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Butane, 2,2,3-trimethyl-

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Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
CAL - James S. Chickos, William E. Acree, Jr., Joel F. Liebman, Students of Chem 202 (Introduction to the Literature of Chemistry), University of Missouri -- St. Louis
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil354.1 ± 0.2KAVGN/AAverage of 35 out of 37 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus248. ± 1.KAVGN/AAverage of 17 out of 18 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple248.56KN/AHuffman, Gross, et al., 1961Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.07 K; solid solution assumed for impurities in extrapolation to the triple point; TRC
Ttriple248.480KN/AWaddington, 1952Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Ttriple248.530KN/AWaddington, 1952Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.03 K; TRC
Ttriple248.530KN/AHuffman, 1948Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Ttriple247.7KN/AHuffman, Parks, et al., 1930Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc531.1 ± 0.3KN/ADaubert, 1996 
Tc531.1KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Tc531.11KN/AMcMicking and Kay, 1965Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Tc531.45KN/AEdgar and Calingaert, 1929Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; measured by Keys and Kleinschmidt; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc29.5 ± 0.5barN/ADaubert, 1996 
Pc29.532barN/AMcMicking and Kay, 1965Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4053 bar; TRC
Pc30.1442barN/AEdgar and Calingaert, 1929Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5066 bar; measured by Keys and Kleinschmidt; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Vc0.398l/molN/ADaubert, 1996 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc2.51 ± 0.05mol/lN/ADaubert, 1996 
rhoc2.51mol/lN/AMcMicking and Kay, 1965Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 mol/l; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap32.19kJ/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap32.kJ/molN/AReid, 1972AC
Deltavap32.04kJ/molCOsborne and Ginnings, 1947ALS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
28.9354.N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
32.4299.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 284. - 355. K.; AC
29.9368.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 353. - 483. K.; AC
32.3301.N/AForziati, Norris, et al., 1949Based on data from 286. - 355. K.; AC
31.2 ± 0.1314.CWaddington, Todd, et al., 1947AC
31.9311.EBSmith, 1941Based on data from 296. - 378. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-βTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kJ/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

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Temperature (K) A (kJ/mol) beta Tc (K) Reference Comment
298. - 353.46.760.2726531.1Majer and Svoboda, 1985 

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
285.70 - 354.923.92221203.362-46.776Forziati, Norris, et al., 1949, 2Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
2.2247.7Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
19.64121.Domalski and Hearing, 1996CAL
8.88247.7

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
2.242121.4crystaline, IIcrystaline, IHuffman, Gross, et al., 1961DH
2.377121.0crystaline, IIcrystaline, IHuffman, Parks, et al., 1930, 2Hump in heat capacity curve at about 105 K, with excess enthalpy of 243 J/mol.; DH
2.201247.7crystaline, IliquidHuffman, Parks, et al., 1930, 2DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
18.47121.4crystaline, IIcrystaline, IHuffman, Gross, et al., 1961DH
19.64121.0crystaline, IIcrystaline, IHuffman, Parks, et al., 1930, 2Hump; DH
8.89247.7crystaline, IliquidHuffman, Parks, et al., 1930, 2DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


References

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Huffman, Gross, et al., 1961
Huffman, H.M.; Gross, M.E.; Scott, D.W.; McCullough, I.P., Low temperature thermodynamic properties of six isomeric heptanes, J. Phys. Chem., 1961, 65, 495-503. [all data]

Waddington, 1952
Waddington, G., Personal Commun., U. S. Bur. Mines, Bartlesville, OK, March 20, 1952. [all data]

Huffman, 1948
Huffman, H.M., Personal Commun., U. S. Bur. Mines, Bartlesville, OK, 1948. [all data]

Huffman, Parks, et al., 1930
Huffman, H.M.; Parks, G.S.; Thomas, S.B., Thermal Data on Organic Compounds. VII The Heat Capacities, Entropies and Free Energies of the Isomeric Heptanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1930, 52, 3241. [all data]

Daubert, 1996
Daubert, T.E., Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties of Elements and Compounds. 5. Branched Alkanes and Cycloalkanes, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1996, 41, 365-372. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

McMicking and Kay, 1965
McMicking, J.H.; Kay, W.B., Vapor Pressures and Saturated Liquid and Vapor Densities of The Isomeric Heptanes and Isomeric Octanes, Proc., Am. Pet. Inst., Sect. 3, 1965, 45, 75-90. [all data]

Edgar and Calingaert, 1929
Edgar, G.; Calingaert, G., Preparation and Properties of the Isomeric Heptanes II. Physical Prop. properties, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1929, 51, 1540. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Osborne and Ginnings, 1947
Osborne, N.S.; Ginnings, D.C., Measurements of heat of vaporization and heat capacity of a number of hydrocarbons, J. Res. NBS, 1947, 39, 453-477. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Forziati, Norris, et al., 1949
Forziati, Alphonse F.; Norris, William R.; Rossini, Frederick D., Vapor pressures and boiling points of sixty API-NBS hydrocarbons, J. RES. NATL. BUR. STAN., 1949, 43, 6, 555-17, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.043.050 . [all data]

Waddington, Todd, et al., 1947
Waddington, Guy; Todd, Samuel S.; Huffman, Hugh M., An Improved Flow Calorimeter. Experimental Vapor Heat Capacities and Heats of Vaporization of n-Heptane and 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane 1, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1947, 69, 1, 22-30, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01193a007 . [all data]

Smith, 1941
Smith, E.R., Boiling points of benzene, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 3-ethylpentane, and 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane within the range 100 to 1,500 millimeters of mercury, J. RES. NATL. BUR. STAN., 1941, 26, 2, 129-17, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.026.004 . [all data]

Forziati, Norris, et al., 1949, 2
Forziati, A.F.; Norris, W.R.; Rossini, F.D., Vapor Pressures and Boiling Points of Sixty API-NBS Hydrocarbons, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), 1949, 43, 6, 555-563, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.043.050 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Huffman, Parks, et al., 1930, 2
Huffman, H.M.; Parks, G.S.; Thomas, S.B., Thermal data on organic compounds. VIII. The heat capacities, entropies and free energies of the isomeric heptanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1930, 52, 3241-3251. [all data]


Notes

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