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Butane

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - H.Y. Afeefy, J.F. Liebman, and S.E. Stein
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-125.6 ± 0.67kJ/molCcbPittam and Pilcher, 1972ALS
Deltafgas-127.1 ± 0.67kJ/molCmProsen, Maron, et al., 1951see Prosen and Rossini, 1945; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacgas-2877.5 ± 0.63kJ/molCcbPittam and Pilcher, 1972Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = -125.6 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacgas-2876.2 ± 0.63kJ/molCmProsen, Maron, et al., 1951see Prosen and Rossini, 1945; Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = -127.0 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacgas-2878.3 ± 0.63kJ/molCcbRossini, 1934Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = -124.9 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
38.0750.Chen S.S., 1975Recommended values are in good agreement with those calculated by [ Pitzer K.S., 1944, Pitzer K.S., 1946].; GT
55.35100.
67.32150.
76.44200.
92.30273.15
98.49298.15
98.95300.
124.77400.
148.66500.
169.28600.
187.02700.
202.38800.
215.73900.
227.361000.
237.481100.
246.271200.
253.931300.
260.581400.
266.401500.

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
110.58344.9Dailey B.P., 1943Other experimental values of heat capacity [ Sage B.H., 1937] are believed to be less reliable, see [ Chen S.S., 1975].; GT
114.93359.6
121.75387.5
137.99451.6
154.01521.0
162.26561.3
170.33600.8
185.85692.6

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: E.S. Domalski and E.D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid231.0J/mol*KN/AAston and Messerly, 1940Using extrapolated values of Cp 273 to 298 K for the superheated liquid.
liquid226.8J/mol*KN/AParks, Shomate, et al., 1937Calculated from heat capacity data reported by 31HUF/PAR. Extrapolation below 67 K, 41.34 J/mol*K.
liquid229.7J/mol*KN/AHuffman, Parks, et al., 1931Extrapolation below 90 K, 48.95 J/mol*K. Extrapolated above 262 K.

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
132.42270.Aston and Messerly, 1940T = 11 to 270 K.
129.7261.8Huffman, Parks, et al., 1931T = 69 to 262 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - R.L. Brown and S.E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, M. Frenkel director
AC - W.E. Acree, Jr., J.S. Chickos
DH - E.S. Domalski and E.D. Hearing
ALS - H.Y. Afeefy, J.F. Liebman, and S.E. Stein
CAL - J.S. Chickos, W.E. Acree, Jr., J.F. Liebman, Students of Chem 202 (Introduction to the Literature of Chemistry), University of Missouri -- St. Louis

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil273. ± 1.KAVGN/AAverage of 33 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus136. ± 3.KAVGN/AAverage of 8 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple134.6 ± 0.7KAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ptriple0.000007barN/AYounglove and Ely, 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 8.×10-9 bar; TRC
Ptriple0.000007barN/AHaynes and Goodwin, 1982TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc425. ± 1.KAVGN/AAverage of 18 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc38.0 ± 0.1barAVGN/AAverage of 15 out of 16 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Vc0.255l/molN/AAmbrose and Tsonopoulos, 1995 
Vc0.263l/molN/ALi and Kiran, 1988Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.01 l/mol; TRC
Vc0.2551l/molN/AYounglove and Ely, 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.001 l/mol; TRC
Vc0.258l/molN/ABeattie, Simard, et al., 1939Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.003 l/mol; from graphical plot of isotherms; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc3.92 ± 0.03mol/lAVGN/AAverage of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap22.4kJ/molN/AReid, 1972AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
22.389272.05N/AAston and Messerly, 1940P = 101.325 kPa; DH
22.44272.7N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
22.9308.N/ASako, Horiguchi, et al., 1997Based on data from 300. - 315. K.; AC
23.4277.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 195. - 292. K.; AC
23.2288.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 273. - 321. K.; AC
22.6331.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 316. - 383. K.; AC
22.8390.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 375. - 425. K.; AC
27.198.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 135. - 213. K. See also Carruth and Kobayashi, 1973.; AC
23.1264.N/AWackher, Linn, et al., 1945Based on data from 206. - 279. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC
21.0 ± 0.08272.66VAston and Messerly, 1940, 2Reanalyzed by Pedley, Naylor, et al., 1986, Original value = 22.39 ± 0.63 kJ/mol; hfusion=1.11 kcal/mol; ALS
23.9258.N/AAston and Messerly, 1940Based on data from 195. - 273. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC

Entropy of vaporization

DeltavapS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
82.30272.05Aston and Messerly, 1940P; DH

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
135.42 - 212.894.708121200.475-13.013Carruth and Kobayashi, 1973Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.
272.66 - 425.4.355761175.581-2.071Das, Reed, et al., 1973Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.
195.11 - 272.813.85002909.65-36.146Aston and Messerly, 1940Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
35.9107.BGeiseler, Quitzsch, et al., 1966AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
4.66134.9Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
19.06107.6Domalski and Hearing, 1996CAL
34.56134.9

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
2.067107.55crystaline, IIcrystaline, IAston and Messerly, 1940DH
4.661134.86crystaline, IliquidAston and Messerly, 1940DH
2.117107.0crystaline, IIcrystaline, IHuffman, Parks, et al., 1931DH
4.372134.1crystaline, IliquidHuffman, Parks, et al., 1931DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
19.22107.55crystaline, IIcrystaline, IAston and Messerly, 1940DH
34.56134.86crystaline, IliquidAston and Messerly, 1940DH
19.8107.0crystaline, IIcrystaline, IHuffman, Parks, et al., 1931DH
32.6134.1crystaline, IliquidHuffman, Parks, et al., 1931DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - J.E. Bartmess
MS - J.A. Martinho Simões
ALS - H.Y. Afeefy, J.F. Liebman, and S.E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C4H9- + Hydrogen cation = Butane

By formula: C4H9- + H+ = C4H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1739. ± 8.4kJ/molBranDePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989gas phase; The HOF(Et(Me)N.) in Seetula, Russell, et al., 1990 gives BDE(N-H) = 99 kcal/mol, ca. 5 kcal/mol too strong; B
Deltar1745. ± 20.kJ/molBranPeerboom, Rademaker, et al., 1992gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1703. ± 8.8kJ/molH-TSDePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989gas phase; The HOF(Et(Me)N.) in Seetula, Russell, et al., 1990 gives BDE(N-H) = 99 kcal/mol, ca. 5 kcal/mol too strong; B
Deltar1709. ± 21.kJ/molH-TSPeerboom, Rademaker, et al., 1992gas phase; B

C4H9Li (l) + Hydrogen bromide (g) = Butane (l) + Lithium bromide (cr)

By formula: C4H9Li (l) + HBr (g) = C4H10 (l) + BrLi (cr)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-374.0 ± 2.0kJ/molRSCHolm, 1974Please also see Pedley and Rylance, 1977. The reaction enthalpy was quoted from Pedley and Rylance, 1977. See Liebman, Martinho Simões, et al., 1995 for comments; MS

Hydrogen bromide (g) + C4H9Li (l) = Butane (l) + Lithium bromide (cr)

By formula: HBr (g) + C4H9Li (l) = C4H10 (l) + BrLi (cr)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-352.7 ± 2.0kJ/molRSCHolm, 1974Please also see Pedley and Rylance, 1977. The reaction enthalpy was quoted from Pedley and Rylance, 1977. See Liebman, Martinho Simões, et al., 1995 for comments; MS

2Hydrogen + 2-Butyne = Butane

By formula: 2H2 + C4H6 = C4H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-272.4 ± 1.3kJ/molChydConn, Kistiakowsky, et al., 1939gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -274.4 ± 0.54 kJ/mol; At 355 K; ALS

Hydrogen + 2-Butene, (E)- = Butane

By formula: H2 + C4H8 = C4H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-114.6 ± 0.42kJ/molChydKistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -115.57 ± 0.088 kJ/mol; At 355 °K; ALS

Hydrogen + 2-Butene, (Z)- = Butane

By formula: H2 + C4H8 = C4H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-118.5 ± 0.42kJ/molChydKistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -119.54 ± 0.079 kJ/mol; At 355 °K; ALS

1,3-Butadiene + 2Hydrogen = Butane

By formula: C4H6 + 2H2 = C4H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-236.7 ± 0.42kJ/molChydKistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1936gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -238.8 ± 0.4 kJ/mol; At 355 °K; ALS

C4H9Li (l) + Water (g) = Butane (g) + HLiO (cr)

By formula: C4H9Li (l) + H2O (g) = C4H10 (g) + HLiO (cr)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-240.2 ± 2.9kJ/molRSCFowell and Mortimer, 1961Please also see Pedley and Rylance, 1977 and Cox and Pilcher, 1970, 2.; MS

C4H9ClMg (cr) + (Hydrogen chloride bullet 556Water) (solution) = Butane (g) + (Cl2Mg bullet 900Water) (solution)

By formula: C4H9ClMg (cr) + (HCl bullet 556H2O) (solution) = C4H10 (g) + (Cl2Mg bullet 900H2O) (solution)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-305.8 ± 1.8kJ/molRSCGenchel, Evstigneeva, et al., 1976MS

C4H9BrMg (solution) + Hydrogen bromide (g) = Butane (solution) + Br2Mg (solution)

By formula: C4H9BrMg (solution) + HBr (g) = C4H10 (solution) + Br2Mg (solution)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-292.5 ± 2.2kJ/molRSCHolm, 1981solvent: Diethyl ether; MS

C4H9BrMg (solution) + Hydrogen bromide (g) = Butane (solution) + Br2Mg (solution)

By formula: C4H9BrMg (solution) + HBr (g) = C4H10 (solution) + Br2Mg (solution)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-305.9 ± 2.2kJ/molRSCHolm, 1981solvent: Diethyl ether; MS

C5O5W (g) + Butane (g) = C9H10O5W (g)

By formula: C5O5W (g) + C4H10 (g) = C9H10O5W (g)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-38. ± 13.kJ/molEqGBrown, Ishikawa, et al., 1990Temperature range: ca. 300-350 K; MS

1-Butene + Hydrogen = Butane

By formula: C4H8 + H2 = C4H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-125.9 ± 0.42kJ/molChydKistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935gas phase; At 355 °K; ALS

Butane = Isobutane

By formula: C4H10 = C4H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-9.699kJ/molEqkPines, Kvetinskas, et al., 1945gas phase; Heat of isomerization; ALS

3Hydrogen + 1-Buten-3-yne = Butane

By formula: 3H2 + C4H4 = C4H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-422. ± 2.kJ/molChydRoth, Adamczak, et al., 1991liquid phase; ALS

IR Spectrum

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Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spec Data Center, S.E. Stein, director

Data compiled by: P.M. Chu, F.R. Guenther, G.C. Rhoderick, and W.J. Lafferty


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spec Data Center, S.E. Stein, director

Spectrum

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Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
NIST MS number 18940

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Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: T. Shimanouchi

Trans form     Symmetry:   C2h     Symmetry Number sigma = 2


 Sym.   No   Approximate   Selected Freq.  Infrared   Raman   Comments 
 Species   type of mode   Value   Rating   Value  Phase  Value  Phase

ag 1 CH3 d-str 2965  C  ia 2965 sln. SF(«nu»20)
ag 2 CH3 s-str 2872  C  ia 2872 sln.
ag 3 CH2 s-str 2853  D  ia 2853 sln.
ag 4 CH3 d-deform 1460  C  ia 1460 sln. SF(«nu»22)
ag 5 CH2 scis 1442  D  ia 1442 sln.
ag 6 CH3 s-deform 1382  C  ia CF
ag 7 CH2 wag 1361  D  ia CF
ag 8 CH3 rock 1151  C  ia 1151 sln.
ag 9 CC str 1059  C  ia 1059 sln.
ag 10 CC str 837  C  ia 837 sln.
ag 11 CCC deform 425  C  ia 425 sln.
au 12 CH3 d-str 2968  C 2968 S solid solid  ia SF(«nu»27)
au 13 CH2 a-str 2930  C 2930 S solid solid  ia
au 14 CH3 d-deform 1461  C 1461 S solid solid  ia SF(«nu»30, )OV(«nu»30,«nu»31)
au 15 CH2 twist 1257  C 1257 W sln.  ia
au 16 CH3 rock 948  B 948 M solid solid  ia
au 17 CH2 rock 731  B 731 S solid solid  ia
au 18 CH3-CH2 torsion 194  E  ia CF
au 19 CH2-CH2 torsion 102  E  ia CF
bg 20 CH3 d-str 2965  C  ia 2965 sln. SF(«nu»1)
bg 21 CH2 a-str 2912  C  ia 2912 sln.
bg 22 CH3 d-deform 1460  C  ia 1460 sln. SF(«nu»4)
bg 23 CH2 twist 1300  C  ia 1300 sln.
bg 24 CH3 rock 1180  D  ia CF
bg 25 CH2 rock 803  D  ia CF
bg 26 CH3-CH2 torsion 225  E  ia CF
bu 27 CH3 d-str 2968  C 2968 S solid solid  ia SF(«nu»12)
bu 28 CH3 s-str 2870  C 2870 S solid solid  ia
bu 29 CH2 s-str 2853  E  ia SF(«nu»3)
bu 30 CH3 d-deform 1461  C 1461 S solid solid  ia SF(«nu»14, )OV(«nu»14,«nu»31)
bu 31 CH2 scis 1461  C 1461 S solid solid  ia OV(«nu»14,«nu»30)
bu 32 CH3 s-deform 1379  B 1379 M solid solid  ia
bu 33 CH2 wag 1290  B 1290 W solid solid  ia
bu 34 CC str 1009  C 1009 W sln.  ia
bu 35 CH3 rock 964  B 964 M solid solid  ia
bu 36 CCC deform 271  E  ia CF

Source: Shimanouchi, 1972

Gauche form     Symmetry:   C2     Symmetry Number sigma = 2


 Sym.   No   Approximate   Selected Freq.  Infrared   Raman   Comments 
 Species   type of mode   Value   Rating   Value  Phase  Value  Phase

a 1 CH3 d-str 2968  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
a 2 CH3 d-str 2968  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
a 3 CH2 a-str 2920  D Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
a 4 CH3 s-str 2870  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
a 5 CH2 s-str 2860  D Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
a 6 CH3 d-deform 1460  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
a 7 CH3 d-deform 1460  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
a 8 CH2 scis 1450  D Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
a 9 CH3 s-deform 1380  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
a 10 CH2 wag 1350  C 1350 W liq.
a 11 CH2 twist 1281  C 1281 liq.
a 12 CH3 rock 1168  D 1168 liq.
a 13 CC str 1077  D 1077 liq.
a 14 CH3 rock 980  D 980 liq. OV(«nu»32)
a 15 CC str 827  D 827 liq.
a 16 CH2 rock 788  C 788 M liq. 789 liq.
a 17 CCC deform 320  C 320 liq.
a 18 CH3-CH2 torsion 201  E CF
a 19 CH2-CH2 torsion 101  E CF
b 20 CH3 d-str 2968  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
b 21 CH3 d-str 2968  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
b 22 CH2 a-str 2920  D Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
b 23 CH3 s-str 2870  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
b 24 CH2 s-str 2860  D Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
b 25 CH3 d-deform 1460  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
b 26 CH3 d-deform 1460  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
b 27 CH2 scis 1450  D Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
b 28 CH3 s-deform 1380  C Deduced from the corresponding frequencies of the trans form
b 29 CH2 wag 1370  D 1370 VW liq.
b 30 CH2 twist 1233  C 1233 W liq.
b 31 CC str 1133  D 1133 M liq.
b 32 CH3 rock 980  D 980 liq. OV(«nu»14,«nu»30)
b 33 CH3 rock 955  C 955 liq.
b 34 CH2 rock 747  C 747 S liq.
b 35 CCC deform 469  D CF
b 36 CH3-CH2 torsion 197  E CF

Source: Shimanouchi, 1972

Notes

SStrong
MMedium
WWeak
VWVery weak
iaInactive
CFCalculated frequency
SFCalculation shows that the frequency approximately equals that of the vibration indicated in the parentheses.
OVOverlapped by band indicated in parentheses.
B1~3 cm-1 uncertainty
C3~6 cm-1 uncertainty
D6~15 cm-1 uncertainty
E15~30 cm-1 uncertainty

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Pittam and Pilcher, 1972
Pittam, D.A.; Pilcher, G., Measurements of heats of combustion by flame calorimetry. Part 8.-Methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and 2-methylpropane, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1, 1972, 68, 2224-2229. [all data]

Prosen, Maron, et al., 1951
Prosen, E.J.; Maron, F.W.; Rossini, F.D., Heats of combustion, formation, and insomerization of ten C4 hydrocarbons, J. Res. NBS, 1951, 46, 106-112. [all data]

Prosen and Rossini, 1945
Prosen, E.J.; Rossini, F.D., Heats of formation and combustion of 1,3-butadiene and styrene, J. Res. NBS, 1945, 34, 59-63. [all data]

Rossini, 1934
Rossini, F.D., Calorimetric determination of the heats of combustion of ethane, propane, normal butane, and normal pentane, J. Res. NBS, 1934, 12, 735-750. [all data]

Chen S.S., 1975
Chen S.S., Ideal gas thermodynamic properties and isomerization of n-butane and isobutane, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1975, 4, 859-869. [all data]

Pitzer K.S., 1944
Pitzer K.S., Thermodynamics of gaseous paraffins. Specific heat and related properties, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1944, 36, 829-831. [all data]

Pitzer K.S., 1946
Pitzer K.S., The entropies and related properties of branched paraffin hydrocarbons, Chem. Rev., 1946, 39, 435-447. [all data]

Dailey B.P., 1943
Dailey B.P., Heat capacities and hindered rotation in n-butane and isobutane, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1943, 65, 44-46. [all data]

Sage B.H., 1937
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Aston and Messerly, 1940
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Notes

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