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Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil613.2KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil613.0KN/ABuckingham and Donaghy, 1982BS
Tboil613.1KN/ABurriel, 1931Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Tboil613.KN/AKirby, 1921Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 5. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus490. ± 3.KAVGN/AAverage of 27 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple488.93KN/AGoursot, Girdhar, et al., 1970Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.01 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Δvap78.5kJ/molCGCZhao, Unhannanant, et al., 2008AC
Δvap79.5 ± 1.2kJ/molGCHaftka, Parsons, et al., 2006Based on data from 413. to 473. K.; AC
Δvap79.1kJ/molCGCPuri, Chickos, et al., 2001AC
Δvap79.8kJ/molCGCChickos, Hesse, et al., 1998AC
Δvap79.6kJ/molCGCChickos, Hosseini, et al., 1995Based on data from 453. to 503. K.; AC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Δsub98. ± 10.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 12 values; Individual data points

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
66.7498.N/ARojas and Orozco, 2003See also Hanshaw, Nutt, et al., 2008.; AC
72.4398.GCLei, Chankalal, et al., 2002Based on data from 323. to 473. K.; AC
69.7398.GCHinckley, Bidleman, et al., 1990Based on data from 343. to 453. K.; AC
58.6519.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 504. to 615. K.; AC
62.1500.N/AKudchadker, Kudchadker, et al., 1979See also Hanshaw, Nutt, et al., 2008.; AC
59.2558.IMortimer and Murphy, 1923Based on data from 500. to 616. K.; AC
60.3515.IMortimer and Murphy, 1923Based on data from 500. to 616. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC
59.6555.INELSON and SENSEMAN, 1922Based on data from 496. to 614. K.; AC
60.7511.INELSON and SENSEMAN, 1922Based on data from 496. to 614. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

View plot Requires a JavaScript / HTML 5 canvas capable browser.

Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
496.4 to 613.84.729972759.53-30.753Mortimer and Murphy, 1923Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of sublimation

ΔsubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
97.9 ± 0.6320. to 355.MEOja, Chen, et al., 2009AC
98.4 ± 0.7320. to 350.MEOja, Chen, et al., 2009AC
97.6 ± 1.3369.MESiddiqi, Siddiqui, et al., 2009Based on data from 339. to 399. K.; AC
95.6 ± 1.2337.N/AChen, Oja, et al., 2006Based on data from 320. to 354. K.; AC
91.2338.GSGrayson and Fosbraey, 2006Based on data from 323. to 353. K.; AC
98.8 ± 0.4350.MERibeiro da Silva, Monte, et al., 2006Based on data from 340. to 360. K.; AC
102.5 ± 1.9358.MEVerevkin, 2004Based on data from 348. to 368. K.; AC
96. ± 6.283. to 323.LEMcEachern and Sandoval, 2001AC
94.5423. to 488.MEMEmmenegger and Piccand, 1999AC
102.5338. to 353.MEKloc and Laudise, 1998AC
100.0 ± 2.8341.MEOja and Suuberg, 1998Based on data from 318. to 363. K.; AC
99.7383.GSNass, Lenoir, et al., 1995Based on data from 313. to 453. K.; AC
102.6338.GSHansen and Eckert, 1986Based on data from 313. to 363. K.; AC
98.7346.GSRordorf, 1986Based on data from 318. to 373. K.; AC
94.3353. to 399.GSBender, Bieling, et al., 1983AC
91.8 ± 0.9303.GSSonnefeld, Zoller, et al., 1983Based on data from 283. to 323. K.; AC
94.8376.GSMacknick and Prausnitz, 1979Based on data from 358. to 393. K.; AC
98.8 ± 0.4363. to 448.HSADygdala, Stefanski, et al., 1977AC
97.2328. to 372.METaylor and Crookes, 1976AC
101.0 ± 0.5353. to 432.MEMalaspina, 1973AC
99.7393.CMalaspina, 1973AC
84.1290. to 358.ME,CWiedemann, 1972See also Beech and Lintonbon, 1971.; AC
98.49342.VKelley and Rice, 1964ALS
98.3 ± 2.1342. to 359.N/AKelley and Rice, 1964, 2See also Cox and Pilcher, 1970.; AC
90. ± 1.3337.TEBudurov, 1960Based on data from 327. to 346. K.; AC
103.4 ± 2.9303. to 373.N/AHoyer and Peperle, 1958See also Cox and Pilcher, 1970.; AC
103.3 ± 2.9303.VHoyer and Peperle, 1958, 2Reanalyzed by Pedley, Naylor, et al., 1986, Original value = 102. kJ/mol; ALS
102.1 ± 2.1338. to 353.N/ABradley and Cleasby, 1953See also Cox and Pilcher, 1970.; AC
102.1346.N/ABradley and Cleasby, 1953, 2Based on data from 339. to 353. K.; AC
102.09338.7VBradley and Cleasby, 1953, 3ALS
98. ± 2.396. to 421.HSAStevens, 1953AC
97. ± 2.396.VStevens, 1953, 2ALS
92.0 ± 2.1364.MEInokuchi, Shiba, et al., 1952AC
90.4353.MEInokuchi, 1951AC
97.3 ± 1.2378. to 398.RGSears and Hopke, 1949AC
93.3 ± 4.2353.N/AWolf and Weghofer, 1938AC
93.3 ± 0.8353.VWolf and Weghofer, 1938, 2ALS

Enthalpy of fusion

ΔfusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
29.372488.93N/AGoursot, Girdhar, et al., 1970, 2Note that table of smoothed values indicates Hm = 6485 J/mol and Sm = 251 J/mol*K.; DH
29.8492.DSCRojas and Orozco, 2003Based on data from 463. to 503. K.; AC
31.5491.DSCStoroniak, Krzyminski, et al., 2003AC
28.8489.4DSCLisicki and Jamróz, 2000AC
29.37488.9N/ADomalski and Hearing, 1996AC
28.830490.N/AUeberreiter and Orthmann, 1950DH
28.870489.7N/AHildebrand, Duschak, et al., 1917DH

Entropy of fusion

ΔfusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
60.07488.93Goursot, Girdhar, et al., 1970, 2Note; DH
58.0490.Ueberreiter and Orthmann, 1950DH
59.0489.7Hildebrand, Duschak, et al., 1917DH

Enthalpy of phase transition

ΔHtrs (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
29.000490.6crystaline, IliquidRadomska and Radomski, 1980DH

Entropy of phase transition

ΔStrs (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
59.1490.6crystaline, IliquidRadomska and Radomski, 1980DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Go To: Top, Phase change data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Buckingham and Donaghy, 1982
Buckingham, J.; Donaghy, S.M., Dictionary of Organic Compounds: Fifth Edition, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1982, 1. [all data]

Burriel, 1931
Burriel, F., Physico-Chemical Study of Some Solid Organic Compounds at Ordinary Temperatures, and Their COrrelationo with Temperature, An. R. Soc. Esp. Fis. Quim., 1931, 29, 89. [all data]

Kirby, 1921
Kirby, W., Determination of the Melting and Boiling Points of Anthracene, Phenanthrene and Carbazole, J. Soc. Chem. Ind., London, Trans. Commun., 1921, 40, 274T. [all data]

Goursot, Girdhar, et al., 1970
Goursot, P.; Girdhar, H.L.; Westrum, E.F., Thermodynamics of Polynuclear Aromatic Molecules III. Heat Capacities and Enthalpies of Fusion of Anthracene, J. Phys. Chem., 1970, 74, 2538. [all data]

Zhao, Unhannanant, et al., 2008
Zhao, Hui; Unhannanant, Patamaporn; Hanshaw, William; Chickos, James S., Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2008, 53, 7, 1545-1556, . [all data]

Haftka, Parsons, et al., 2006
Haftka, Joris J.H.; Parsons, John R.; Govers, Harrie A.J., Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography, Journal of Chromatography A, 2006, 1135, 1, 91-100, . [all data]

Puri, Chickos, et al., 2001
Puri, Swati; Chickos, James S.; Welsh, William J., Determination of Vaporization Enthalpies of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Correlation Gas Chromatography, Anal. Chem., 2001, 73, 7, 1480-1484, . [all data]

Chickos, Hesse, et al., 1998
Chickos, James; Hesse, Donald; Hosseini, Sarah; Nichols, Gary; Webb, Paul, Sublimation enthalpies at 298.15K using correlation gas chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry measurements, Thermochimica Acta, 1998, 313, 2, 101-110, . [all data]

Chickos, Hosseini, et al., 1995
Chickos, James S.; Hosseini, Sarah; Hesse, Donald G., Determination of vaporization enthalpies of simple organic molecules by correlations of changes in gas chromatographic net retention times, Thermochimica Acta, 1995, 249, 41-62, . [all data]

Rojas and Orozco, 2003
Rojas, Aarón; Orozco, Eulogio, Measurement of the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of solids aromatic hydrocarbons by differential scanning calorimetry, Thermochimica Acta, 2003, 405, 1, 93-107, . [all data]

Hanshaw, Nutt, et al., 2008
Hanshaw, William; Nutt, Marjorie; Chickos, James S., Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2008, 53, 8, 1903-1913, . [all data]

Lei, Chankalal, et al., 2002
Lei, Ying Duan; Chankalal, Raymond; Chan, Anita; Wania, Frank, Supercooled Liquid Vapor Pressures of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2002, 47, 4, 801-806, . [all data]

Hinckley, Bidleman, et al., 1990
Hinckley, Daniel A.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Foreman, William T.; Tuschall, Jack R., Determination of vapor pressures for nonpolar and semipolar organic compounds from gas chromatograhic retention data, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1990, 35, 3, 232-237, . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, . [all data]

Kudchadker, Kudchadker, et al., 1979
Kudchadker, Shanti A.; Kudchadker, Arvind P.; Zwolinski, Bruno J., Chemical thermodynamic properties of anthracene and phenanthrene, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1979, 11, 11, 1051-1059, . [all data]

Mortimer and Murphy, 1923
Mortimer, F. Spencer.; Murphy, Ray v., The Vapor Pressures of Some Substances Found in Coal Tar., Ind. Eng. Chem., 1923, 15, 11, 1140-1142, . [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

NELSON, O.A.; SENSEMAN, C.E., Vapor Pressure Determinations on Naphthalene, Anthracene, Phecanthrene, and Anthraquinone between Their Melting and Boiling Points, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 1922, 14, 1, 58-62, . [all data]

Oja, Chen, et al., 2009
Oja, Vahur; Chen, Xu; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Chan, W. Geoffrey, Sublimation Thermodynamic Parameters for Cholesterol, Ergosterol, β-Sitosterol, and Stigmasterol, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2009, 54, 3, 730-734, . [all data]

Siddiqi, Siddiqui, et al., 2009
Siddiqi, M. Aslam; Siddiqui, Rehan A.; Atakan, Burak, Thermal Stability, Sublimation Pressures, and Diffusion Coefficients of Anthracene, Pyrene, and Some Metal β-Diketonates, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2009, 54, 10, 2795-2802, . [all data]

Chen, Oja, et al., 2006
Chen, Xu; Oja, Vahur; Chan, W. Geoffrey; Hajaligol, Mohammad R., Vapor Pressure Characterization of Several Phenolics and Polyhydric Compounds by Knudsen Effusion Method, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2006, 51, 2, 386-391, . [all data]

Grayson and Fosbraey, 2006
Grayson, B. Terence; Fosbraey, Lynda A., Determination of the vapour pressure of pesticides, Pestic. Sci., 2006, 13, 3, 269-278, . [all data]

Ribeiro da Silva, Monte, et al., 2006
Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Monte, Manuel J.S.; Santos, Luís M.N.B.F., The design, construction, and testing of a new Knudsen effusion apparatus, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 2006, 38, 6, 778-787, . [all data]

Verevkin, 2004
Verevkin, Sergey P., Vapor pressure measurements on fluorene and methyl-fluorenes, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 2004, 225, 145-152, . [all data]

McEachern and Sandoval, 2001
McEachern, D.M.; Sandoval, O., A molecular flow evaporation apparatus for measuring vapour pressures and heats of sublimation of organic compounds, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., 2001, 6, 2, 155-161, . [all data]

Emmenegger and Piccand, 1999
Emmenegger, F.; Piccand, M., Organometallics, 1999, 57, 1, 235-240, . [all data]

Kloc and Laudise, 1998
Kloc, Ch.; Laudise, R.A., Vapor pressures of organic semiconductors:, Journal of Crystal Growth, 1998, 193, 4, 563-571, . [all data]

Oja and Suuberg, 1998
Oja, Vahur; Suuberg, Eric M., Vapor Pressures and Enthalpies of Sublimation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1998, 43, 3, 486-492, . [all data]

Nass, Lenoir, et al., 1995
Nass, Karen; Lenoir, Dieter; Kettrup, Antonius, Calculation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by an Incremental Procedure, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1995, 34, 16, 1735-1736, . [all data]

Hansen and Eckert, 1986
Hansen, Philip C.; Eckert, Charles A., An improved transpiration method for the measurement of very low vapor pressures, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1986, 31, 1, 1-3, . [all data]

Rordorf, 1986
Rordorf, Berchtold F., Thermal properties of dioxins, furans and related compounds, Chemosphere, 1986, 15, 9-12, 1325-1332, . [all data]

Bender, Bieling, et al., 1983
Bender, R.; Bieling, V.; Maurer, G., The vapour pressures of solids: anthracene, hydroquinone, and resorcinol, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1983, 15, 6, 585-594, . [all data]

Sonnefeld, Zoller, et al., 1983
Sonnefeld, W.J.; Zoller, W.H.; May, W.E., Dynamic coupled-column liquid-chromatographic determination of ambient-temperature vapor pressures of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 1983, 55, 2, 275-280, . [all data]

Macknick and Prausnitz, 1979
Macknick, A. Brian; Prausnitz, John M., Vapor pressures of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1979, 24, 3, 175-178, . [all data]

Dygdala, Stefanski, et al., 1977
Dygdala, R.S.; Stefanski, K.; Wonikowski, J., Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Ser. Sci., Math., Astron. Phys., 1977, 25, 439. [all data]

Taylor and Crookes, 1976
Taylor, John Watson; Crookes, Roy J., Vapour pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetra-azacyclo-octane (HMX), J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1, 1976, 72, 0, 723, . [all data]

Malaspina, 1973
Malaspina, L., Microcalorimetric determination of the enthalpy of sublimation of benzoic acid and anthracene, J. Chem. Phys., 1973, 59, 1, 387, . [all data]

Wiedemann, 1972
Wiedemann, H.G., Applications of thermogravimetry for vapor pressure determination, Thermochim. Acta, 1972, 355-366. [all data]

Beech and Lintonbon, 1971
Beech, Graham; Lintonbon, Roger M., The measurement of sublimation enthalpies by differential scanning calorimetry, Thermochimica Acta, 1971, 2, 1, 86-88, . [all data]

Kelley and Rice, 1964
Kelley, J.D.; Rice, F.O., The vapor pressures of some polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, J. Phys. Chem., 1964, 68, 3794. [all data]

Kelley and Rice, 1964, 2
Kelley, J. Daniel; Rice, Francis Owen, The Vapor Pressures of Some Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons 1, J. Phys. Chem., 1964, 68, 12, 3794-3796, . [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press Inc., London, 1970, 643. [all data]

Budurov, 1960
Budurov, S., Izv. Khim. Inst. Bulg. Akad. Nauk, 1960, 7, 281. [all data]

Hoyer and Peperle, 1958
Hoyer, H.; Peperle, W., Z. Elektrochem., 1958, 62, 61. [all data]

Hoyer and Peperle, 1958, 2
Hoyer, H.; Peperle, W., Dampfdrunkmessungen an organischen substanzen und ihre sublimationswarmen, Z. Electrochem., 1958, 62, 61-66. [all data]

Pedley, Naylor, et al., 1986
Pedley, J.B.; Naylor, R.D.; Kirby, S.P., Thermochemical Data of Organic Compounds, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1986, 1-792. [all data]

Bradley and Cleasby, 1953
Bradley, R.S.; Cleasby, T.G., 346. The vapour pressure and lattice energy of hydrogen-bonded crystals. Part I. Oxamide, oxamic acid, and rubeanic acid, J. Chem. Soc., 1953, 1681, . [all data]

Bradley and Cleasby, 1953, 2
Bradley, R.S.; Cleasby, T.G., 349. The vapour pressure and lattice energy of some aromatic ring compounds, J. Chem. Soc., 1953, 1690, . [all data]

Bradley and Cleasby, 1953, 3
Bradley, R.S.; Cleasby, T.G., The vapour pressure and lattice energy of some aromatic ring compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1953, 1690-16. [all data]

Stevens, 1953
Stevens, B., 591. Vapour pressure and the heats of sublimation of anthracene and of 9: 10-diphenylanthracene, J. Chem. Soc., 1953, 2973, . [all data]

Stevens, 1953, 2
Stevens, B., Vapour pressures and the heats of sublimation of anthracene and of 9:10-diphenylanthracene, J. Chem. Soc., 1953, 76, 2973-29. [all data]

Inokuchi, Shiba, et al., 1952
Inokuchi, Hiroo; Shiba, Sukekuni; Handa, Takashi; Akamatu, Hideo, Heats of Sublimation of Condensed Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1952, 25, 5, 299-302, . [all data]

Inokuchi, 1951
Inokuchi, H., J. Chem. Soc. Jpn. Pure Chem. Sect., 1951, 72, 552. [all data]

Sears and Hopke, 1949
Sears, G.W.; Hopke, E.R., Vapor Pressures of Naphthalene, Anthracene and Hexachlorobenzene in a Low Pressure Region, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1949, 71, 5, 1632-1634, . [all data]

Wolf and Weghofer, 1938
Wolf, K.L.; Weghofer, H.Z., Z. Phys. Chem. Abt. B, 1938, 39, 194. [all data]

Wolf and Weghofer, 1938, 2
Wolf, K.L.; Weghofer, H., Uber sublimationswarmen, Z. Phys. Chem., 1938, 39, 194-208. [all data]

Goursot, Girdhar, et al., 1970, 2
Goursot, P.; Girdhar, H.L.; Westrum, E.F., Jr., Thermodynamics of polynuclear aromatic molecules. III. Heat capacities and enthalpies of fusion of anthracene, J. Phys. Chem., 1970, 74, 2538-2541. [all data]

Storoniak, Krzyminski, et al., 2003
Storoniak, P.; Krzyminski, K.; Bouzyk, A.; Koval'chuk, E.P.; Blazejowski, J., Melting, volatilisation and crystal lattice enthalpies of acridin-9(10H)-ones, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2003, 74, 2, 443-450, . [all data]

Lisicki and Jamróz, 2000
Lisicki, Zygmunt; Jamróz, Malgorzata E., (Solid + liquid) equilibria in (polynuclear aromatic+ tertiary amide) systems, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 2000, 32, 10, 1335-1353, . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, . [all data]

Ueberreiter and Orthmann, 1950
Ueberreiter, K.; Orthmann, H.-J., Specifische Wärme, spezifisches Volumen, Temperatur- und Wärme-leittähigkeit einiger disubstituierter Benzole und polycyclischer Systeme, Z. Natursforsch. 5a, 1950, 101-108. [all data]

Hildebrand, Duschak, et al., 1917
Hildebrand, J.H.; Duschak, A.D.; Foster, A.H., and Beebe, C.W. The specific heats and heats of fusion of triphenylmethane, anthraquinone and anthracene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1917, 39, 2293-2297. [all data]

Radomska and Radomski, 1980
Radomska, M.; Radomski, R., Calorimetric studies of binary systems of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene with naphthalene, anthracene, and carbazole. I. Phase transitions and heat capacities of the pure components and charge-transfer complexes, Thermochim. Acta, 1980, 40, 405-414. [all data]


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