lrarrow X 92 R 67739.31 Z
missing citation; missing citation; Campbell and Thrush, 1969; Golde, 1975; Chutjian, Cartwright, et al., 1973
B' 3Sigmau- 66272.47 1516.88 Z 12.181 93 .04186 1.4733 94 0.01666 95 9E-6 (5.56E-6)  1.2784 B' rarrow B R (6545.5) Z
Carroll and Rubalcava, 1960; Dieke and Heath, 1960; Gartner and Thrush, 1975
           B'lrarrowX 96 R 65852.35 Z
missing citation; Wilkinson, 1960; missing citation; Golde and Thrush, 1972; Chutjian, Cartwright, et al., 1973
W 3Deltau 59808 (1501.4) Z 11.6        W lrarrow B RV 73
Wu and Benesch, 1968; Saum and Benesch, 1970; Benesch and Saum, 1971; Covey, Saum, et al., 1973
           W larrow X 97 R 59380
missing citation; Chutjian, Cartwright, et al., 1973
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
B 3Pig 59619.35 98 1733.39 Z 14.122 99 -0.0569 1.63745 100 0.01791 101 7.7E-5 [5.9E-6]  1.21260 B lrarrow A 102 103 V 9552.03 Z
Dieke and Heath, 1959; Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977
           B larrow X 104 R 59306.81 Z
Wilkinson, 1962
A 3Sigmau+ 50203.63 1460.64 Z 13.872 105 .0103 1.4546 106 0.0180 107 -8.8E-5 [6.15E-6]  1.2866 AlrarrowX 108 104 R 49754.78 Z
Dieke and Heath, 1959; Miller, 1965; Miller, 1966
X 1Sigmag+ 0 2358.57 Z 14.324 109 -2.26E-3 1.998241 110 0.017318 110  [5.76E-6]  1.097685 111  
- pressure induced
Crawford, Welsh, et al., 1949; Bosomworth and Gush, 1965; Reddy and Cho, 1965; Shapiro and Gush, 1966; de Remigis, Welsh, et al., 1971; Sheng and Ewing, 1971; Buontempo, Cunsolo, et al., 1975
- el. field induced
Courtois and Jouve, 1975
Raman Spectra 112
Stoicheff, 1954; Butcher, Willetts, et al., 1971; Bendtsen, 1974
Mol. beam magn. reson. 113

Notes

1X-ray absorption (3ssigma larrow 1sN).
2X-ray absorption and emission (1pig lrarrow 1sN), broad peak. 119
3Absorption cross sections 140000-500000 cm-1 Lee, Carlson, et al., 1973, Watson, Lang, et al., 1973.
4From high-energy electron impact spectroscopy.
5First two members of Codling's Rydberg series. 120
6Longward of the apparent emission "lines" are close-lying fairly sharp absorption "lines" Ogawa and Tanaka, 1962. Both features belong to the same Fano shape produced by the interaction of the series of Rydberg levels with the continuum joining on to the A 2Pi (or, less likely, X 2Sigma) limit.
7Similar series with v'=1.
8The first three members at 138330, 144090, 146690 cm-1 are very broad (presumably because of preionization), the higher members are sharper and shaded to the red. No rotational structure has been resolved. Preionization also observed by electron spectroscopy Hicks, Comer, et al., 1973, Wilden, Hicks, et al., 1976.
9Oscillator strengths from absorption coefficients: f(m=3,4,..) = 0.0131, 0.0053, ... Cook and Ogawa, 1970.
10Similar series for v'=l [observed to n=45 (2Pi1/2) and n*=40.2 (2Pi3/2)] and for v'=2...7 Yoshino, Ogawa, et al., 1976.
11Corresponding series in 15N2 Ogawa, 1964.
12Preionization observed in photoionization studies Cook and Ogawa, 1965, Comes and Weber, 1969, Carter and Berkowitz, 1973.
13Preionization in absorption series having v'=1...4 was observed in active nitrogen using the photoionization technique Cook and McNeal, 1972.
14These designations should not be confused with the older designations of component states of b 1Piu and b' 1Sigmau+.
15Ogawa's "new progression 4" 12
16Ogawa's "new progression 3" 12 122
17Ogawa's "new progression 2" 12 122
18Linelike, not shaded.
19Ogawa's "new progression 1" 12 122
20Vibrational intervals decrease irregularly: v=0 was shown [by electron spectroscopy Wilden, Hicks, et al., 1976] to be preionized.
21...1piu43sigmagnpsigma 123 -Carroll and Yoshino's series joining on to c'4, c'5.
22...1piu43sigmagnppi 123Ledbetters series c4, c5, c6.
23Similar series with v'=1.
24Corresponding series in 15N2 Ogawa, 1964.
25See 13.
26- Worley and Jenkin's series joining on to c3, c4: nu = 125666.8124 - R/(m + 0.3697 - 0.3459/m + 0.532/m2 - 0.960/m4)2, m(=n-1) = 2...31.
27Only v=0 [perturbed by c'6(v=1)] is sharp: bands with v'= 1,2,3 are diffuse owing to predissociation or preionization (levels with v > 2 are above the first ionization potential).
28DeltaG(3/2) = 2119.7, see 29.
29Strong homogeneous perturbations with the higher vibrational levels (v geq 18) of b' 1Sigmau+ Carroll and Yoshino, 1972. The B0 value is an effective value at low J: Beff(v=1) = 1.285, Beff(v=2)= 1.173. In addition, there are heterogeneous interactions with the close- lying levels of c4 1Piu. For deperturbed constants see Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972.
30Constants for Pi- Ledbetter, 1972; B0(Pi+) = 1.906. alphae from Carroll and Yoshino, 1972.
31[A progression of six bands (v"=1-6) arises from c4(v'=0) rarrow a, Herman-Montagne, 1945 ]
32Reevaluated from the origin of the 0-2 band. Lofthus, 1957 gives 43667.0 which was undoubtedly calculated with the constants of the a rather than of the w state.
33Strong homogeneous interaction between k 1Pig and y 1Pig. The constants given are the deperturbed values from Carroll and Subbaram, 1975 and refer to Pi-, the only component observed in k 1Pig.
34Predissociation of the Pi+ component above J=10 of v=0. Lambda-type doubling and predissociation discussed in Mulliken, 1976.
35Not deperturbed.
36From the deperturbed T00 = 113723.58.
370nly v'=0,1,2 observed. Predissociation (weakening of emission) at v'=2, J"approxl5 corresponding to the limit 2D+2D Lofthus, 1960; actual breaking off occurs at J'=25. See also Mulliken, 1976.
38Only v'=0 observed
39Deperturbed constants Yoshino, Tanaka, et al., 1975. Homogeneous interactions with levels (v > 6) of b 1Piu and heterogeneous perturbations by b' 1Sigmau+.
400scil1ator strengths Carter, 1972.
41D1(E-6 cm-1)= 4.5 Carroll, Collins, et al., 1972, D2(E-6 cm-1)= 6.0 Carroll, Collins, et al., 1972, D3(E-6 cm-1)= 5.0 Carroll, Collins, et al., 1972. See, however, Veseth, 1973.
42Fragment of near infrared spectrum, DeltaG"(1/2) approx 712.
43Franck-Condon factors and r-centroids Mohamed and Khanna, 1974.
44From a more detailed theoretical treatment Veseth, 1973 derives v00 = 17902.400 Veseth, 1973.
45Deperturbed constants Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972; omegaeye= +0.7874. Strong perturbations produced by interaction with b' 1Sigmau+; before these perturbations were recognized Dressler, 1969, Lefebvre-Brion, 1969 the vibrational levels were attributed to independent states called p', r', k, s', h, h', h", h'". The observed vibrational intervals (from band origins) and rotational constants for v = 0,1,2,3... are: DeltaG(v+1/2) = 2046.2, 2175.5, 2112.2, 2111.7 ...; Bv = 1.929, 1.711, 1.436, 1.594 ...
46Radiative lifetime tau(v'=0) = 0.9 ns Hesser and Dressler, 1966, Hesser, 1968: oscillator strengths Lawrence, Mickey, et al., 1968, Carter, 1972.
47Observed v00, not deperturbed.
48deperturbed constants Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972. Strong perturbations produced by interaction with b 1Piu: the observed vibrational intervals (from band heads) and rotational constants for v=0,1,2,.., are: DeltaG(v+1/2) = 2401, 2146, 2103, 2042; Bv(Pi-) = 1.516, 1.755, 1.813 [see Carroll and Collins, 1969, Leoni, 1972].
49Oscillator strengths Lawrence, Mickey, et al., 1968, Carter, 1972.
50missing note
51Deperturbed constants Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972; Strong perturbations on account of interactions with c'4, c'5 1Sigmau+. Before these perturbations were recognized Carroll and Collins, 1969, Dressler, 1969, Hopfield, 1930O6a, Carroll and Collins, 1970 several of the vibrational levels were assumed to be independent states called b', g, f, r, s, t, u by Worley, 1943. The observed vibrational intervals (from band origins) and rotational constants for v= 0,1,2,3, ... are: DeltaG(v+1/2) = 744.9, 732.9, 717.6, 777.7, ... ; Bv = 1.1515, 1.15, 1.142, 1.152, .... The highest observed level is v=28. Intensity perturbations in the electron energy loss spectrum Geiger and Schroder, 1969.
52The b'larrowX absorption bands show diffuseness indicating predissociation for v'=20, 21, 22 Carroll and Collins, 1970. Emission bands have only been observed to v'=9. For v'= 5 and above J'=12 an intensity anomaly suggesting inverse predissociation has been observed in emission Tilford and Wilkinson, 1964, 2: it corresponds to the limit 4S + 2P. Selective emission from v'=0,2,7 in discharges in Ar and Kr with traces of N2 Tanaka and Nakamura, 1967.
53Only the 7-0 band was observed at v0 = 40000.7 Lofthus, 1957.
540bserved band origin, not deperturbed.
55Only v=0 is observed
56Lifetime tau(v=0) = 14.1 ns Kurzweg, Egbert, et al., 1973. Franck Condon factors Hebert and Nicholls, 1969.
57Extrapolated from Q2(3) of the 0-1 band.
58DeltaG(3/2,5/2,...) = 700.0, 711.9, 685.2, 1151.4, 646.2, ... Carroll and Collins, 1969 [ Carroll and Collins, 1969, from band origins]. Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972 give the deperturbed constants omegae = 461.01 Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972, omegaexe = -132.257 Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972, omegaeye = -35.005 Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972, omegaeze = +5.822 Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972, ...; see 59.
59Bv(v=1, 2, 3...) = 1.4086, 1.3872, 1.38l5, 1.42l3 ... Carroll and Collins, 1969: Leoni and Dressler, 1972, l52a give the deperturbed constants Be = 1.4601 Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972, alphae= 0.02624 Leoni and Dressler, 1972, Leoni, 1972, ... Strong perturbations on account of interaction with the c3 1Piu and o3 1Piu Rydberg states. Before these perturbations were recognized Carroll and Collins, 1969, Dressler, 1969 several of the vibrational levels were assumed to be independent electronic states called i, j, b, l, m, p, q Worley, 1943. Intensity perturbations in the electron energy loss spectrum Meyer, Skerbele, et al., 1965, Geiger and Schroder, 1969.
60The lines of absorption bands with v'= 0,2,3,4 are broadened on account of predissociation (especially v'=3); corresponding emission bands have not been observed. The state causing the predissociation is probably C' 3Piu Carroll and Collins, 1969; see, however, Leoni and Dressler, 1971 who find that an additional diffuse level, very likely the still missing O3 3Piu(v=0) level at ~103000 cm-1, is required to explain the broadening of v'= 3.
61Effective (perturbed) D0 value.
62From the deperturbed Be (see 59)
63From Rydberg series having a" as lower state Ledbetter, 1972.
64First thought to be observed as quadrupole absorption Dressler and Lutz, 1967, later recognized as pressure-induced dipole transition represented by a broad diffuse absorption band at ~99005 cm-1 Lutz, 1969: note the large pressure shift of +165 cm-1. The electron energy loss spectrum Lassettre, Skerbele, et al., 1966 shows a peak at 12.25 eV. Another 1Sigmag+ state, non-Rydberg in character, is predicted to intersect a" not far from its minimum Michels, 1970.
65A0 = 2.10 Ledbetter and Dressler, 1976, recalculated by Ledbetter and Dressler, 1976 from the data of Carroll, 1963 who obtained 1.15: A1 = 2.73 Ledbetter and Dressler, 1976, deperturbed value Ledbetter and Dressler, 1976.
66B1(observed) = 1.2056, B1(deperturbed) = 1.026. Strong mixing of C'(v=1) with C(v=5). Deperturbed constants and RKR potential functions are given by Ledbetter and Dressler, 1976 who have analyzed in detail the C'(v=1)larrowB(v=5) band for 14N2, 14N15N and 15N2. The perturbing level C(v=5) was recently observed by Ledbetter, 1977 in absorption from B(v=6).
67H0 = 8.3E-10.
68v00 = 38296.75 in Carroll, 1963 refers to the F1 component.
69Resonance-like electron impact excitation function centered at 12.2 eV with a half-width of 0.4 eV Borst, 1972. Lifetime of the E state 190 mus Borst and Zipf, 1971.
70Arising from 4S + 2D; according to Carroll and Mulliken, 1965 responsible for the main predissociation in C 3Piu.
71A = 39.2 Budo, 1935.
72omegaeye= +2.08833. omegaeze = -0.5350.
73Breaking-off on account of predissociation Buttenbender and Herzberg, 1935 in v' = 1, 2, 3, 4 above N' = 65, 55, 43, 28, respectively, yielding an accurate dissociation limit at 97938 cm-1 (4S + 2D). A second predissociation in high-pressure discharges (when the first predissociation disappears) has been found in v'=2 and 3 above N'= 80 and 67, respectively Hori and Endo, 1941. According to Carroll and Mulliken, 1965 the first predissociation is caused by C" 5Piu, the second by C' 3Piu. Predissociation in 15N2 Frackowiak, 1964. Intensity perturbations Coster, Brons, et al., 1933, Gero, 1935, Coster and Brons, 1935.
74alphav= -0.00228(v+1/2)2 + 0.000733(v+1/2)3 - 0.000l5(v+1/2)4.
75Lifetimes for v = 0,1,2 vary between 35 and 41 ns Johnson and Fowler, 1970, Imhof and Read, 1971, Dotchin and Chupp, 1973, Chen and Anderson, 1975, Osherovich and Gorshkov, 1976. For f values of C-B see Nicholls, 1963, Reis, 1964.
76The head of the 0-0 band produces laser oscillation: high resolution measurements of the laser lines Parks, Rao, et al., 1968, see also Kasuya and Lide, 1967. An anomalous intensity alternation has been observed by Bleekrode, 1968, see also Fishburne, Lazdinis, et al., 1967. C(v=5) larrow B(v=6) band in absorption Ledbetter, 1977. 14N15N and 15N2 isotope shifts Shvangiradze, Oganezov, et al., 1960. RKR Franck-Condon factors Zare, Larsson, et al., 1965, Benesch, Vanderslice, et al., 1966, dependence on rotation Shumaker, 1969. Integrated band intensities Tyte, 1962. Dependence of the electronic transition moment on r Shemansky and Broadfoot, 1971, Jain, 1972: absolute transition probabilities Shemansky and Broadfoot, 1971.
77RKR Franck-Condon factors Zare, Larsson, et al., 1965, Benesch, Vanderslice, et al., 1966, 2, Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977.
78A0 = -0.21, A1 = -0.25. All constants for this state are from HrarrowG Carroll, Collins, et al., 1972: for a more detailed theoretical treatment and somewhat different constants see Veseth, 1973.
79From the predissociations in a and B Carroll, 1962: see also Oldenberg, 1957, Mulliken, 1962. The dissociation energy of this state is estimated to be between 850 and 1100 cm-1. According to Bayes and Kistiakowsky, 1960 the 5Sigmag+ state plays an important role in the mechanism of the Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow of nitrogen.
80For more recent results of an ab initio calculation see Krauss and Neumann, 1976.
81missing note
82Vibrational constants from the absorption spectrum Tanaka, Ogawa, et al., 1964, good agreement with band origin data for krarroww Carroll and Subbaram, 1975.
83Rotational constants from yrarroww Lofthus and Mulliken, 1957.
84Appears in stimulated emission.
85The wlarrowX Tanaka bands appear diffuse even under high resolution Tilford, Vanderslice, et al., 1979 indicating that this is a pressure-induced transition which has apparently no measurable spontaneous transition probability Tilford and Benesch, 1976. Observed in solid N2 by Roncin, Damany, et al., 1967.
86From v00(a-X)+v00(w-a) McFarlane, 1966. The value from the wlarrowX absorption spectrum is 71740.3 (head) indicating a pressure shift of approx +40 cm-1; compare with a"larrow X.
87omegaeze= +0.000291 Vanderslice, Tilford, et al., 1965: Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977 give very slightly different numbers.
88Lambda-type doubling, |q0| = 0.00010 McFarlane, 1966. Breaking-off at low pressure above v=6, J=13 for both Lambda components because of predissociation Douglas and Herzberg, 1951. The state causing the predissociation is 5Sigmag+ from 4S + 4S.
89The lifetime is about 100 mus but depends strongly on v. Non-exponential decay because of radiative interactions with a' 1Sigmau- and w 1Deltau Freund, 1972. See also Ching, Cook, et al., 1967, Pilling, Bass, et al., 1971 who give f values.
90This transition has both a magnetic dipole and an electric quadrupole component Wilkinson and Mulliken, 1957, Vanderslice, Wilkinson, et al., 1965, see also Pilling, Bass, et al., 1971. Observed in absorption in solid N2 by Roncin, Damany, et al., 1967. RKR Franck-Condon factors Zare, Larsson, et al., 1965, Benesch, Vanderslice, et al., 1966, 2, Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977. From intensity measurements and the Franck-Condon factors of Zare, Larsson, et al., 1965 it is concluded by McEwen and Nicholls, 1966 that the electronic transition moment can be considered as constant for most bands of this system. Comparison with intensities in the electron energy loss spectrum Lassettre, Meyer, et al., 1965.
91omegaeze = -0.000290 Tilford, Wilkinson, et al., 1965: Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977 give very slightly different numbers.
92Franck-Condon factors: f00(a'-X) = 8.4E-11 Benesch, Vanderslice, et al., 1966, 2, Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977, corresponding to a lifetime of tau= 0.013 s Tilford and Benesch, 1976.
93omegaeze = -0.000732 Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977.
94Spin splitting constants (v=5): lambda = +0.66 Tilford, Vanderslice, et al., 1965, gamma = -0.0030 Tilford, Vanderslice, et al., 1965.
95 Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977.
96RKR Franck-Condon factors Benesch, Vanderslice, et al., 1966, 2, Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977. Rotational intensity distribution Kovacs, 1970.
97Franck-Condon factors Saum and Benesch, 1970, 2.
98Ae = 42.24 Bullock and Hause, 1971.
99omegaeze = +0.00361 Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977: slightly different constants are given by Artym, 1966, Bullock and Hause, 1971.
100Predissociation above v=12,N=33 Van Der Ziel, 1934, Polak, Slovetskii, et al., 1972. The state causing the predissociation is probably A' 5Sigmag+. Inverse predissociation A' 5Sigmag+rarrowB 3Pig seems to be responsible for some of the phenomena in active nitrogen [see Becker, Fink, et al., 1972 and references quoted there]. The levels v'= 12,11,10 are preferably excited in the Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow: for excitation of other levels in the afterglow see Ung, 1976.
101 Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977: slightly different constants in Bullock and Hause, 1971.
102Lifetime tau(v=0...12)= 5.0 mus Chen and Anderson, 1975, 2: see also Jeunehomme, 1966. For B-A absorption f values (f ~0.0025) see Wurster, 1962, Dronov, Sobolev, et al., 1966, Cunio and Jansson, 1968.
103Stimulated emission for some of the lines of the 4-2, 3-1, 2-0, 2-1, 1-0, 0-0, 0-1 bands has been observed Kasuya and Lide, 1967. RKR Franck-Condon factors Zare, Larsson, et al., 1965, Benesch, Vanderslice, et al., 1966, dependence on rotation Shumaker, 1969. Dependence of the electronic transition moment on r Shemansky and Broadfoot, 1971, Jain, 1972: absolute transition probabilities Kupriyanova, Kolesnikov, et al., 1969, Shemansky and Broadfoot, 1971.
104Franck-Condon factors Benesch, Vanderslice, et al., 1966, 2, Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977. Rotational intensity distribution in the Vegard-Kaplan bands Miller, 1970, 2.
105omegaeze= -0.00197 Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977; slightly different constants in Artym, 1966, Bullock and Hause, 1971.
106Spin-splitting constants (v=0): lambda(v=0) = -1.33 Miller, 1965, gamma(v=0) = -0.003 Miller, 1965; see also Bullock and Hause, 1971. The radio-frequency spectrum of this state was studied by the molecular beam magnetic resonance method Freund, Miller, et al., 1970, de Santis, Lurio, et al., 1973: magnetic hyperfine and electric quadrupole coupling constants.
107 Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977.
108Lifetime tau= 1.3 s (F2) Shemansky, 1969, Shemansky and Carleton, 1969, Meyer, Klosterboer, et al., 1971, tau= 2.5 s (F1, F3) Shemansky, 1969, Shemansky and Carleton, 1969, Meyer, Klosterboer, et al., 1971 levels Shemansky, 1969, Shemansky and Carleton, 1969, Meyer, Klosterboer, et al., 1971; electronic transition moment, variation with r Chandraiah and Shepherd, 1968, Broadfoot and Maran, 1969, Shemansky, 1969.
109omegaeze = -0.00024 Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977. Bendtsen, 1974 gives DeltaG(1/2) = 2329.9168 and similar data for 14N15N and 15N2.
110From B0 and B1 of Bendtsen, 1974 and using gammae = -0.000033 Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977.
111Rot.-vibr.128 and rot. sp.:
112Raman spectra of 14N15N and 15N2 Bendtsen, 1974, Butcher and Jones, 1974.
113gJ(15N2) = 0.2593, sign not determined Chan, Baker, et al., 1964. For magnetic resonance spectra of metastable N2 in the A 3Sigmau+ state see Freund, Miller, et al., 1970, de Santis, Lurio, et al., 1973.
114From the predissociation in C 3Piu assuming dissociation into 4S3/2 + 2D5/2. The latest ab initio calculation of the ground state gives De = 8.58 eV Dunning, Cartwright, et al., 1976.
115From the Rydberg series.
116Average of the two limits corresponding to 2Pi3/2 and 2Pi1/2.
117From the data on N2+.
118From x rarrow X of N2+ and I.P.(N2): the extrapolated K limit is 409.5 eV Nakamura, Sasanuma, et al., 1969.
119Confirmed by electron-energy-loss measurements van der Wiel, El-Sherbini, et al., 1970. Preionization to X 2Sigmag+ and A 2Piu of N2+ observed by Auger electrons of 384.7 and 383.8 eV Carlson, Moddeman, et al., 1970.
120This series, of which only two members have been observed, probably converges to C 2Sigmau+ of N2+. In u4 v=1...13, in u5 v=3...8 have been observed, but the vibrational numbering in both states is uncertain. Evidence of preionization.
121Interpreted as . ..ndSigma by Lindholm, 1969.
122Preionization also observed by electron spectroscopy Hicks, Comer, et al., 1973, Wilden, Hicks, et al., 1976.
123For higher n values cn and c'n+l lie close together and interact strongly (l-uncoupling). Band structures for n = 5...12 have been discussed Carroll and Yoshino, 1972, Carroll, 1973, Johns and Lepard, 1975.
124The limit according to Yoshino [see Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977] lies at 125667.5 cm-1 but is estimated Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977 to have an uncertainty of 5 cm-1.
125A0...A3= -12.073 ... -12.094 Carroll, Collins, et al., 1972; see also Veseth, 1973.
126Quoted from Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977; not deperturbed. Dressler, 1969 gives 104139.
127Also referred to as "infrared afterglow bands".
128Predicted transition moments for quadrupole vibration spectrum Cartwright and Dunning, 1974. The quadrupole moment in the v=0 level is measured to be -1.4E-26 e.s.u. cm2 Ketelaar and Rettschnick, 1963, Buckingham, Disch, et al., 1968.

References

Go To: Top, Constants of diatomic molecules, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Lofthus and Krupenie, 1977
Lofthus, A.; Krupenie, P.H., The spectrum of molecular nitrogen, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1977, 6, 113. [all data]

Tilford, Wilkinson, et al., 1966
Tilford, S.G.; Wilkinson, P.G.; Franklin, V.B.; Naber, R.H.; Benesch, W.; Vanderslice, J.T., Summary of observed absorption lines of room-temperature molecular nitrogen between 1060 and 1520 Å, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 1966, 13, 31. [all data]

Wallace, 1962
Wallace, L., A collection of the band-head wavelengths of N2 and N2+, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 1962, 6, 445. [all data]

Pearse and Gaydon, 1963
Pearse, R.W.B.; Gaydon, A.G., The identification of molecular spectra, Third Edition, Pub. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963, 0. [all data]

Huffman, Tanaka, et al., 1963
Huffman, R.E.; Tanaka, Y.; Larrabee, J.C., Absorption coefficients of nitrogen in the 1000-580 Å wavelength region, J. Chem. Phys., 1963, 39, 910. [all data]

Cook and Metzger, 1964
Cook, G.R.; Metzger, P.H., Photoionization and absorption cross sections of O2 and N2 in the 600- to 1000-A region, J. Chem. Phys., 1964, 41, 321. [all data]

Carter, 1972
Carter, V.L., High-resolution N2 absorption study from 730 to 980 Å, J. Chem. Phys., 1972, 56, 4195. [all data]

Gilmore, 1965
Gilmore, F.R., Potential energy curves for N2, NO, O2 and corresponding ions, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1965, 5, 369. [all data]

Benesch, Vanderslice, et al., 1965
Benesch, W.; Vanderslice, J.T.; Tilford, S.G.; Wilkinson, P.G., Potential curves for the observed states of N2 below 11 eV, Astrophys. J., 1965, 142, 1227. [all data]

Gartner and Thrush, 1975
Gartner, E.M.; Thrush, B.A., Infrared emission by active nitrogen. I. The kinetic behaviour of N2(B'3«SIGMA»u-), Proc. R. Soc. London A, 1975, 346, 103. [all data]

Nakamura, Sasanuma, et al., 1969
Nakamura, M.; Sasanuma, M.; Sato, S.; Watanabe, M.; Yamashita, H.; Iguchi, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Nakai, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sagawa, T.; Nakai, Y.; Oshio, T., Absorption structure near the K edge of the nitrogen molecule, Phys. Rev., 1969, 178, 80. [all data]

Werme, Grennberg, et al., 1973
Werme, L.O.; Grennberg, B.; Nordgren, J.; Nordling, C.; Siegbahn, K., Fine structure in the x-ray emission spectrum of N2, compared with electron spectroscopy, Nature (London), 1973, 242, 453. [all data]

Vinogradov, Shlarbaum, et al., 1974
Vinogradov, A.S.; Shlarbaum, B.; Zimkina, T.M., K-absorption spectrum of nitrogen in the N2 molecule, Opt. Spectrosc. Engl. Transl., 1974, 36, 383, In original 658. [all data]

Vinogradov, Zimkina, et al., 1974
Vinogradov, A.S.; Zimkina, T.M.; Akimov, V.N.; Shlarbaum, B., Structure of absorption spectra of the molecules N2, O2, and NF3 near the ionization thresholds of the inner atomic shells, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Phys. Ser. Engl. Transl., 1974, 38, 69, In original 508. [all data]

Lee, Wong, et al., 1975
Lee, J.S.; Wong, T.C.; Bonham, R.A., Observation of a new electronic transition in N2 at 31.4 eV by means of high energy electron impact spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 1975, 63, 1643. [all data]

Codling, 1966
Codling, K., Structure in the photo-ionization continuum of N, near 500 k, Astrophys., 1966, J.143, 552. [all data]

Lee, Carlson, et al., 1973
Lee, L.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Judge, D.L.; Ogawa, M., The absorption cross sections of N2, O2, CO, NO, CO2, N2O, CH4, C2H4, C2H6 and C4H10 from 180 to 700 Å, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 1973, 13, 1023. [all data]

Hopfield, 1930
Hopfield, J.J., New spectra in nitrogen, Phys. Rev., 1930, 36, 789-790. [all data]

Worley, 1943
Worley, R.E., Absorption spectrum of N2 in the extreme ultraviolet, Phys. Rev., 1943, 64, 207. [all data]

Comes and Weber, 1969
Comes, F.J.; Weber, K.W., Wirkungsquerschnitte der Photoabsorption und Photoionisation des N2-Molekuls, Z. Naturforsch. A, 1969, 24, 1941. [all data]

Cook, Ogawa, et al., 1973
Cook, G.R.; Ogawa, M.; Carlson, R.W., Photodissociation continuums of N2 and O2, J. Geophys. Res., 1973, 78, 1663. [all data]

Ogawa, 1964
Ogawa, M., Vibrational isotope shifts of absorption bands of N2 in the spectral region 720-830 Å, Can. J. Phys., 1964, 42, 1087. [all data]

Carroll and Yoshino, 1967
Carroll, P.K.; Yoshino, K., New Rydberg series of N2, J. Chem. Phys., 1967, 47, 3073. [all data]

Johns and Lepard, 1975
Johns, J.W.C.; Lepard, D.W., Calculation of rotation-electronic energies and relative transition intensities in diatomic molecules, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1975, 55, 374. [all data]

Worley and Jenkins, 1938
Worley, R.E.; Jenkins, F.A., A new Rydberg series in N2, Phys. Rev., 1938, 54, 305. [all data]

Ogawa and Tanaka, 1962
Ogawa, M.; Tanaka, Y., Rydberg absorption series of N2, Can. J. Phys., 1962, 40, 1593. [all data]

Yoshino, Tanaka, et al., 1975
Yoshino, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Carroll, P.K.; Mitchell, P., High resolution absorption spectrum of N2 in the vacuum-UV region, O3,4 1«PI»u <-- X1«SIGMA»g+ bands, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1975, 54, 87. [all data]

Carroll and Collins, 1970
Carroll, P.K.; Collins, C.P., The high energy 1«SIGMA»u+ states of N2, J. Phys. B:, 1970, 3, 127. [all data]

Lofthus, 1957
Lofthus, A., Emission band spectra of nitrogen. A study of some singlet systems, Can. J. Phys., 1957, 35, 216. [all data]

Carroll and Subbaram, 1975
Carroll, P.K.; Subbaram, K.V., Two new band systems in the near ultraviolet spectrum of N2, Can. J. Phys., 1975, 53, 2198. [all data]

Gaydon, 1944
Gaydon, A.G., The band spectrum of nitrogen: new singlet systems, Proc. R. Soc. London A, 1944, 182, 286. [all data]

Rajan, 1974
Rajan, K.J., The 1-0 band of the b1«PI»u - a1«PI»g transition and the 1-10 and 2-12 bands of the fifth positive system of N2: rotational analyses, Proc. R. Ir. Acad. Sect. A:, 1974, 74, 17-23. [all data]

Herman-Montagne, 1945
Herman-Montagne, R., Contribution a l'etude du spectre de la molecule d'azote, Ann. Phys. (Paris), 1945, 20, 241. [all data]

Gaydon and Herman, 1946
Gaydon, A.G.; Herman, R., Band systems in the spectrum of nitrogen, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 1946, 58, 292. [all data]

Dressler, 1969
Dressler, K., The lowest valence and Rydberg states in the dipole-allowed absorption spectrum of nitrogen. A survey of their interactions, Can. J. Phys., 1969, 47, 547. [all data]

Janin and Crozet, 1946
Janin, J.; Crozet, A., Excitation du spectre de l'azote par passage de l'effluve electrique a travers le gaz ammoniac, Compt. Rend., 1946, 223, 1114. [all data]

Janin, 1950
Janin, J., Etude de certains systemes de simplets de la molecule d'azote, J. Rech. C.N.R.S., 1950, 3, 156. [all data]

Herman, 1951
Herman, R., Nouvelle transition interdite de la molecule N2, Compt. Rend., 1951, 233, 738. [all data]

Carroll and Sayers, 1953
Carroll, P.K.; Sayers, N.D., The band spectrum of nitrogen: new studies of the triplet systems, Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. A, 1953, 66, 1138. [all data]

Gaydon, 1944, 2
Gaydon, A.G., The band spectrum of N2: weak systems in the visible region, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 1944, 56, 85. [all data]

Grun, 1954
Grun, A.E., Die Gaydon-Banden des N2, Z. Naturforsch. A, 1954, 9, 1017. [all data]

Tilford and Wilkinson, 1964
Tilford, S.G.; Wilkinson, P.G., The emission spectrum of molecular nitrogen in the region 900-1130 Å, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1964, 12, 231. [all data]

Carroll and Collins, 1969
Carroll, P.K.; Collins, C.P., High resolution absorption studies of the b1«PI»u <-- X1«SIGMA»g+ system of nitrogen, Can. J. Phys., 1969, 47, 563. [all data]

Wilkinson and Houk, 1956
Wilkinson, P.G.; Houk, N.B., Emission spectra of nitrogen in the vacuum ultraviolet, J. Chem. Phys., 1956, 24, 528. [all data]

Gero and Schmid, 1940
Gero, L.; Schmid, R., Rotationsanalyse der IV. Positiven banden des N2-molekuls, Z. Phys., 1940, 116, 598. [all data]

Lutz, 1969
Lutz, B.L., Pressure-induced a"1«SIGMA»g+ <-- X1«SIGMA»g+ absorption in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum of molecular nitrogen, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 51, 706. [all data]

Freund, 1969
Freund, R.S., Molecular-beam measurements of the emission spectrum and radiative lifetime of N2 in the metastable E3«SIGMA»g+ state, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 50, 3734. [all data]

Coster, Brons, et al., 1933
Coster, D.; Brons, F.; van der Ziel, A., Die sogenannte zweite positive gruppe des stickstoffspektrums, Z. Phys., 1933, 84, 304. [all data]

Dieke and Heath, 1959
Dieke, G.H.; Heath, D.F., The first and second positive bands of N2, Rpt. Johns Hopkins Spectroscopic #17, 1959, 1-195. [all data]

Tanaka, 1955
Tanaka, Y., Absorption spectrum of nitrogen in the region from 1075 to 1650 A, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1955, 45, 663. [all data]

Tanaka, Ogawa, et al., 1964
Tanaka, Y.; Ogawa, M.; Jursa, A.S., Forbidden absorption-band systems of N2 in the vacuum-ultraviolet region, J. Chem. Phys., 1964, 40, 3690. [all data]

Carroll, Collins, et al., 1972
Carroll, P.K.; Collins, C.C.; Murnaghan, J.T., Rotational studies of the Gaydon-Herman (green) bands of N2, J. Phys. B:, 1972, 5, 1634. [all data]

McFarlane, 1966
McFarlane, R.A., Measurements on the w1«DELTA»u --> a1«PI»g transition in molecular nitrogen, Phys. Rev., 1966, 146, 37. [all data]

Chutjian, Cartwright, et al., 1973
Chutjian, A.; Cartwright, D.C.; Trajmar, S., Excitation of the W3«DELTA»u, w1«DELTA»u, B'3«SIGMA»u-, and a'1«SIGMA»u- states of N2 by electron impact, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1973, 30, 195. [all data]

McFarlane, 1965
McFarlane, R.A., Observation of a 1«PI»-1«SIGMA»- transition in the N2 molecule, Phys. Rev. A: Gen. Phys., 1965, 140, 1070. [all data]

McFarlane, 1966, 2
McFarlane, R.A., 4B7-precision spectroscopy of new infrared emission systems of molecular nitrogen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., 1966, 2, 229. [all data]

Miller, 1970
Miller, R.E., High-resolution emission Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands of nitrogen, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1970, 60, 171. [all data]

Campbell and Thrush, 1969
Campbell, I.M.; Thrush, B.A., Some new vacuum ultra-violet emissions of active nitrogen, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1969, 65, 32. [all data]

Golde, 1975
Golde, M.F., Vacuum UV emission by electronically excited N2: the collision-induced N2(a1«PI»g, v=0) = N2(a'1«SIGMA»u-, v=0) transition, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1975, 31, 348. [all data]

Carroll and Rubalcava, 1960
Carroll, P.K.; Rubalcava, H.E., Rotational analysis of the 5-1 band of the B'-B system of N2, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 1960, 76, 337. [all data]

Dieke and Heath, 1960
Dieke, G.H.; Heath, D.F., Structure of the infrared Y bands of N2, J. Chem. Phys., 1960, 33, 432. [all data]

Wilkinson, 1960
Wilkinson, P.G., Forbidden band systems in nitrogen. III. The Y3«SIGMA»u- <-- X1«SIGMA»g+ system in absorption, J. Chem. Phys., 1960, 32, 1061. [all data]

Golde and Thrush, 1972
Golde, M.F.; Thrush, B.A., Vacuum ultraviolet emission by active nitrogen. IV. The kinetic behaviour of N2(B'3«SIGMA»u-), Proc. R. Soc. London A, 1972, 330, 121. [all data]

Wu and Benesch, 1968
Wu, H.L.; Benesch, W., Evidence for the 3«DELTA»u --> B3«PI»g transition in N2, Phys. Rev., 1968, 172, 31. [all data]

Saum and Benesch, 1970
Saum, K.A.; Benesch, W.M., Infrared electronic emission spectrum of nitrogen, Appl. Opt., 1970, 9, 195. [all data]

Benesch and Saum, 1971
Benesch, W.M.; Saum, K.A., The w3«DELTA»u state of molecular nitrogen, J. Phys. B:, 1971, 4, 732. [all data]

Covey, Saum, et al., 1973
Covey, R.; Saum, K.A.; Benesch, W., Transition probabilities for the W3«DELTA»u - B3«PI»g system of molecular nitrogen, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1973, 63, 5, 592-596. [all data]

Wilkinson, 1962
Wilkinson, P.G., Some unsolved problems in the vacuum ultraviolet, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 1962, 2, 343. [all data]

Miller, 1965
Miller, R.E., High-resolution emission Vegard-Kaplan bands of nitrogen, J. Chem. Phys., 1965, 43, 1695. [all data]

Miller, 1966
Miller, R.E., The absolute energy of the A3«SIGMA»u+ state of nitrogen, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1966, 19, 185. [all data]

Crawford, Welsh, et al., 1949
Crawford, M.F.; Welsh, H.L.; Locke, J.L., Infra-red absorption of oxygen and nitrogen induced by intermolecular forces, Phys. Rev., 1949, 75, 1607. [all data]

Bosomworth and Gush, 1965
Bosomworth, D.R.; Gush, H.P., Collision-induced absorption of compressed gases in the far infrared, Part II, Can. J. Phys., 1965, 43, 751. [all data]

Reddy and Cho, 1965
Reddy, S.P.; Cho, C.W., Induced infrared absorption of nitrogen and nitrogen-foreign gas mixtures, Can. J. Phys., 1965, 43, 2331. [all data]

Shapiro and Gush, 1966
Shapiro, M.M.; Gush, H.P., The collision-induced fundamental and first overtone bands of oxygen and nitrogen, Can. J. Phys., 1966, 44, 949. [all data]

de Remigis, Welsh, et al., 1971
de Remigis, J.; Welsh, H.L.; Bruno, R.; Taylor, D.W., Induced fundamental infrared band of nitrogen dissolved in solid argon, Can. J. Phys., 1971, 49, 3201. [all data]

Sheng and Ewing, 1971
Sheng, D.T.; Ewing, G.E., Collision induced infrared absorption of gaseous nitrogen at low temperatures, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 55, 5425. [all data]

Buontempo, Cunsolo, et al., 1975
Buontempo, U.; Cunsolo, S.; Jacucci, G.; Weis, J.J., The far infrared absorption spectrum of N2 in the gas and liquid phases, J. Chem. Phys., 1975, 63, 2570. [all data]

Courtois and Jouve, 1975
Courtois, D.; Jouve, P., Electric field induced infrared spectrum of nitrogen. Vibrational polarizability matrix elements, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1975, 55, 18. [all data]

Stoicheff, 1954
Stoicheff, B.P., High resolution Raman spectroscopy of gases. III. Raman spectrum of nitrogen, Can. J. Phys., 1954, 32, 630. [all data]

Butcher, Willetts, et al., 1971
Butcher, R.J.; Willetts, D.V.; Jones, W.J., On the use of a Fabry-Perot etalon for the determination of rotational constants of simple molecules - the pure rotational Raman spectra of oxygen and nitrogen, Proc. R. Soc. London A, 1971, 324, 231. [all data]

Bendtsen, 1974
Bendtsen, J., The rotational and rotation-vibrational Raman spectra of 14N2, 14N15N and 15N2, J. Raman Spectrosc., 1974, 2, 133. [all data]

Watson, Lang, et al., 1973
Watson, W.S.; Lang, J.; Stewart, D.T., Photoabsorption coefficients of molecular nitrogen in the 300-700 Å region, J. Phys. B:, 1973, 6, 148. [all data]

Hicks, Comer, et al., 1973
Hicks, P.J.; Comer, J.; Read, F.H., Autoionizing transitions in N2 and H2 produced by electron impact, J. Phys. B:, 1973, 6, 65. [all data]

Wilden, Hicks, et al., 1976
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Notes

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