Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Benzene

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Phase change data

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, M. Frenkel director
BS - R.L. Brown and S.E. Stein
DRB - D.R. Burgess
ALS - H.Y. Afeefy, J.F. Liebman, and S.E. Stein
AC - W.E. Acree, Jr., J.S. Chickos
DH - E.S. Domalski and E.D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil353.3 ± 0.1KAVGN/AAverage of 147 out of 183 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus278.64 ± 0.08KAVGN/AAverage of 57 out of 69 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple278.5 ± 0.6KAVGN/AAverage of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc562.0 ± 0.8KAVGN/AAverage of 36 out of 41 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc48.9 ± 0.4barAVGN/AAverage of 24 out of 26 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Vc0.25 ± 0.03l/molAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc3.9 ± 0.2mol/lAVGN/AAverage of 12 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap33.9 ± 0.1kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 10 out of 11 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub44.4kJ/molTE,MEKruif, 1980Based on data from 183. - 197. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
30.72353.3N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
33.2320.N/ALubomska, Banas, et al., 2002Based on data from 305. - 345. K.; AC
35.6258. - 313.GCLiu and Dickhut, 1994AC
33.5311.EBAmbrose, Ewing, et al., 1990Based on data from 296. - 377. K.; AC
33.4307.CDong, Lin, et al., 1988AC
33.1314.CDong, Lin, et al., 1988AC
32.4324.CDong, Lin, et al., 1988AC
31.9332.CDong, Lin, et al., 1988AC
31.4344.CDong, Lin, et al., 1988AC
30.6353.CDong, Lin, et al., 1988AC
34.4294.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 279. - 377. K.; AC
31.5368.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 353. - 422. K.; AC
30.2435.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 420. - 502. K.; AC
30.3516.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 501. - 562. K.; AC
30.8352.N/ANatarajan, 1983AC
30.5361.N/ANatarajan, 1983AC
30.2366.N/ANatarajan, 1983AC
35.3343.N/ATsonopoulos and Wilson, 1983Based on data from 313. - 373. K.; AC
31.350.N/ARao and Viswanath, 1977AC
33.0 ± 0.1313.CSvoboda, Veselý, et al., 1973AC
32.2 ± 0.1328.CSvoboda, Veselý, et al., 1973AC
31.8 ± 0.1333.CSvoboda, Veselý, et al., 1973AC
31.4 ± 0.1343.CSvoboda, Veselý, et al., 1973AC
30.9 ± 0.1353.CSvoboda, Veselý, et al., 1973AC
32.6 ± 0.4313.DSCMita, Imai, et al., 1971AC
32.5 ± 0.5328.DSCMita, Imai, et al., 1971AC
31.6 ± 0.4345.DSCMita, Imai, et al., 1971AC
34.1299.N/AForziati, Norris, et al., 1949Based on data from 284. - 354. K.; AC
34.1293.N/AYarym-Agaev, Fedos'ev, et al., 1949AC
34.1297.N/AThomson, 1946Based on data from 282. - 354. K.; AC
31.2294.N/AScott and Brickwedde, 1945AC
34.1303.MMWillingham, Taylor, et al., 1945Based on data from 288. - 354. K.; AC
33.4313.EBSmith, 1941Based on data from 298. - 373. K.; AC
34.5288.N/AStuckey and Saylor, 1940Based on data from 273. - 348. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-αTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kJ/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

View plot Requires a JavaScript / HTML 5 canvas capable browser.

Temperature (K) 293. - 469.
A (kJ/mol) 47.41
alpha 0.1231
beta 0.3602
Tc (K) 562.1
ReferenceMajer and Svoboda, 1985

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

View plot Requires a JavaScript / HTML 5 canvas capable browser.

Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
333.4 - 373.54.725831660.652-1.461Eon, Pommier, et al., 1971Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.
297.9 - 318.0.1459139.165-261.236Deshpande and Pandya, 1967Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.
421.56 - 554.84.603621701.07320.806Kalafati, Rasskazov, et al., 1967Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.
287.70 - 354.074.018141203.835-53.226Williamham, Taylor, et al., 1945 

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
41.7258. - 273.N/ALiu and Dickhut, 1994AC
45.2264.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 223. - 279. K. See also Ha, Morrison, et al., 1976.; AC
45.1278.N/AHessler, 1984AC
53.9 ± 0.8193.N/ADe Kruif and Van Ginkel, 1977AC
49.4 ± 0.4193.N/ADe Kruif and Van Ginkel, 1977AC
45.6279.MMJackowski, 1974Based on data from 221. - 268. K.; AC
44.1261.N/AJones, 1960AC
43.1229.N/AJones, 1960AC
44.6279.N/AMilazzo, 1956AC
46.6282.AStull, 1947Based on data from 263. - 270. K.; AC
38.303.VWolf and Weghofer, 1938ALS
44.6273.N/Ade Boer, 1936See also Jackowski, 1974.; AC
43.3226.AMündel, 1913Based on data from 214. - 238. K.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
9.8663278.69N/AOliver, Eaton, et al., 1948DH
9.916278.65N/AZiegler and Andrews, 1942DH
9.87278.7CDomalski and Hearing, 1996See also Andrews, Lynn, et al., 1926 and Ziegler and Andrews, 1942.; AC
9.300279.1N/ASmith, 1979DH
8.950278.8N/APacor, 1967DH
9.937278.6N/ATschamler, 1948DH
9.803278.6N/AHuffman, Parks, et al., 1930DH
9.875278.55N/AAndrews, Lynn, et al., 1926DH
10.000278.64N/AMaass and Walbauer, 1925DH

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
35.40278.69Oliver, Eaton, et al., 1948DH
35.59278.65Ziegler and Andrews, 1942DH
33.3279.1Smith, 1979DH
32.1278.8Pacor, 1967DH
35.19278.6Huffman, Parks, et al., 1930DH
35.5278.55Andrews, Lynn, et al., 1926DH
35.9278.64Maass and Walbauer, 1925DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


References

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Kruif, 1980
Kruif, C.G., Enthalpies of sublimation and vapour pressures of 11 polycyclic hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1980, 12, 243-248. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Lubomska, Banas, et al., 2002
Lubomska, Monika; Banas, Agnieszka; Malanowski, Stanislaw K., Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in Binary Systems Formed by Allyl Alcohol with Benzene and with Cyclohexane, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2002, 47, 6, 1466-1471, https://doi.org/10.1021/je025540l . [all data]

Liu and Dickhut, 1994
Liu, Kewen; Dickhut, Rebecca M., Saturation vapor pressures and thermodynamic properties of benzene and selected chlorinated benzenes at environmental temperatures, Chemosphere, 1994, 29, 3, 581-589, https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(94)90445-6 . [all data]

Ambrose, Ewing, et al., 1990
Ambrose, D.; Ewing, M.B.; Ghiassee, N.B.; Sanchez Ochoa, J.C., The ebulliometric method of vapour-pressure measurement: vapour pressures of benzene, hexafluorobenzene, and naphthalene, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1990, 22, 6, 589-605, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(90)90151-F . [all data]

Dong, Lin, et al., 1988
Dong, Jin-Quan; Lin, Rui-Sen; Yen, Wen-Hsing, Heats of vaporization and gaseous molar heat capacities of ethanol and the binary mixture of ethanol and benzene, Can. J. Chem., 1988, 66, 4, 783-790, https://doi.org/10.1139/v88-136 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Natarajan, 1983
Natarajan, G., High-temperature calorimeter for the measurement of vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 1983, 54, 9, 1175, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1137545 . [all data]

Tsonopoulos and Wilson, 1983
Tsonopoulos, Constantine; Wilson, G.M., High-temperature mutual solubilities of hydrocarbons and water. Part I: Benzene, cyclohexane andn-hexane, AIChE J., 1983, 29, 6, 990-999, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690290618 . [all data]

Rao and Viswanath, 1977
Rao, Yaddanapudi J.; Viswanath, Dabir S., Integral isobaric heats of vaporization of benzene-chloroethane systems, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1977, 22, 1, 36-38, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60072a011 . [all data]

Svoboda, Veselý, et al., 1973
Svoboda, V.; Veselý, F.; Holub, R.; Pick, J., Enthalpy data of liquids. II. The dependence of heats of vaporization of methanol, propanol, butanol, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, and benzene on temperature, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun., 1973, 38, 12, 3539-3543, https://doi.org/10.1135/cccc19733539 . [all data]

Mita, Imai, et al., 1971
Mita, Itaru; Imai, Isao; Kambe, Hirotaro, Determination of heat of mixing and heat of vaporization with a differential scanning calorimeter, Thermochimica Acta, 1971, 2, 4, 337-344, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(71)85035-9 . [all data]

Forziati, Norris, et al., 1949
Forziati, Alphonse F.; Norris, William R.; Rossini, Frederick D., Vapor pressures and boiling points of sixty API-NBS hydrocarbons, J. RES. NATL. BUR. STAN., 1949, 43, 6, 555-17, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.043.050 . [all data]

Yarym-Agaev, Fedos'ev, et al., 1949
Yarym-Agaev, N.L.; Fedos'ev, N.N.; Skorikov, K.G., Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1949, 11, 1257. [all data]

Thomson, 1946
Thomson, George Wm., The Antoine Equation for Vapor-pressure Data., Chem. Rev., 1946, 38, 1, 1-39, https://doi.org/10.1021/cr60119a001 . [all data]

Scott and Brickwedde, 1945
Scott, R.B.; Brickwedde, F.G., Thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid ethylbenzene from 0 to 300 degrees K, J. RES. NATL. BUR. STAN., 1945, 35, 6, 501-17, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.035.024 . [all data]

Willingham, Taylor, et al., 1945
Willingham, C.B.; Taylor, W.J.; Pignocco, J.M.; Rossini, F.D., Vapor pressures and boiling points of some paraffin, alkylcyclopentane, alkylcyclohexane, and alkylbenzene hydrocarbons, J. RES. NATL. BUR. STAN., 1945, 35, 3, 219-17, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.035.009 . [all data]

Smith, 1941
Smith, E.R., Boiling points of benzene, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 3-ethylpentane, and 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane within the range 100 to 1,500 millimeters of mercury, J. RES. NATL. BUR. STAN., 1941, 26, 2, 129-17, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.026.004 . [all data]

Stuckey and Saylor, 1940
Stuckey, James M.; Saylor, John H., The Vapor Pressures of Some Organic Compounds. I. 1, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940, 62, 11, 2922-2925, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01868a011 . [all data]

Eon, Pommier, et al., 1971
Eon, C.; Pommier, C.; Guiochon, G., Vapor pressures and second virial coefficients of some five-membered heterocyclic derivatives, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1971, 16, 4, 408-410, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60051a008 . [all data]

Deshpande and Pandya, 1967
Deshpande, D.D.; Pandya, M.V., Thermodynamics of Binary Solutions. Part 2. Vapour Pressures and Excess Free Energies of Aniline Solutions, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1967, 63, 2149-2157, https://doi.org/10.1039/tf9676302149 . [all data]

Kalafati, Rasskazov, et al., 1967
Kalafati, D.D.; Rasskazov, D.S.; Petrov, E.K., Experimental Determination of a Dependence of a Saturated Vapor Pressure of Benzene on Temperature, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1967, 41, 1357-1359. [all data]

Williamham, Taylor, et al., 1945
Williamham, C.B.; Taylor, W.J.; Pignocco, J.M.; Rossini, F.D., Vapor Pressures and Boiling Points of Some Paraffin, Alkylcyclopentane, Alkylcyclohexane, and Alkylbenzene Hydrocarbons, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), 1945, 35, 3, 219-244, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.035.009 . [all data]

Ha, Morrison, et al., 1976
Ha, H.; Morrison, J.A.; Richards, E.L., Vapour pressures of solid benzene, cyclohexane and their mixtures, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1, 1976, 72, 0, 1051, https://doi.org/10.1039/f19767201051 . [all data]

Hessler, 1984
Hessler, W., Wiss. Zeitschr. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock, Naturwiss. Reihe, 1984, 33, 9. [all data]

De Kruif and Van Ginkel, 1977
De Kruif, C.G.; Van Ginkel, C.H.D., Torsion-weighing effusion vapour-pressure measurements on organic compounds, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1977, 9, 8, 725-730, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(77)90015-5 . [all data]

Jackowski, 1974
Jackowski, A.W., Vapour pressures of solid benzene and of solid cyclohexane, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1974, 6, 1, 49-52, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(74)90205-5 . [all data]

Jones, 1960
Jones, A.H., Sublimation Pressure Data for Organic Compounds., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1960, 5, 2, 196-200, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60006a019 . [all data]

Milazzo, 1956
Milazzo, G., Ann. Chim. (Rome), 1956, 46, 1105. [all data]

Stull, 1947
Stull, Daniel R., Vapor Pressure of Pure Substances. Organic and Inorganic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1947, 39, 4, 517-540, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50448a022 . [all data]

Wolf and Weghofer, 1938
Wolf, K.L.; Weghofer, H., Uber sublimationswarmen, Z. Phys. Chem., 1938, 39, 194-208. [all data]

de Boer, 1936
de Boer, J.H., The influence of van der Waals' forces and primary bonds on binding energy, strength and orientation, with special reference to some artificial resins, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1936, 32, 10, https://doi.org/10.1039/tf9363200010 . [all data]

Mündel, 1913
Mündel, C.F., Z. Phys. Chem., Stoechiom. Verwandtschaftsl., 1913, 85, 435. [all data]

Oliver, Eaton, et al., 1948
Oliver, G.D.; Eaton, M.; Huffman, H.M., The heat capacity, heat of fusion and entropy of benzene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1948, 70, 1502-1505. [all data]

Ziegler and Andrews, 1942
Ziegler, W.T.; Andrews, D.H., The heat capacity of benzene-d6, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1942, 64, 2482-2485. [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Andrews, Lynn, et al., 1926
Andrews, D.H.; Lynn, G.; Johnston, J., The heat capacities and heat of crystallization of some isomeric aromatic compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1926, 48, 1274-1287. [all data]

Smith, 1979
Smith, G.W., Phase behavior of some linear polyphenyls, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1979, 49, 207-209. [all data]

Pacor, 1967
Pacor, P., Applicability of the DuPont 900 DTA apparatus in quantitative differential thermal analysis, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1967, 37, 200-208. [all data]

Tschamler, 1948
Tschamler, H., Uber binare flussige Mischungen I. Mischungswarment, Volumseffekte und Zustandsdiagramme von chlorex mit benzol und n-alkylbenzolen, Monatsh. Chem., 1948, 79, 162-177. [all data]

Huffman, Parks, et al., 1930
Huffman, H.M.; Parks, G.S.; Daniels, A.C., Thermal data on organic compounds. VII. The heat capacities, entropies and free energies of twelve aromatic hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1930, 52, 1547-1558. [all data]

Maass and Walbauer, 1925
Maass, O.; Walbauer, L.J., The specific heats and latent heats of fusion of ice and of several organic compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1925, 47, 1-9. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Phase change data, References