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Sulfuric Acid

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Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - J.E. Bartmess
MS - J.A. Martinho Simões
M - M. M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and S. G. Lias
ALS - H.Y. Afeefy, J.F. Liebman, and S.E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

HO4S- + Hydrogen cation = Sulfuric Acid

By formula: HO4S- + H+ = H2O4S

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1295. ± 23.kJ/molD-EAWang, Nicholas, et al., 2000gas phase; Lit BDE seems too weak. This plus Viggiano, Henchman, et al., 1992 gives BDE=106; B
Deltar1295. ± 11.kJ/molG+TSViggiano, Henchman, et al., 1992gas phase; B
Deltar1325.5kJ/molLattHouse Jr. and Kemper, 1987gas phase; From lattice energy of NH4HSO4, with new PA(NH3); B
Deltar<1319.6kJ/molG+TSVigiano, Perry, et al., 1980gas phase; I- + H2SO4 ->.; B
Deltar<1312. ± 8.4kJ/molEIAEAdams, Smith, et al., 1986gas phase; From H2SO4 (AP 0eV); B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1265. ± 23.kJ/molH-TSWang, Nicholas, et al., 2000gas phase; Lit BDE seems too weak. This plus Viggiano, Henchman, et al., 1992 gives BDE=106; B
Deltar1265. ± 10.kJ/molIMRBViggiano, Henchman, et al., 1992gas phase; B
Deltar<1288.7kJ/molIMRBVigiano, Perry, et al., 1980gas phase; I- + H2SO4 ->.; B
Deltar<1281. ± 9.6kJ/molH-TSAdams, Smith, et al., 1986gas phase; From H2SO4 (AP 0eV); B

C2H5NaO (cr) + 0.5(Sulfuric Acid bullet 1100Water) (solution) = Ethanol (solution) + 0.5sodium sulphate (solution)

By formula: C2H5NaO (cr) + 0.5(H2O4S bullet 1100H2O) (solution) = C2H6O (solution) + 0.5Na2O4S (solution)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-118.4 ± 3.8kJ/molRSCBlanchard, Joly, et al., 1974solvent: Sulphuric acid aqueous solution; The reaction enthalpy relies on -10.6 kJ/mol for the enthalpy of solution of EtOH(l) and on 9.97±0.04 for the enthalpy of solution of Na2SO4(cr) Blanchard, Joly, et al., 1974. A value of -490.8 ± 5.9 kJ/mol was derived in Blanchard, Joly, et al., 1974 for the enthalpy of formation. However, this value is affected by a calculation error. Also, the authors have not accounted for the acid dilution (this correction could not be made in the present database, due to lack of information). These problems were also noted in the data compilations Tel'noi and Rabinovich, 1980 and Wagman, Evans W.H., et al., 1982, where the values quoted for the enthalpy of formation, which rely on the experimental data reported in Blanchard, Joly, et al., 1974, are -410.0 ± 4.2 kJ/mol and -413.8 kJ/mol, respectively. See also comments in Liebman, Martinho Simões, et al., 1995; MS

(HO4S- bullet 2Sulfuric Acid) + HO3S = (HO4S- bullet HO3S bullet 2Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet 2H2O4S) + HO3S = (HO4S- bullet HO3S bullet 2H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar87.9kJ/molATMArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Deltar75.kJ/molATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated, DG>, «DELTA»rH>; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated, DG>, «DELTA»rH>; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
61.9250.ATMArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
50.233.ATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated, DG>, «DELTA»rH>; M

(HO4S- bullet 2Sulfuric Acid) + Sulfuric Acid = (HO4S- bullet 3Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet 2H2O4S) + H2O4S = (HO4S- bullet 3H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar87.0kJ/molATMArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Deltar82.8kJ/molATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
61.1250.ATMArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
59.233.ATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

(HO4S- bullet Water bullet 3Sulfuric Acid) + Water = (HO4S- bullet 2Water bullet 3Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet H2O bullet 3H2O4S) + H2O = (HO4S- bullet 2H2O bullet 3H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar54.4kJ/molATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
30.233.ATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

(H2O4S- bullet Sulfuric Acid) + HO3S = (H2O4S- bullet HO3S bullet Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (H2O4S- bullet H2O4S) + HO3S = (H2O4S- bullet HO3S bullet H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.5kJ/molATMArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
66.5250.ATMArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

(HO4S- bullet 2Sulfuric Acid) + Nitric acid = (HO4S- bullet Nitric acid bullet 2Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet 2H2O4S) + HNO3 = (HO4S- bullet HNO3 bullet 2H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar66.5kJ/molATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
43.1233.ATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

(HO4S- bullet 3Sulfuric Acid) + Nitric acid = (HO4S- bullet Nitric acid bullet 3Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet 3H2O4S) + HNO3 = (HO4S- bullet HNO3 bullet 3H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar70.7kJ/molATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
46.4233.ATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

(HO4S- bullet 2Sulfuric Acid) + Water = (HO4S- bullet Water bullet 2Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet 2H2O4S) + H2O = (HO4S- bullet H2O bullet 2H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50.6kJ/molATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
26.233.ATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

(HO4S- bullet 3Sulfuric Acid) + Water = (HO4S- bullet Water bullet 3Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet 3H2O4S) + H2O = (HO4S- bullet H2O bullet 3H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar57.7kJ/molATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
33.233.ATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

(HO4S- bullet 4Sulfuric Acid) + Water = (HO4S- bullet Water bullet 4Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet 4H2O4S) + H2O = (HO4S- bullet H2O bullet 4H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar58.2kJ/molATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
34.233.ATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

(HO4S- bullet Sulfuric Acid) + Sulfuric Acid = (HO4S- bullet 2Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet H2O4S) + H2O4S = (HO4S- bullet 2H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.0kJ/molATMArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
66.1250.ATMArnold and Qiu, 1984gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

(HO4S- bullet 3Sulfuric Acid) + Sulfuric Acid = (HO4S- bullet 4Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet 3H2O4S) + H2O4S = (HO4S- bullet 4H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar77.4kJ/molATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
54.233.ATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

(HO4S- bullet 4Sulfuric Acid) + Sulfuric Acid = (HO4S- bullet 5Sulfuric Acid)

By formula: (HO4S- bullet 4H2O4S) + H2O4S = (HO4S- bullet 5H2O4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar79.1kJ/molATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100.J/mol*KN/AArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
54.233.ATMArnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

C2H5LiO (cr) + 0.5(Sulfuric Acid bullet 1100Water) (solution) = 0.5Li2O4S (solution) + Ethanol (solution)

By formula: C2H5LiO (cr) + 0.5(H2O4S bullet 1100H2O) (solution) = 0.5Li2O4S (solution) + C2H6O (solution)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-113.6 ± 1.3kJ/molRSCBlanchard, Joly, et al., 1974solvent: Sulphuric acid aqueous solution; The reaction enthalpy relies on -10.6 kJ/mol for the enthalpy of solution of EtOH(l) and on -17.5±0.3 for the enthalpy of solution of Li2SO4(cr) Blanchard, Joly, et al., 1974.; MS

C2H5KO (cr) + 0.5(Sulfuric Acid bullet 1100Water) (solution) = Ethanol (solution) + 0.5K2O4S (solution)

By formula: C2H5KO (cr) + 0.5(H2O4S bullet 1100H2O) (solution) = C2H6O (solution) + 0.5K2O4S (solution)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-132.3 ± 2.9kJ/molRSCBlanchard, Joly, et al., 1974solvent: Sulphuric acid aqueous solution; The reaction enthalpy relies on -10.6 kJ/mol for the enthalpy of solution of EtOH(l) and on 35.1±0.1 for the enthalpy of solution of K2SO4(cr) Blanchard, Joly, et al., 1974.; MS

Dimethylzinc (l) + (Sulfuric Acid bullet 100Water) (solution) = 2Methane (g) + (zinc sulphate bullet 100Water) (solution)

By formula: C2H6Zn (l) + (H2O4S bullet 100H2O) (solution) = 2CH4 (g) + (O4SZn bullet 100H2O) (solution)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-341.8 ± 0.8kJ/molRSCCarson, Hartley, et al., 1949Please also see Pedley and Rylance, 1977 and Cox and Pilcher, 1970.; MS

Diethylzinc (l) + (Sulfuric Acid bullet 100Water) (solution) = 2Ethane (g) + (zinc sulphate bullet 100Water) (solution)

By formula: C4H10Zn (l) + (H2O4S bullet 100H2O) (solution) = 2C2H6 (g) + (O4SZn bullet 100H2O) (solution)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-354.4 ± 4.2kJ/molRSCCarson, Hartley, et al., 1949Please also see Pedley and Rylance, 1977 and Cox and Pilcher, 1970.; MS

Dodecane + Sulfuric Acid = C12H26O3S + Water

By formula: C12H26 + H2O4S = C12H26O3S + H2O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar290. ± 17.kJ/molCmRoth and Rist-Schumacher, 1944liquid phase; ALS

Propene + Sulfuric Acid = isopropyl hydrogen sulphate

By formula: C3H6 + H2O4S = isopropyl hydrogen sulphate

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-38. ± 0.8kJ/molEqkEntelis, Korovina, et al., 1960liquid phase; ALS

References

Go To: Top, Reaction thermochemistry data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Wang, Nicholas, et al., 2000
Wang, X.B.; Nicholas, J.B.; Wang, L.S., Photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations of SO4- and HSO4-: Confirmation of high electron affinities of SO4 and HSO4, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2000, 104, 3, 504-508, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp992726r . [all data]

Viggiano, Henchman, et al., 1992
Viggiano, A.A.; Henchman, M.J.; Dale, F.; Deakyne, C.A.; Paulson, J.F., Gas-Phase Reactions of Weak Bronsted Bases I-, PO3-, HSO4-, FSO3-, and CF3SO3- with Strong Bronsted Acids H2SO4, FSO3H, and CF3SO3H - A Quantitative Study, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1992, 114, 11, 4299, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00037a039 . [all data]

House Jr. and Kemper, 1987
House Jr.; Kemper, K.A., Proton Affinities of Sulfate and Bisulfate Ions, J. Thermal Anal., 1987, 32, 6, 1855, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01913977 . [all data]

Vigiano, Perry, et al., 1980
Vigiano, A.A.; Perry, R.A.; Albritton, D.L.; Ferguson, E.E.; Fehsenfeld, F.C., The role of H2SO4 in stratospheric negative ion chemistry, J. Geophys. Res., 1980, 85, 4551. [all data]

Adams, Smith, et al., 1986
Adams, N.G.; Smith, D.; Viggiano, A.A.; Paulson, J.F.; Henchman, M.J., Dissociative attachment reactions of electron with strong acid molecules, J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 6728. [all data]

Blanchard, Joly, et al., 1974
Blanchard, J.M.; Joly, R.D.; Lettoffe, J.M.; Perachon, G.; Thourey, J., J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol., 1974, 71, 472. [all data]

Tel'noi and Rabinovich, 1980
Tel'noi, V.I.; Rabinovich, I.B., Russ. Chem. Rev., 1980, 49, 603. [all data]

Wagman, Evans W.H., et al., 1982
Wagman, D.D.; Evans W.H.; Parker, V.B.; Schumm, R.H.; Halow, I.; Bailey, S.M.; Churney, K.L.; Nuttall, R.L., The NBS Tables of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties; J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1982, 11, Suppl. 2. [all data]

Liebman, Martinho Simões, et al., 1995
Liebman, J.F.; Martinho Simões, J.A.; Slayden, S.W., In Lithium Chemistry: A Theoretical and Experimental Overview Wiley: New York, Sapse, A.-M.; Schleyer, P. von Ragué, ed(s)., 1995. [all data]

Arnold and Qiu, 1984
Arnold, F.; Qiu, S., Upper Stratosphere Negative Ion Composition Measurements and Infrared Trace Gas Abundances, Planet. Space Sci., 1984, 32, 2, 169, https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-0633(84)90151-X . [all data]

Arnold, Viggiano, et al., 1982
Arnold, F.; Viggiano, A.A.; Schlager, H., Implications for Trace Gases and Aerosols of Large Negative Ions Clusters in the Stratosphere, Nature, 1982, 297, 5865, 371, https://doi.org/10.1038/297371a0 . [all data]

Carson, Hartley, et al., 1949
Carson, A.S.; Hartley, K.; Skinner, H.A., Thermochemistry of metal alkyls. Part II.?The bond dissociation energies of some Zn?C and Cd?C bonds, and of Et?I., Trans. Faraday Soc., 1949, 45, 1159, https://doi.org/10.1039/tf9494501159 . [all data]

Pedley and Rylance, 1977
Pedley, J.B.; Rylance, J., Computer Analysed Thermochemical Data: Organic and Organometallic Compounds, University of Sussex, Brigton, 1977. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Academic Press, New York, 1970. [all data]

Roth and Rist-Schumacher, 1944
Roth, W.A.; Rist-Schumacher, E., Beitrag zur thermochemie der sulfonsauren und saurechlorid, Z. Electrochem., 1944, 50, 7-9. [all data]

Entelis, Korovina, et al., 1960
Entelis, S.G.; Korovina, G.V.; Chirkov, N.M., The thermodynamics of propylene absorption by the H2SO4-H20 system, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1960, 134, 856-859. [all data]


Notes

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