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Benzonitrile

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Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - E.P. Hunter and S.G. Lias
L - S.G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - J.E. Bartmess
LL - S.G. Lias and J.F. Liebman
LBLHLM - S.G. Lias, J.E. Bartmess, J.F. Liebman, J.L. Holmes, R.D. Levin, and W.G. Mallard
LLK - S.G. Lias, R.D. Levin, and S.A. Kafafi
RDSH - H.M. Rosenstock, K. Draxl, B.W. Steiner, and J.T. Herron

View reactions leading to C7H5N+ (ion structure unspecified)

QuantityValueUnitsMethodReferenceComment
IE (evaluated)9.73 ± 0.01eVN/AN/AL
QuantityValueUnitsMethodReferenceComment
Proton affinity (review)811.5kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
QuantityValueUnitsMethodReferenceComment
Gas basicity780.9kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV)MethodReferenceComment
0.26 ± 0.10ECDZlatkis, Lee, et al., 1983B
0.256 ± 0.017ECDWentworth, Kao, et al., 1975B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV)MethodReferenceComment
9.7316 ± 0.0002TEAraki and Sato, 1996LL
9.6PEKlasinc, Kovac, et al., 1983LBLHLM
10.13 ± 0.03EIBaldwin, 1979LLK
9.69PEBehan, Johnstone, et al., 1976LLK
9.62PERabalais and Colton, 1973LLK
9.7EIMcLafferty, Bente, et al., 1973LLK
9.77EICooks, Bertrand, et al., 1973LLK
9.71 ± 0.01PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
9.79PEKlasinc, Kovac, et al., 1983Vertical value; LBLHLM
9.8PEBieri, Asbrink, et al., 1982Vertical value; LBLHLM
9.71PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981Vertical value; LLK
9.71PEPalmer, Moyes, et al., 1980Vertical value; LLK
9.70PENeijzen and DeLange, 1978Vertical value; LLK
9.72PEKobayashi and Nagakura, 1974Vertical value; LLK
9.70PEGriebel, Hohlneicher, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK
10.02PEBaker, May, et al., 1968Vertical value; RDSH

Appearance energy determinations

IonAE (eV)Other ProductsMethodReferenceComment
C6H4+13.8 ± 0.1HCNEIBurgers and Holmes, 1982LBLHLM
C6H4+12.54 ± 0.03HCNEIMaccoll and Mathur, 1981LLK
C6H4+12.64 ± 0.03HCNPIPECORosenstock, Stockbauer, et al., 1980LLK
C6H4+13.38 ± 0.03HCNEIBaldwin, 1979LLK
C6H4+13.80 ± 0.06HCNEIBentley, Johnstone, et al., 1973LLK
C6H4+13.9 ± 0.1HCNEIGross, 1972LLK
C6H4+14.60HCNEIHowe and Williams, 1969RDSH
C6H5+13.52 ± 0.05CNEIBurgers and Holmes, 1984LBLHLM
C6H5+13.8CNEIBurgers and Holmes, 1984LBLHLM

De-protonation reactions

C7H4N- + Hydrogen cation = Benzonitrile

By formula: C7H4N- + H+ = C7H5N

QuantityValueUnitsMethodReferenceComment
Deltar1603. ± 10.kJ/molTDEqMeot-ner and Kafafi, 1988gas phase; anchored to 88MEO scale, not the "87 acidity scale". The Kiefer, Zhang, et al., 1997 BDE is for ortho.; B
QuantityValueUnitsMethodReferenceComment
Deltar1567. ± 8.4kJ/molTDEqMeot-ner and Kafafi, 1988gas phase; anchored to 88MEO scale, not the "87 acidity scale". The Kiefer, Zhang, et al., 1997 BDE is for ortho.; B

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656. [doi:10.1063/1.556018] [all data]

Zlatkis, Lee, et al., 1983
Zlatkis, A.; Lee, C.K.; Wentworth, W.E.; Chen, E.C.M., Constant current linearization for determination of electron capture mechanisms, Anal. Chem., 1983, 55, 1596. [all data]

Wentworth, Kao, et al., 1975
Wentworth, W.E.; Kao, L.W.; Becker, R.S., Electron affinities of substituted aromatic compounds, J. Phys. Chem., 1975, 79, 1161. [all data]

Araki and Sato, 1996
Araki, M.; Sato, S.-i., Two-color zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectra of benzonitrile and its van der Waals complexes with argon. Adiabatic ionization potentials and cation vibrational frequencies, J. Phys. Chem., 1996, 100, 10542. [all data]

Klasinc, Kovac, et al., 1983
Klasinc, L.; Kovac, B.; Gusten, H., Photoelectron spectra of acenes. Electronic structure and substituent effects, Pure Appl. Chem., 1983, 55, 289. [all data]

Baldwin, 1979
Baldwin, M.A., Appearance energies and the kinetic shift. Loss of HCN from the benzonitrile molecular ion, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1979, 14, 601. [all data]

Behan, Johnstone, et al., 1976
Behan, J.M.; Johnstone, R.A.W.; Bentley, T.W., An evaluation of empirical methods for calculating the ionization potentials of substituted benzenes, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1976, 11, 207. [all data]

Rabalais and Colton, 1973
Rabalais, J.W.; Colton, R.J., Electronic interaction between the phenyl group and its unsaturated substituents, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1973, 1, 83. [all data]

McLafferty, Bente, et al., 1973
McLafferty, F.W.; Bente, P.F., III; Kornfeld, R.; Tsai, S.-C.; Howe, I., Collisional activation spectra of organic ions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1973, 95, 2120. [all data]

Cooks, Bertrand, et al., 1973
Cooks, R.G.; Bertrand, M.; Beynon, J.H.; Rennekamp, M.E.; Setser, D.W., Energy partitioning data as an ion structure probe. Substituted anisoles, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1973, 95, 1732. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Bieri, Asbrink, et al., 1982
Bieri, G.; Asbrink, L.; Von Niessen, W., 30.4-nm He(II) photoelectron spectra of organic molecules, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1982, 27, 129. [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Achiba, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Iwata, S., Ionization energies, Ab initio assignments, and valence electronic structure for 200 molecules in Handbook of HeI Photoelectron Spectra of Fundamental Organic Compounds, Japan Scientific Soc. Press, Tokyo, 1981. [all data]

Palmer, Moyes, et al., 1980
Palmer, M.H.; Moyes, W.; Spiers, M., The electronic structure of substituted benzenes: Ab initio calculations and photoelectron spectra for benzonitrile, the tolunitriles, fluorobenzonitriles, dicyanobenzenes and ethynylbenzene, J. Mol. Struct., 1980, 62, 165. [all data]

Neijzen and DeLange, 1978
Neijzen, B.J.M.; DeLange, C.A., Photoelectron spectroscopy of mono-dicyanobenzenes their perfluoro derivatives, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1978, 14, 187. [all data]

Kobayashi and Nagakura, 1974
Kobayashi, T.; Nagakura, S., Photoelectron spectra of substituted benzenes, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1974, 47, 2563. [all data]

Griebel, Hohlneicher, et al., 1974
Griebel, R.; Hohlneicher, G.; Dorr, F., A photoelectron spectroscopic study of benzonitrile, ethynylbenzene and some of its substituted derivatives, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1974, 4, 185. [all data]

Baker, May, et al., 1968
Baker, A.D.; May, D.P.; Turner, D.W., Molecular photoelectron spectroscopy. Part VII. The vertical ionisation potentials of benzene and some of its monosubstituted and 1,4-disubstituted derivatives, J. Chem. Soc. B, 1968, 22. [all data]

Burgers and Holmes, 1982
Burgers, P.C.; Holmes, J.L., Metastable ion studies. XIII. The measurement of appearance energies of metastable peaks, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1982, 17, 123. [all data]

Maccoll and Mathur, 1981
Maccoll, A.; Mathur, D., On the heat of formation of [C6H4], Org. Mass Spectrom., 1981, 16, 261. [all data]

Rosenstock, Stockbauer, et al., 1980
Rosenstock, H.M.; Stockbauer, R.; Parr, A.C., Photoelectron-photoion coincidence study of benzonitrile, J. Chim. Phys., 1980, 77, 745. [all data]

Bentley, Johnstone, et al., 1973
Bentley, T.W.; Johnstone, R.A.W.; McMaster, B.N., Appearance potentials of metastable and normal ions and the kinetic shift, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1973, 510. [all data]

Gross, 1972
Gross, M.L., Ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry. A means of evaluating 'kinetic shifts', Org. Mass Spectrom., 1972, 6, 827. [all data]

Howe and Williams, 1969
Howe, I.; Williams, D.H., Calculation and qualitative predictions of mass spectra. Mono- and paradisubstituted benzenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1969, 91, 7137. [all data]

Burgers and Holmes, 1984
Burgers, P.C.; Holmes, J.L., Fragmentation rate constants and appearance energies for reactions having a large kinetic shift and the energy partitioning in their metastable decomposition, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1984, 58, 15. [all data]

Meot-ner and Kafafi, 1988
Meot-ner, M.; Kafafi, S.A., Carbon Acidities of Aromatic Compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 19, 6297. [doi:10.1021/ja00227a003] [all data]

Kiefer, Zhang, et al., 1997
Kiefer, J.H.; Zhang, Q.; Kern, R.D.; Yao, J.; Jursic, B., Pyrolysis of Aromatic Azines: Pyrazine, Pyrimidine, and Pyridine, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1997, 101, 38, 7061. [doi:10.1021/jp970211z] [all data]


Notes

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