Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Dichloromethylene

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas238.49kJ/molReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in December, 1968
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas,1 bar265.33J/mol*KReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in December, 1968

Gas Phase Heat Capacity (Shomate Equation)

Cp° = A + B*t + C*t2 + D*t3 + E/t2
H° − H°298.15= A*t + B*t2/2 + C*t3/3 + D*t4/4 − E/t + F − H
S° = A*ln(t) + B*t + C*t2/2 + D*t3/3 − E/(2*t2) + G
    Cp = heat capacity (J/mol*K)
    H° = standard enthalpy (kJ/mol)
    S° = standard entropy (J/mol*K)
    t = temperature (K) / 1000.

View plot Requires a JavaScript / HTML 5 canvas capable browser.

View table.

Temperature (K) 298. - 1700.1700. - 6000.
A 55.20579101.2202
B -6.434992-18.23308
C 16.469902.956063
D -5.290501-0.168778
E -0.749371-35.72743
F 219.6638149.3491
G 329.1599329.8900
H 238.4884238.4884
ReferenceChase, 1998Chase, 1998
Comment Data last reviewed in December, 1968 Data last reviewed in December, 1968

Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: John E. Bartmess

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

(CAS Reg. No. 14478-07-0 bullet 4294967295Dichloromethylene) + Dichloromethylene = CAS Reg. No. 14478-07-0

By formula: (CAS Reg. No. 14478-07-0 bullet 4294967295CCl2) + CCl2 = CAS Reg. No. 14478-07-0

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar129. ± 11.kJ/molCIDTPaulino and Squires, 1991gas phase

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

View reactions leading to CCl2+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)861.kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity828.5kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
1.5930 ± 0.0060LPESWren, Vogelhuber, et al., 2009revision: earlier had HCCl2- contaminant. Triplet ca.0.9±0.2 eV up; B
1.66 ± 0.14IMRBBorn, Ingemann, et al., 2000Between oCHO-nitrobenzene, 3,5-diCF3-nitrobenzene; B
1.590 ± 0.070LPESSchwartz, Davico, et al., 1999T > S by 3±3 kcal/mol. But Barden and Schaeffer, 2000: EA(triplet)>laser energy.Calc: 19.5±2 kcal. See also Dyke, Lee, et al., 2005.; B
1.6030 ± 0.0080LPESMurray, Leopold, et al., 1988B
1.80 ± 0.30NBAEDispert and Lacmann, 1978From CCl4,CFCl3,CHCl3; B
2.50 ± 0.60EIAEScheunemann, Illenberger, et al., 1980From CCl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2; B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.27 ± 0.04PEKohn, Robles, et al., 1993LL
9.76EIShapiro and Lossing, 1968RDSH

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
CCl+16.3 ± 0.2ClEIBlanchard and LeGoff, 1957RDSH

Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Marilyn E. Jacox

State:   A


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To = 17255.67 ± 0.02 gas A-X 400 987 Huie, Long, et al., 1977
Kiefer, Siegel, et al., 1978
Tiee, Wampler, et al., 1979
Predmore, Murray, et al., 1984
Ibuki, Takahashi, et al., 1986
Choe, Tanner, et al., 1989
Clouthier and Karolczak, 1989
Clouthier and Karolczak, 1991
Lu, Chen, et al., 1991
Liu, Lee, et al., 2003
Guss, Richmond, et al., 2005
Mukarakate, Mishchenko, et al., 2006
Richmond, Tao, et al., 2008
To = 17092 Ar A-X 440 827 Milligan and Jacox, 1967
Jacox and Milligan, 1970
Shirk, 1971
Tevault and Andrews, 1975
Bondybey, 1977


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

a1 1 Sym. stretch 634.3 gas LF Predmore, Murray, et al., 1984
Choe, Tanner, et al., 1989
Clouthier and Karolczak, 1991
1 Sym. stretch 624 Ar LF Bondybey, 1977
2 Bend 302.6 gas LF Tiee, Wampler, et al., 1979
Predmore, Murray, et al., 1984
Choe, Tanner, et al., 1989
Clouthier and Karolczak, 1991
2 Bend 304 Ar AB LF Milligan and Jacox, 1967
Jacox and Milligan, 1970
Bondybey, 1977

State:   a


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To = 7260 ± 1600 gas Wren, Vogelhuber, et al., 2009, 2


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

a1 1 Sym. stretch 600 T gas PE Wren, Vogelhuber, et al., 2009, 2
2 Bend 300 T gas PE Wren, Vogelhuber, et al., 2009, 2

State:   X


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

a1 1 Sym. stretch 730.0 gas PE LF Murray, Leopold, et al., 1988
Clouthier and Karolczak, 1991
Schwartz, Davico, et al., 1999, 2
Liu, Lee, et al., 2003
Guss, Richmond, et al., 2005
Mukarakate, Mishchenko, et al., 2006
Wren, Vogelhuber, et al., 2009, 2
1 Sym. stretch 725.6 Ne IR Lugez, Jacox, et al., 1998
1 Sym. stretch 721 w m Ar IR LF Milligan and Jacox, 1967
Andrews, 1968
Jacox and Milligan, 1970
Tevault and Andrews, 1975
Bondybey, 1977
2 Bend 335.2 gas PE LF Murray, Leopold, et al., 1988
Clouthier and Karolczak, 1991
Schwartz, Davico, et al., 1999, 2
Liu, Lee, et al., 2003
Guss, Richmond, et al., 2005
Mukarakate, Mishchenko, et al., 2006
Wren, Vogelhuber, et al., 2009, 2
2 Bend 333 Ar LF Shirk, 1971
Tevault and Andrews, 1975
Bondybey, 1977
b2 3 Asym. stretch 759.5 ± 1.2 gas LF Guss, Richmond, et al., 2005
Mukarakate, Mishchenko, et al., 2006
3 Asym. stretch 757.9 Ne IR Lugez, Jacox, et al., 1998
3 Asym. stretch 748 vs Ar IR Milligan and Jacox, 1967
Andrews, 1968
Jacox and Milligan, 1970
Fridgen, Zhang, et al., 2000
3 Asym. stretch 756 Kr IR Fridgen, Zhang, et al., 2000
3 Asym. stretch 741 Kr IR Fridgen, Zhang, et al., 2000

Additional references: Jacox, 1994, page 99; Jacox, 2003, page 138; Ibuki, Hiraya, et al., 1989; Fujitake and Hirota, 1989; Hansen, Mader, et al., 2001; Pancur, Brendel, et al., 2005

Notes

wWeak
mMedium
vsVery strong
TTentative assignment or approximate value
oEnergy separation between the v = 0 levels of the excited and electronic ground states.

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Chase, 1998
Chase, M.W., Jr., NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, Fourth Edition, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 9, 1998, 1-1951. [all data]

Paulino and Squires, 1991
Paulino, J.A.; Squires, R.R., Carbene Thermochemistry from Collision-Induced Dissociation Threshold Energy Measurements - The Heats of Formation of X1A1 CF2 and X1A1 CCl2, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 15, 5573, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00015a009 . [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Wren, Vogelhuber, et al., 2009
Wren, S.W.; Vogelhuber, K.M.; Ervin, K.M.; Lineberger, W.C., The photoelectron spectrum of CCl2-: the convergence of theory and experiment after a decade of debate, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009, 11, 23, 4745-4753, https://doi.org/10.1039/b822690c . [all data]

Born, Ingemann, et al., 2000
Born, M.; Ingemann, S.; Nibbering, N.M.M., Thermochemical properties of halogen-substituted methanes, methyl radicals, and carbenes in the gas phase, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 2000, 194, 2-3, 103-113, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1387-3806(99)00125-6 . [all data]

Schwartz, Davico, et al., 1999
Schwartz, R.L.; Davico, G.E.; Ramond, T.M.; Lineberger, W.C., Singlet-triplet splittings in CX2 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) dihalocarbenes via negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1999, 103, 41, 8213-8221, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp992214c . [all data]

Barden and Schaeffer, 2000
Barden, C.J.; Schaeffer, H.F., III, The Singlet-Triplet Energy Separation in Dichlorocarbene: a Surprising Difference Between Theory and Experiment, J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 112, 15, 6515-6516, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.481601 . [all data]

Dyke, Lee, et al., 2005
Dyke, J.M.; Lee, E.P.F.; Mok, D.K.W.; Chau, F.T., A combined ab initio/Franck-Condon study of the A-X single-vibronic-level emission spectrum of CCl2 and the photodetachment spectrum of CCl2-, ChemPhysChem, 2005, 6, 10, 2046-2059, https://doi.org/10.1002/cphc.200500194 . [all data]

Murray, Leopold, et al., 1988
Murray, K.K.; Leopold, D.G.; Miller, T.M.; Lineberger, W.C., Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Halocarbene Anions HCF-, HCCl-, HCBr-, HCI-, CF2-, and CCl2-, J. Chem. Phys., 1988, 89, 9, 5442, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.455596 . [all data]

Dispert and Lacmann, 1978
Dispert, H.; Lacmann, K., Negative ion formation in collisions between potassium and fluoro- and chloromethanes: Electron affinities and bond dissociation energies, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1978, 28, 49. [all data]

Scheunemann, Illenberger, et al., 1980
Scheunemann, H.U.; Illenberger, E.; Baumgartel, H., Dissociative electron attachment to CCl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH3Cl, Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem., 1980, 84, 580. [all data]

Kohn, Robles, et al., 1993
Kohn, D.W.; Robles, E.S.J.; Logan, C.F.; Chen, P., Photoelectron spectrum, ionization potential, and heat of formation of CCl2, J. Phys. Chem., 1993, 97, 4936. [all data]

Shapiro and Lossing, 1968
Shapiro, J.S.; Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XXXVII. The ionization potential and heat of formation of dichlorocarbene, J. Phys. Chem., 1968, 72, 1552. [all data]

Blanchard and LeGoff, 1957
Blanchard, L.P.; LeGoff, P., Mass spectrometric study of the species CS, SO, and CCl2 produced in primary heterogeneous reactions, Can. J. Chem., 1957, 35, 89. [all data]

Huie, Long, et al., 1977
Huie, R.E.; Long, N.J.T.; Thrush, B.A., Laser induced fluorescence of CFCl and CCl2 in the gas phase, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1977, 51, 2, 197, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(77)80383-7 . [all data]

Kiefer, Siegel, et al., 1978
Kiefer, R.; Siegel, A.; Schultz, A., Two chemiluminescence studies of the reaction Ba + CCl4 --> BaCl2 + CCl2(Ã), Chem. Phys. Lett., 1978, 59, 2, 298, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(78)89099-X . [all data]

Tiee, Wampler, et al., 1979
Tiee, J.J.; Wampler, F.B.; Rice, W.W., Laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra of CCl2 and CFCI radicals in the gas phase, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1979, 65, 3, 425, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(79)80264-X . [all data]

Predmore, Murray, et al., 1984
Predmore, D.A.; Murray, A.M.; Harmony, M.D., Laser-excitation spectrum of gas-phase CCl2, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1984, 110, 2, 173, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(84)80170-0 . [all data]

Ibuki, Takahashi, et al., 1986
Ibuki, T.; Takahashi, N.; Hiraya, A.; Shobatake, K., CCl2(A 1B1) radical formation in VUV photolyses of CCl4 and CBrCl3, J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 85, 10, 5717, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.451532 . [all data]

Choe, Tanner, et al., 1989
Choe, J.-I.; Tanner, S.R.; Harmony, M.D., Laser-excitation spectrum and structure of CCl2 in a free-jet expansion from a heated nozzle, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1989, 138, 2, 319, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2852(89)90001-5 . [all data]

Clouthier and Karolczak, 1989
Clouthier, D.J.; Karolczak, J., Pyrolysis jet spectroscopy: rotationally resolved electronic spectrum of dichlorocarbene, J. Phys. Chem., 1989, 93, 22, 7542, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100359a003 . [all data]

Clouthier and Karolczak, 1991
Clouthier, D.J.; Karolczak, J., A pyrolysis jet spectroscopic study of the rotationally resolved electronic spectrum of dichlorocarbene, J. Chem. Phys., 1991, 94, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.460378 . [all data]

Lu, Chen, et al., 1991
Lu, Q.; Chen, Y.; Wang, D.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, S.; Chen, C.; Koshi, M.; Matsui, H.; Koda, S.; Ma, X., Laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectrum of CCl2 cooled in a supersonic free jet, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1991, 178, 5-6, 517, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(91)87012-Z . [all data]

Liu, Lee, et al., 2003
Liu, M.-L.; Lee, C.-L.; Bezant, A.; Tarczay, G.; Clark, R.J.; Miller, T.A.; Chang, B.-C., Dispersed fluorescence spectra of the CCl2 Ã--X vibronic bands, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2003, 5, 7, 1352, https://doi.org/10.1039/b300637a . [all data]

Guss, Richmond, et al., 2005
Guss, J.S.; Richmond, C.A.; Nauta, K.; Kable, S.H., Laser-induced fluorescence excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of the «65533»(1B1)?X?(1A1) transition of dichlorocarbene, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2005, 7, 1, 100, https://doi.org/10.1039/b413391a . [all data]

Mukarakate, Mishchenko, et al., 2006
Mukarakate, C.; Mishchenko, Y.; Brusse, D.; Tao, C.; Reid, S.A., Probing spin?orbit mixing and the singlet?triplet gap in dichloromethylene via?Ka-sorted emission spectra, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2006, 8, 37, 4320, https://doi.org/10.1039/b610582c . [all data]

Richmond, Tao, et al., 2008
Richmond, C.; Tao, C.; Mukarakate, C.; Fan, H.; Nauta, K.; Schmidt, T.W.; Kable, S.H.; Reid, S.A., Unraveling the A, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2008, 112, 45, 11355, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp806944q . [all data]

Milligan and Jacox, 1967
Milligan, D.E.; Jacox, M.E., Matrix-Isolation Study of the Reaction of Carbon Atoms with Chlorine. The Electronic and Vibrational Spectra of the Free Radical CCl2, J. Chem. Phys., 1967, 47, 2, 703, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1711942 . [all data]

Jacox and Milligan, 1970
Jacox, M.E.; Milligan, D.E., Matrix-Isolation Study of the Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photolysis of Methyl Chloride and Methylene Chloride. Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectra of the Free Radicals CCl, H2CCl, and CCl2, J. Chem. Phys., 1970, 53, 7, 2688, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1674392 . [all data]

Shirk, 1971
Shirk, J.S., Laser Excited Fluorescence of CCl2, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 55, 7, 3608, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1676629 . [all data]

Tevault and Andrews, 1975
Tevault, D.E.; Andrews, L., Laser-induced fluorescence spectrum of argon matrix-isolated dichlorocarbene, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1975, 54, 1, 110, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2852(75)90012-0 . [all data]

Bondybey, 1977
Bondybey, V.E., Emission and excitation spectra of CCl2 in solid argon, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1977, 64, 2, 180, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2852(77)90257-0 . [all data]

Wren, Vogelhuber, et al., 2009, 2
Wren, S.W.; Vogelhuber, K.M.; Ervin, K.M.; Lineberger, W.C., The photoelectron spectrum of CCl2-: the convergence of theory and experiment after a decade of debate, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009, 11, 23, 4745, https://doi.org/10.1039/b822690c . [all data]

Schwartz, Davico, et al., 1999, 2
Schwartz, R.L.; Davico, G.E.; Ramond, T.M.; Lineberger, W.C., Singlet-Triplet Splittings in CX, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1999, 103, 41, 8213, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp992214c . [all data]

Lugez, Jacox, et al., 1998
Lugez, C.L.; Jacox, M.E.; Johnson, R.D., III, Matrix isolation study of the interaction of excited neon atoms with CCl[sub 4]: Infrared spectra of the ion products and of Cl[sub 2]CCl**Cl, J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 109, 17, 7147, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.477397 . [all data]

Andrews, 1968
Andrews, L., Infrared Spectrum of Dichlorocarbene in Solid Argon, J. Chem. Phys., 1968, 48, 3, 979, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1668853 . [all data]

Fridgen, Zhang, et al., 2000
Fridgen, T.D.; Zhang, X.K.; Parnis, J.M.; March, R.E., Isomerization and Fragmentation Products of CH, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2000, 104, 16, 3487, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp993162u . [all data]

Jacox, 1994
Jacox, M.E., Vibrational and electronic energy levels of polyatomic transient molecules, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1994, 464. [all data]

Jacox, 2003
Jacox, M.E., Vibrational and electronic energy levels of polyatomic transient molecules: supplement B, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2003, 32, 1, 1-441, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1497629 . [all data]

Ibuki, Hiraya, et al., 1989
Ibuki, T.; Hiraya, A.; Shobatake, K., Photoabsorption spectrum and CCl2(Ã 1B1) radical formation in the VUV excitation of C2Cl6, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1989, 157, 6, 521, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(89)87403-2 . [all data]

Fujitake and Hirota, 1989
Fujitake, M.; Hirota, E., The millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectrum of dichlorocarbene CCl2: Electronic structure estimated from the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants, J. Chem. Phys., 1989, 91, 6, 3426, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.456916 . [all data]

Hansen, Mader, et al., 2001
Hansen, N.; Mader, H.; Temps, F., The rotational spectrum of dichlorocarbene, C35Cl2, observed by molecular beam-Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2001, 3, 1, 50, https://doi.org/10.1039/b007492f . [all data]

Pancur, Brendel, et al., 2005
Pancur, T.; Brendel, K.; Hansen, N.; Madur, H.; Markov, V.; Temps, F., Microwave spectra of the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopomers of dichloromethylene: Nuclear quadrupole-, spin--rotation-, and nuclear shielding constants from the hyperfine structures of rotational lines, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2005, 232, 2, 375, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jms.2005.04.013 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References