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Urea

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Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus406. ± 3.KAVGN/AAverage of 8 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple407.9KN/AFerloni and DellaGatta, 1995Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Ttriple408.KN/AKabo, Miroshnichenko, et al., 1990Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.00001 K; TRC
Ttriple405.8KN/AKozyro, Dalidovich, et al., 1986Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Ttriple405.8KN/AVogel and Schuberth, 1980Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub95.5 ± 0.3kJ/molGSEmel'yanenko, Kabo, et al., 2006Based on data from 358. - 402. K.; AC
Deltasub98.6kJ/molN/ADe Wit, Van Miltenburg, et al., 1983AC
Deltasub87.65 ± 0.88kJ/molVSuzuki, Onishi, et al., 1956ALS

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
94.6 ± 2.2370.MEZaitsau, Kabo, et al., 2003Based on data from 329. - 403. K.; AC
95.1 ± 2.2350.MEZaitsau, Kabo, et al., 2003Based on data from 329. - 403. K.; AC
94.6 ± 0.5350.CZaitsau, Kabo, et al., 2003AC
97.6 ± 1.0354.CKabo, Miroshnichenko, et al., 1990, 2see Simirsky, Kabo, et al., 1987; ALS
90.9381.N/AFerro, Barone, et al., 1987AC
87.7357.N/AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 345. - 368. K.; AC
96.9351.TE,MEDe Wit, Van Miltenburg, et al., 1983Based on data from 338. - 362. K.; AC
95.4361.N/ATrimble and Voorhoeve, 1978AC
87.9 ± 2.1356.N/ASuzuki, Onishi, et al., 1956, 2Based on data from 345. - 368. K. See also Jones, 1960 and Cox and Pilcher, 1970.; AC
88.2357.N/ABradley and Cleasby, 1953See also De Wit, Van Miltenburg, et al., 1983.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
14.790406.5N/ADella Gatta and Ferro, 1987DH
13.900405.8N/AKozyro, Dalidovich, et al., 1986, 2DH
14.500406.N/AGambino and Bros, 1988DH
13.610405.8N/AVogel and Schuberth, 1980, 2DH
14.6407.2DSCRai and Rai, 1999AC
13.6405.2DSCJamróz, Palczewska-Tulinska, et al., 1998AC
14.6406.7DSCRai and Rai, 1998AC
15.03407.9DSCFerloni and Gatta, 1995AC
12.93408.1N/AKabo, Miroshnichenko, et al., 1990, 2AC
13.9405.8N/AKozyro, Dalidovich, et al., 1986AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
36.4406.5Della Gatta and Ferro, 1987DH
34.25405.8Kozyro, Dalidovich, et al., 1986, 2DH
35.7406.Gambino and Bros, 1988DH
33.54405.8Vogel and Schuberth, 1980, 2DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


References

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Ferloni and DellaGatta, 1995
Ferloni, P.; DellaGatta, G., Heat capacities of urea, N-methylurea, N-ethylurea, N-(n)propylurea, and N- (n)butylurea in the range 200 to 360 K, Thermochim. Acta, 1995, 266, 203-12. [all data]

Kabo, Miroshnichenko, et al., 1990
Kabo, G.Ya.; Miroshnichenko, E.A.; Frenkel, M.L.; Kozyro, A.A.; Simirsky, V.V.; Krasulin, A.P.; Vorob'eva, V.P.; Lebedev, Yu.A., Thermochemistry of Alkyl Derivatives of Urea, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Khim., 1990, No. 4, 750-5. [all data]

Kozyro, Dalidovich, et al., 1986
Kozyro, A.A.; Dalidovich, S.V.; Krausulin, A.P., Zh. Prikl. Khim. (S.-Peterburg), 1986, 59, 1456. [all data]

Vogel and Schuberth, 1980
Vogel, L.; Schuberth, H., Some physicochemical data of urea near the melting point<, Chem. Tech. (Leipzig), 1980, 32, 143. [all data]

Emel'yanenko, Kabo, et al., 2006
Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Kabo, Gennady J.; Verevkin, Sergey P., Measurement and Prediction of Thermochemical Properties: Improved Increments for the Estimation of Enthalpies of Sublimation and Standard Enthalpies of Formation of Alkyl Derivatives of Urea, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2006, 51, 1, 79-87, https://doi.org/10.1021/je050230z . [all data]

De Wit, Van Miltenburg, et al., 1983
De Wit, H.G.M.; Van Miltenburg, J.C.; De Kruif, C.G., Thermodynamic properties of molecular organic crystals containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur 1. Vapour pressures and enthalpies of sublimation, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1983, 15, 7, 651-663, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(83)90079-4 . [all data]

Suzuki, Onishi, et al., 1956
Suzuki, K.; Onishi, S.; Koide, T.; Seki, S., Vapor pressures of molecular crystals. XI. Vapor pressures of crystalline urea and diformylhydrazine. Energies of hydrogen bonds in these crystals, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1956, 29, 127. [all data]

Zaitsau, Kabo, et al., 2003
Zaitsau, Dz; Kabo, G.J.; Kozyro, A.A.; Sevruk, V.M., The effect of the failure of isotropy of a gas in an effusion cell on the vapor pressure and enthalpy of sublimation for alkyl derivatives of carbamide, Thermochimica Acta, 2003, 406, 1-2, 17-28, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6031(03)00231-4 . [all data]

Kabo, Miroshnichenko, et al., 1990, 2
Kabo, G.Ya.; Miroshnichenko, E.A.; Frenkel, M.L.; Kozyro, A.A.; Simirskii, V.V.; Krasulin, A.P.; Vorob'eva, V.P.; Lebedev, Yu.A., Thermochemistry of urea alkyl derivatives, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Div. Chem. Sci., 1990, 662-667. [all data]

Simirsky, Kabo, et al., 1987
Simirsky, V.V.; Kabo, G.J.; Frenkel, M.L., Additivity of the enthalpies of formation of urea derivatives in the crystalline state, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1987, 19, 1121-1127. [all data]

Ferro, Barone, et al., 1987
Ferro, D.; Barone, G.; Della Gatta, G.; Piacente, V., Vapour pressures and sublimation enthalpies of urea and some of its derivatives, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1987, 19, 9, 915-923, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(87)90038-3 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Trimble and Voorhoeve, 1978
Trimble, L.E.; Voorhoeve, R.J.H., Continuous colorimetric monitoring of vapour-phase urea and cyanates, Analyst, 1978, 103, 1228, 759, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9780300759 . [all data]

Suzuki, Onishi, et al., 1956, 2
Suzuki, Keisuke; Onishi, Shun-ichi; Koide, Tsutomu; Seki, Syuzo, Vapor Pressures of Molecular Crystals. XI. Vapor Pressures of Crystalline Urea and Diformylhydrazine. Energies of Hydrogen Bonds in these Crystals, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1956, 29, 1, 127-131, https://doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.29.127 . [all data]

Jones, 1960
Jones, A.H., Sublimation Pressure Data for Organic Compounds., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1960, 5, 2, 196-200, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60006a019 . [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press Inc., London, 1970, 643. [all data]

Bradley and Cleasby, 1953
Bradley, R.S.; Cleasby, T.G., 346. The vapour pressure and lattice energy of hydrogen-bonded crystals. Part I. Oxamide, oxamic acid, and rubeanic acid, J. Chem. Soc., 1953, 1681, https://doi.org/10.1039/jr9530001681 . [all data]

Della Gatta and Ferro, 1987
Della Gatta, G.; Ferro, D., Enthalpies of fusion and solid-to-solid transition, entropies of fusion for urea and twelve alkylureas, Thermochim. Acta, 1987, 122, 143-152. [all data]

Kozyro, Dalidovich, et al., 1986, 2
Kozyro, A.A.; Dalidovich, S.V.; Krasulin, A.P., Heat capacity, enthalpy of fusion, and thermodynamic properties of urea, Zhur. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad), 1986, 59, 1456-1459. [all data]

Gambino and Bros, 1988
Gambino, M.; Bros, J.P., Capacite calorifique de l'uree et de quelques melanges eutectiques a base d'uree entre 30 et 140°C, Thermochim. Acta, 1988, 127, 223-236. [all data]

Vogel and Schuberth, 1980, 2
Vogel, L.; Schuberth, H., Some physicochemical data of urea near the melting point, Chem. Tech. (Leipzig), 1980, 32, 143-144. [all data]

Rai and Rai, 1999
Rai, U.S.; Rai, R.N., Some Physicochemical Studies on Organic Eutectics and Molecular Complex: Urea -- p-nitrophenol System, J. Mater. Res., 1999, 14, 04, 1299-1305, https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1999.0177 . [all data]

Jamróz, Palczewska-Tulinska, et al., 1998
Jamróz, Malgorzata E.; Palczewska-Tulinska, Marcela; Wyrzykowska-Stankiewicz, Danuta; Szafranski, Andrzej M.; Polaczek, Jerzy; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz.; Jamróz, Michal H.; Mazurek, Aleksander P., The urea--phenol(s) systems, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1998, 152, 2, 307-326, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(98)90206-0 . [all data]

Rai and Rai, 1998
Rai, U.S.; Rai, R.N., Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 1998, 53, 3, 883-893, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010190402954 . [all data]

Ferloni and Gatta, 1995
Ferloni, Paolo; Gatta, Giuseppe Della, Heat capacities of urea, N-methylurea, N-ethylurea, N-(n)propylurea, and N-(n)butylurea in the range 200 to 360 K, Thermochimica Acta, 1995, 266, 203-212, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(95)02453-0 . [all data]


Notes

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