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Benzene, 1,2,4-trichloro-

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Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5120.1193.56Harangi, 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He
CapillaryDB-5120.1193.67Harangi, 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He
CapillarySE-30160.1193.0Santiuste, Harangi, et al., 2003 
CapillaryHP-5120.1189.6Santiuste, Harangi, et al., 2003 
CapillaryHP-5120.1199.7Santiuste J.M. and Takacs J.M., 200360. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryHP-5140.1211.1Santiuste J.M. and Takacs J.M., 200360. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryDB-5110.1189.56Gerbino, Garbarino, et al., 199630. m/0.53 mm/1.5 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryDB-570.1164.56Gerbino, Garbarino, et al., 199630. m/0.53 mm/1.5 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryDB-590.1176.18Gerbino, Garbarino, et al., 199630. m/0.53 mm/1.5 «mu»m, N2
CapillarySE-30160.1177.Evans and Haken, 1989Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillarySE-30160.1193.Tarjan, Nyiredy, et al., 1989 
CapillarySE-30120.1177.Haken and Korhonene, 1983N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillarySE-30140.1183.Haken and Korhonene, 1983N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillarySE-30160.1193.Haken and Korhonene, 1983N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
PackedSE-30100.1186.Winskowski, 1983Gaschrom Q; Column length: 2. m
PackedSE-30150.1177.Winskowski, 1983Gaschrom Q; Column length: 2. m
PackedSE-30150.1161.Vylegzhanina and Keiser, 1976Chromaton N-AW-GMDS; Column length: 1. m
PackedSE-30160.1166.Vylegzhanina and Keiser, 1976Chromaton N-AW-GMDS; Column length: 1. m

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryZB-Wax120.1665.5Pérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillaryZB-Wax140.1688.6Pérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillaryCarbowax 20M160.1630.Evans and Haken, 1989Column length: 22. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryCarbowax 20M140.1630.Haken and Korhonene, 1983N2; Column length: 22. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryCarbowax 20M160.1653.Haken and Korhonene, 1983N2; Column length: 22. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryCarbowax 20M180.1698.Haken and Korhonene, 1983N2; Column length: 22. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51192.67Harangi, 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 2.8 min, 3. K/min; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryDB-51193.06Harangi, 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 2.8 min, 3. K/min; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryDB-51196.72Harangi, 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 2.8 min, 4. K/min; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryDB-51196.78Harangi, 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 2.8 min, 4. K/min; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryDB-11141.6Sun and Stremple, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 325. C
CapillaryOV-11158.5Gautzsch and Zinn, 19968. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-51160.14Gerbino, Garbarino, et al., 199630. m/0.53 mm/1.5 «mu»m, N2, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryDB-51166.23Gerbino, Garbarino, et al., 199630. m/0.53 mm/1.5 «mu»m, N2, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryDB-51171.69Gerbino, Garbarino, et al., 199630. m/0.53 mm/1.5 «mu»m, N2, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryDB-11168.Gerbino and Castello, 199530. m/0.235 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2, 100. C @ 0. min, 10. K/min
CapillaryDB-11162.Gerbino and Castello, 199530. m/0.235 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2, 100. C @ 0. min, 5. K/min
CapillaryDB-11157.Gerbino and Castello, 199530. m/0.235 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2, 50. C @ 0. min, 10. K/min
CapillaryDB-11150.Gerbino and Castello, 199530. m/0.235 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2, 50. C @ 0. min, 5. K/min
CapillaryPetrocol DH1152.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
Capillary5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane1172.Yasuhara, Shiraishi, et al., 199725. m/0.31 mm/0.52 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C(2min) => (20C/min) => 120C => (7C/min) => 310C(10min)
PackedSE-301160.Peng, Ding, et al., 1988Supelcoport; Chromosorb; Column length: 3.05 m; Program: 40C(5min) => 10C/min => 200C or 250C (60min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1671.43Gerbino and Castello, 199530. m/0.235 mm/0.5 «mu»m, N2, 10. K/min; Tstart: 100. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1659.76Gerbino and Castello, 199530. m/0.235 mm/0.5 «mu»m, N2, 5. K/min; Tstart: 100. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1658.54Gerbino and Castello, 199530. m/0.235 mm/0.5 «mu»m, N2, 10. K/min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1643.59Gerbino and Castello, 199530. m/0.235 mm/0.5 «mu»m, N2, 5. K/min; Tstart: 50. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedDC-400150.1198.Anderson, 1968Helium, Gas-Pak (60-80 mesh); Column length: 3.0 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-1011142.Messadi and Ali-Mokhnache, 19932. K/min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm; Tstart: 80. C
CapillaryOV-1011144.Messadi and Ali-Mokhnache, 19932. K/min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm; Tstart: 80. C
CapillaryOV-1011145.Messadi and Ali-Mokhnache, 19932. K/min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm; Tstart: 80. C
CapillaryUltra-11149.Okumura, 199125. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 260. C
CapillarySE-541170.Harland, Cumming, et al., 1986He, 50. C @ 2. min, 8. K/min, 250. C @ 12. min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone1177.Yu and Zazhi, 2005Program: not specified
CapillaryCP Sil 21174.Fuhrer, Deissler, et al., 199755. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2; Program: 40C(3min) => 20C/min => 80C => 2C/min => 240C(45min)
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes1158.Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-11145.Vezzani, Moretti, et al., 1994Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-11150.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.1150.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.1154.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP5-MS199.Vrana, Paschke, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 280. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-5198.2Donnelly, Abdel-Hamid, et al., 199330. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 3. min, 8. K/min, 285. C @ 29.5 min

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Harangi, 2003
Harangi, J., Short communication. Retention index calculation without n-alkanes -- the virtual carbon number, J. Chromatogr. A, 2003, 993, 1-2, 187-195, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00320-0 . [all data]

Santiuste, Harangi, et al., 2003
Santiuste, J.M.; Harangi, J.; Takács, J.M., Mosaic increments for predicting the gas chromatographic retention data of the chlorobenzenes, J. Chromatogr. A, 2003, 1002, 1-2, 155-168, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00736-2 . [all data]

Santiuste J.M. and Takacs J.M., 2003
Santiuste J.M.; Takacs J.M., Relationships between retention data of benzene and chlorobenzenes with their physico-chemical properties and topological indices, Chromatographia, 2003, 58, 87-96. [all data]

Gerbino, Garbarino, et al., 1996
Gerbino, T.C.; Garbarino, G.; Petit-Bon, P., Programmed temperature retention indices: calculation of linear programmed temperature retention indices of halogenated benzenes from isothermal data, Ann. Chim. (Rome), 1996, 86, 63-75. [all data]

Evans and Haken, 1989
Evans, M.B.; Haken, J.K., Dispersion and selectivity indices in gas chromatography. IV. Chlorinated aromatic compounds, J. Chromatogr., 1989, 468, 373-382, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)96332-5 . [all data]

Tarjan, Nyiredy, et al., 1989
Tarjan, G.; Nyiredy, Sz.; Gyor, M.; Lombosi, E.R.; Lombosi, T.S.; Budahegyi, M.V.; Meszaros, S.Y.; Takacs, J.M., Review. Thirtieth Anniversary of the Retention Index According to Kovats in Gas-Liquid Chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1989, 472, 1-92, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)94099-8 . [all data]

Haken and Korhonene, 1983
Haken, J.K.; Korhonene, I.O.O., Retention increments of isomeric chlorobenzenes, J. Chromatogr., 1983, 265, 323-327, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)96727-5 . [all data]

Winskowski, 1983
Winskowski, J., Gaschromatographische Identifizierung von Stoffen anhand von Indexziffem und unterschiedlichen Detektoren, Chromatographia, 1983, 17, 3, 160-165, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02271041 . [all data]

Vylegzhanina and Keiser, 1976
Vylegzhanina, G.F.; Keiser, L.S., Determination of the heats of solution of the insecticide gardona and its metabolites in the stationary phase and their Kovats retention indices, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1976, 31, 1, 171-173. [all data]

Pérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 2004
Pérez-Parajón, J.M.; Santiuste, J.M.; Takács, J.M., Sensitivity of the methylbenzenes and chlorobenzenes retention index to column temperature, stationary phase polarity, and number and chemical nature of substituents, J. Chromatogr. A, 2004, 1048, 2, 223-232, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.07.028 . [all data]

Sun and Stremple, 2003
Sun, G.; Stremple, P., Retention index characterization of flavor, fragrance, and many other compounds on DB-1 and DB-XLB, 2003, retrieved from http://www.chem.agilent.com/cag/cabu/pdf/b-0279.pdf. [all data]

Gautzsch and Zinn, 1996
Gautzsch, R.; Zinn, P., Use of incremental models to estimate the retention indexes of aromatic compounds, Chromatographia, 1996, 43, 3/4, 163-176, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02292946 . [all data]

Gerbino and Castello, 1995
Gerbino, T.C.; Castello, G., Prediction of programmed temperature retention indices on capillary columns of different polarities, J. Chromatogr. A, 1995, 699, 1-2, 161-171, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)00024-H . [all data]

White, Hackett, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Hackett, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Kail, S.; Spock, P.S., Linear temperature programmed retention indices of gasoline range hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons on cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 105-120, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150211 . [all data]

Yasuhara, Shiraishi, et al., 1997
Yasuhara, A.; Shiraishi, H.; Nishikawa, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Uehiro, T.; Nakasugi, O.; Okumura, T.; Kenmotsu, K.; Fukui, H.; Nagase, M.; Ono, Y.; Kawagoshi, Y.; Baba, K.; Noma, Y., Determination of organic components in leachates from hazardous waste disposal sites in Japan by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 1997, 774, 1-2, 321-332, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(97)00078-2 . [all data]

Peng, Ding, et al., 1988
Peng, C.T.; Ding, S.F.; Hua, R.L.; Yang, Z.C., Prediction of Retention Indexes I. Structure-Retention Index Relationship on Apolar Columns, J. Chromatogr., 1988, 436, 137-172, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)94575-8 . [all data]

Anderson, 1968
Anderson, D.G., USe of Kovats retention indices and response factors for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of coating solvents, J. Paint Technol., 1968, 40, 527, 549-557. [all data]

Messadi and Ali-Mokhnache, 1993
Messadi, D.; Ali-Mokhnache, S., Calculation of retention indices and peak widths in temperature programmed gas-liquid chromatography, Chromatographia, 1993, 37, 5/6, 264-270, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02278631 . [all data]

Okumura, 1991
Okumura, T., retention indices of environmental chemicals on methyl silicone capillary column, Journal of Environmental Chemistry (Japan), 1991, 1, 2, 333-358, https://doi.org/10.5985/jec.1.333 . [all data]

Harland, Cumming, et al., 1986
Harland, B.J.; Cumming, R.I.; Gillings, E., The Kovats indexes of some organic micropollutants on an SE54 capillary column, EUR, I Org. Micropollut. Aquat. Environ., 1986, EUR 10388, 123-127. [all data]

Yu and Zazhi, 2005
Yu, H.; Zazhi, J., Relationship between chromatogram retention index and toxicity of chlorinated phenols and chlorinated benzenes to Guppy, J. Enviropn. Health (Chinese), 2005, 22, 6, 441-444. [all data]

Fuhrer, Deissler, et al., 1997
Fuhrer, U.; Deissler, A.; Schreitmuller, J.; Ballschmiter, K., Analysis of Halogenated Methoxybenzenes and Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the Picogram m-3 Range in Marine Air, Chromatographia, 1997, 45, 1, 414-427, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02505594 . [all data]

Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996
Zenkevich, I.G.; Chupalov, A.A., New Possibilities of Chromato Mass Pectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds Using Increments of Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices of Molecular Structural Fragments, Zh. Org. Khim. (Rus.), 1996, 32, 5, 656-666. [all data]

Vezzani, Moretti, et al., 1994
Vezzani, S.; Moretti, P.; Castello, G., Fast and Accurate Method for the Automatic Prediction of Programmed-Temperature Retention Times, J. Chromatogr. A, 1994, 677, 2, 331-343, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)80161-4 . [all data]

Waggott and Davies, 1984
Waggott, A.; Davies, I.W., Identification of organic pollutants using linear temperature programmed retention indices (LTPRIs) - Part II, 1984, retrieved from http://dwi.defra.gov.uk/research/completed-research/reports/dwi0383.pdf. [all data]

Vrana, Paschke, et al., 2005
Vrana, B.; Paschke, H.; Paschke, A.; Popp, P.; Schuurmann, G., Performance of semipermeable membrane devices for sampling of organic contaminants in groun water, J. Envirom. Monit., 2005, 7, 5, 500-508, https://doi.org/10.1039/b411645c . [all data]

Donnelly, Abdel-Hamid, et al., 1993
Donnelly, J.R.; Abdel-Hamid, M.S.; Jeter, J.L.; Gurka, D.F., Application of gas chromatographic retention properties to the identification of environmental contaminants, J. Chromatogr., 1993, 642, 1-2, 409-415, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(93)80106-I . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, References