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Tricarbon


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas196.00kcal/molReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in December, 1969
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas,1 bar56.709cal/mol*KReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in December, 1969

Gas Phase Heat Capacity (Shomate Equation)

Cp° = A + B*t + C*t2 + D*t3 + E/t2
H° − H°298.15= A*t + B*t2/2 + C*t3/3 + D*t4/4 − E/t + F − H
S° = A*ln(t) + B*t + C*t2/2 + D*t3/3 − E/(2*t2) + G
    Cp = heat capacity (cal/mol*K)
    H° = standard enthalpy (kcal/mol)
    S° = standard entropy (cal/mol*K)
    t = temperature (K) / 1000.

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View table.

Temperature (K) 298. - 1000.1000. - 6000.
A 6.29389210.49200
B 4.8442401.312430
C 0.666549-0.195746
D -1.2067810.011639
E 0.111612-0.927304
F 194.2810190.7920
G 63.4890166.52651
H 196.0000196.0000
ReferenceChase, 1998Chase, 1998
Comment Data last reviewed in December, 1969 Data last reviewed in December, 1969

Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

(Carbon cation bullet 6carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 6carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 6C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 6C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar166. ± 23.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

(Carbon cation bullet 7carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 7carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 7C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 7C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar173. ± 23.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

(Carbon cation bullet 2carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 2carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 2C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 2C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar127.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

(Carbon cation bullet 3carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 3carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 3C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 3C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar120.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

(Carbon cation bullet 4carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 4carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 4C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 4C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar120.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

(Carbon cation bullet 5carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 5carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 5C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 5C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar122.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Ion clustering data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

View reactions leading to C3+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)183.3kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity176.0kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
1.995 ± 0.025LPESArnold, Bradforth, et al., 1991Linear structure for both neutral and anion; B
1.981 ± 0.020LPESOakes and Ellison, 1986From propene discharge; geometry unspecified. Liekly linear/bent form ( Sheehan, Parsons, et al., 2008); B
1.95 ± 0.10LPESYang, Taylor, et al., 1989EA given is Vertical Detachment Energy. probably linear structure.; B
2.5 ± 1.0EIAEHonig, 1954From graphite; B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
13.0 ± 0.1PERamathan, Zimmerman, et al., 1993LL
11.1 ± 0.5EIGupta and Gingerich, 1979LLK
12.1 ± 0.2EIWyatt and Stafford, 1972LLK
12.1 ± 0.3EIKohl and Stearns, 1970RDSH
12.6 ± 0.6EIDrowart, Burns, et al., 1959RDSH

Ion clustering data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

(Carbon cation bullet 2carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 2carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 2C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 2C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar127.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

(Carbon cation bullet 3carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 3carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 3C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 3C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar120.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

(Carbon cation bullet 4carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 4carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 4C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 4C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar120.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

(Carbon cation bullet 5carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 5carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 5C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 5C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar122.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

(Carbon cation bullet 6carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 6carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 6C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 6C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar166. ± 23.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

(Carbon cation bullet 7carbon) + Tricarbon = (Carbon cation bullet Tricarbon bullet 7carbon)

By formula: (C+ bullet 7C) + C3 = (C+ bullet C3 bullet 7C)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar173. ± 23.kcal/molMIKESRadi, Rincon, et al., 1989gas phase

Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Marilyn E. Jacox

State:   1Su+


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To = 53792 Ne 1Su+-X 130 186 Monninger, Forderer, et al., 2002
To = 52274 Ar 1Su+-X 132 191 Chang and Graham, 1982
Monninger, Forderer, et al., 2002


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

Sigmag+ 1 Sym. stretch 1080 ± 30 Ar AB Chang and Graham, 1982
Piu 2 Bend 300 ± 30 Ar AB Chang and Graham, 1982
Monninger, Forderer, et al., 2002
Sigmau+ 3 Asym. stretch 780 ± 30 Ar AB Chang and Graham, 1982

State:   D


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To = 42266 ± 8 gas Saha and Western, 2006


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

Sigmag+ 1 Sym. stretch 1234 ± 4 w gas DR Saha and Western, 2006
Piu 2 Bend 486 ± 3 w gas DR Saha and Western, 2006
Sigmau+ 3 Asym. stretch 1778 ± 8 w gas DR Saha and Western, 2006

State:   B


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

gas B-X 266 302 Lemire, Fu, et al., 1989
Rohlfing and Goldsmith, 1989
Rohlfing, 1989
Izuha and Yamanouchi, 2000
Ne B-X 281 302 Weltner and McLeod, 1966
Forney, Freivogel, et al., 1996
Ar B-X 280 284 Szczepanski and Vala, 1991


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

Sigmag+ 1 Sym. stretch 940 ± 60 gas LF Izuha and Yamanouchi, 2000
Piu 2 Bend 222 ± 20 H Ne AB Forney, Freivogel, et al., 1996
2 Bend 195 H Ar AB Szczepanski and Vala, 1991

State:   ?


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

Ar 367 373 Szczepanski and Vala, 1991

State:   A


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To = 24675.38 gas A-X 325 640 Douglas, 1951
Clusius and Douglas, 1954
Gausset, Herzberg, et al., 1963
Gausset, Herzberg, et al., 1965
Merer, 1967
Smith, Anselment, et al., 1987
Rohlfing, 1989
Baker, Bramble, et al., 1993
Balfour, Cao, et al., 1994
Izuha and Yamanouchi, 1995
Baker, Bramble, et al., 1997
Tokaryk and Chomiak, 1997
Izuha and Yamanouchi, 1998
McCall, Casaes, et al., 2003
Tanabashi, Hirao, et al., 2005
Zhang, Chen, et al., 2005
Chen, Merer, et al., 2010
To = 24640 Ne A-X 347 488 Weltner, Walsh, et al., 1964
Weltner and McLeod, 1964
Weltner and McLeod, 1966
Bondybey and English, 1978
To = 24408 Ar A-X 352 624 Bondybey and English, 1978
Cermak, Forderer, et al., 1998
To = 24370 Ar A-X 352 624 Weltner, Walsh, et al., 1964
Weltner and McLeod, 1964
Barger and Broida, 1965
Bondybey and English, 1978
Cermak, Forderer, et al., 1998
To = 24350 Kr Barger and Broida, 1965
To = 23610 Xe Weltner, Walsh, et al., 1964
Barger and Broida, 1965
To = 24498.6 H2 A-X 381 409 Hoshina, Kato, et al., 2004
To = 24635 N2 Barger and Broida, 1965


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

Sigmag+ 1 Sym. stretch 1085.9 gas AB Gausset, Herzberg, et al., 1965
Baker, Bramble, et al., 1993
1 Sym. stretch 1094 ± 6 Ne AB Weltner and McLeod, 1964
1 Sym. stretch 1093 ± 6 Ar AB Weltner and McLeod, 1964
Barger and Broida, 1965
1 Sym. stretch 1090 Kr AB Barger and Broida, 1965
1 Sym. stretch 1120 Xe AB Barger and Broida, 1965
1 Sym. stretch 1094.3 H2 AB Hoshina, Kato, et al., 2004
1 Sym. stretch 1050 N2 AB Barger and Broida, 1965
Piu 2 Bend 307.9 gas AB Gausset, Herzberg, et al., 1965
Sigmau+ 3 Asym. stretch 541.7 gas LF Izuha and Yamanouchi, 1995
Izuha and Yamanouchi, 1998

State:   b


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To = 23570 ± 210 gas b-a 1530 1640 Sasada, Amano, et al., 1991
Tokaryk and Civis, 1995
To = 23584 Ne Smith, Agreiter, et al., 1993


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

Piu 2 Bend 392 ± 13 gas EM DL Tokaryk and Civis, 1995
Tokaryk, Harvie, et al., 2002

State:   a


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To = 17090 ± 210 gas b-a 1530 1640 Sasada, Amano, et al., 1991
Arnold, Bradforth, et al., 1991
Tokaryk and Civis, 1995
To = 17080 Ne a-X 585 631 Weltner and McLeod, 1964
Bondybey and English, 1978
Ne b-a 1250 1538 Smith, Agreiter, et al., 1993
To = 16930 Ar a-X 590 857 Weltner and McLeod, 1964
Szczepanski and Vala, 1993
Cermak, Forderer, et al., 1998
Ar b-a 1253 1544 Smith, Agreiter, et al., 1993


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

Sigmag+ 1 Sym. stretch 1156.5 T Ne IR Smith, Agreiter, et al., 1993
1 Sym. stretch 1154.2 T Ar IR Smith, Agreiter, et al., 1993
Piu 2 Bend 542 ± 13 gas EM DL Tokaryk and Civis, 1995
Tokaryk, Harvie, et al., 2002
Sigmau+ 3 Asym. stretch 1449.53 gas DL Hwang, Klassen, et al., 1996
3 Asym. stretch 1454.1 Ne IR Smith, Agreiter, et al., 1993
3 Asym. stretch 1455.3 Ar IR Smith, Agreiter, et al., 1993

State:   X


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

Sigmag+ 1 Sym. stretch 1224.49 gas AB LF Merer, 1967
Smith, Anselment, et al., 1987
Rohlfing, 1989
Baker, Bramble, et al., 1993
Zhang, Chen, et al., 2005
1 Sym. stretch 1226 Ne EM Weltner and McLeod, 1964
1 Sym. stretch 1216.4 ± 0.6 Ar IR Ortman, Hauge, et al., 1988
Szczepanski and Vala, 1993
Cermak, Forderer, et al., 1998
1 Sym. stretch 1215.8 T Kr IR Szczepanski, Ekern, et al., 1996
1 Sym. stretch 1209 T H2 IR Hoshina, Kato, et al., 2004
1 Sym. stretch 1234 T N2 IR Ortman, Hauge, et al., 1988
Piu 2 Bend 63.42 gas UV DL Gausset, Herzberg, et al., 1965
Kawaguchi, Matsumura, et al., 1989
Rohlfing, 1989
2 Bend 63.42 gas SEP TF Northrup and Sears, 1989
Schmuttenmaer, Cohen, et al., 1990
Gendriesch, Pehl, et al., 2003
2 Bend 78 ± 2 A gas LF Zhang, Lin, et al., 2004
2 Bend 70 T Ne AB Weltner and McLeod, 1964
2 Bend 73.0 ± 0.3 H Ar LF Cermak, Forderer, et al., 1998
Sigmau+ 3 Asym. stretch 2040.02 gas IR DL Hinkle, Keady, et al., 1988
Matsumura, Kanamori, et al., 1988
Rohlfing, 1989
3 Asym. stretch 2043.5 Ne IR Weltner, Walsh, et al., 1964
Wu, Chen, et al., 2009
3 Asym. stretch 2038.9 s Ar IR Weltner, Walsh, et al., 1964
Jacox and Milligan, 1974
Cermak, Forderer, et al., 1998
3 Asym. stretch 2033.3 Kr IR Szczepanski, Ekern, et al., 1996
3 Asym. stretch 2035.9 H2 IR Miki, Wakabayashi, et al., 1996
Tam, Macler, et al., 1997
Hoshina, Kato, et al., 2004
3 Asym. stretch 2034.5 H2 IR Hoshina, Kato, et al., 2004
3 Asym. stretch 2031 N2 IR Ortman, Hauge, et al., 1988

Additional references: Jacox, 1994, page 65; Jacox, 1998, page 168; Jacox, 2003, page 81; Becker, Tatarczyk, et al., 1979; Reisler, Mangir, et al., 1980; Jungen and Merer, 1980; Rohlfing and Goldsmith, 1990; Northrup and Sears, 1990; Northrup, Sears, et al., 1991

Notes

wWeak
sStrong
H(1/2)(2nu)
TTentative assignment or approximate value
oEnergy separation between the v = 0 levels of the excited and electronic ground states.
A0~1 cm-1 uncertainty

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Chase, 1998
Chase, M.W., Jr., NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, Fourth Edition, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 9, 1998, 1-1951. [all data]

Radi, Rincon, et al., 1989
Radi, P.P.; Rincon, M.E.; Hsu, M.T.; Brodbelt-Lustig, J.; Kemper, P.; Bowers, M.T., Structure, Reactivity and Energetics of Covalently Bound Carbon Cluster Ions, C5+ to C11+: Experiment and Theory, J. Phys. Chem., 1989, 93, 16, 6187, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100353a045 . [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Arnold, Bradforth, et al., 1991
Arnold, D.W.; Bradforth, S.E.; Kitsopoulos, T.N.; Neumark, D.M., Vibrationally Resolved Spectra of C2-C11 by Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 1991, 95, 12, 8753, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.461211 . [all data]

Oakes and Ellison, 1986
Oakes, J.M.; Ellison, G.B., Photoelectron spectroscopy of radical anions, Tetrahedron, 1986, 42, 6263. [all data]

Sheehan, Parsons, et al., 2008
Sheehan, S.M.; Parsons, B.F.; Zhou, J.; Garand, E.; Yen, T.A.; Moore, D.T.; Neumark, D.M., Characterization of cyclic and linear C3H- and C3H via anion photoelectron spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 128, 3, 034301, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2812561 . [all data]

Yang, Taylor, et al., 1989
Yang, S.; Taylor, K.J.; Craycraft, M.J.; Conceicao, J.; Pettiette, C.L.; Cherhnovsky, O.; Smalley, R.E., UPS of 2-30 Atom Carbon Clusters: Chains and Rings, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1989, 144, 5-6, 431, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(88)87291-9 . [all data]

Honig, 1954
Honig, R.E., Mass spectrometric study of the molecular sublimation of graphite, J. Chem. Phys., 1954, 22, 126. [all data]

Ramathan, Zimmerman, et al., 1993
Ramathan, R.; Zimmerman, J.A.; Eyler, J.R., Ionization potentials of small carbon clusters, J. Chem. Phys., 1993, 98, 7838. [all data]

Gupta and Gingerich, 1979
Gupta, S.K.; Gingerich, K.A., Observation and atomization energies of the gaseous uranium carbides, UC, UC2, UC3, UC4, UC5, and UC6 by high temperature mass spectrometry, J. Chem. Phys., 1979, 71, 3072. [all data]

Wyatt and Stafford, 1972
Wyatt, J.R.; Stafford, F.E., Mass spectrometric determination of the heat of formation of ethynyl radical, C2H, and of some related species, J. Phys. Chem., 1972, 76, 1913. [all data]

Kohl and Stearns, 1970
Kohl, F.J.; Stearns, C.A., Vaporization thermodynamics of yttrium dicarbide-carbon system and dissociation energy of yttrium dicarbide and tetracarbide, J. Chem. Phys., 1970, 52, 6310. [all data]

Drowart, Burns, et al., 1959
Drowart, J.; Burns, R.P.; DeMaria, G.; Inghram, M.G., Mass spectrometric study of carbon vapor, J. Chem. Phys., 1959, 31, 1131. [all data]

Monninger, Forderer, et al., 2002
Monninger, G.; Forderer, M.; Gurtler, P.; Kalhofer, S.; Petersen, S.; Nemes, L.; Szalay, P.G.; Kratschmer, W., Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Carbon Molecule C, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2002, 106, 24, 5779, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0142536 . [all data]

Chang and Graham, 1982
Chang, K.W.; Graham, W.R.M., Vacuum UV spectrum of C3 trapped in argon at 8 K, J. Chem. Phys., 1982, 77, 9, 4300, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.444431 . [all data]

Saha and Western, 2006
Saha, S.; Western, C.M., Experimental and ab initio study of a new D [sup 1]«DELTA»[sub g] state of the C[sub 3] radical, J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 125, 22, 224307, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2399528 . [all data]

Lemire, Fu, et al., 1989
Lemire, G.W.; Fu, Z.; Hamrick, Y.M.; Taylor, S.; Morse, M.D., New electronic band systems of jet-cooled carbon trimer: 266-302 nm, J. Phys. Chem., 1989, 93, 6, 2313, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100343a024 . [all data]

Rohlfing and Goldsmith, 1989
Rohlfing, E.A.; Goldsmith, J.E.M., Stimulated emission pumping spectroscopy of jet-cooled C3, J. Chem. Phys., 1989, 90, 11, 6804, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.456300 . [all data]

Rohlfing, 1989
Rohlfing, E.A., Laser-induced-fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled C3, J. Chem. Phys., 1989, 91, 8, 4531, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.456791 . [all data]

Izuha and Yamanouchi, 2000
Izuha, M.; Yamanouchi, K., Severely perturbed vibrational structure in the 266--310 nm electronic transition of C[sub 3], J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 113, 24, 10999, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1326070 . [all data]

Weltner and McLeod, 1966
Weltner, W., Jr.; McLeod, D., Jr., Spectroscopy of Carbon Vapor Condensed in Rare-Gas Matrices at 4°K. III, J. Chem. Phys., 1966, 45, 8, 3096, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1728066 . [all data]

Forney, Freivogel, et al., 1996
Forney, D.; Freivogel, P.; Grutter, M.; Maier, J.P., Electronic absorption spectra of linear carbon chains in neon matrices. IV. C2n+1 n=2--7, J. Chem. Phys., 1996, 104, 13, 4954, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.471127 . [all data]

Szczepanski and Vala, 1991
Szczepanski, J.; Vala, M., Correlation of infrared and UV-visible bands of matrix-isolated carbon clusters, J. Phys. Chem., 1991, 95, 7, 2792, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100160a030 . [all data]

Douglas, 1951
Douglas, A.E., Laboratory Studies of the «lambda» 4050 Group of Cometary Spectra., Astrophys. J., 1951, 114, 466, https://doi.org/10.1086/145486 . [all data]

Clusius and Douglas, 1954
Clusius, K.; Douglas, A.E., THE «lambda»4050 BANDS OF THE C, Can. J. Phys., 1954, 32, 5, 319, https://doi.org/10.1139/p54-030 . [all data]

Gausset, Herzberg, et al., 1963
Gausset, L.; Herzberg, G.; Lagerqvist, A.; Rosen, B., Spectrum of the C3 molecule, Disc. Faraday Soc., 1963, 35, 113, https://doi.org/10.1039/df9633500113 . [all data]

Gausset, Herzberg, et al., 1965
Gausset, L.; Herzberg, G.; Lagerqvist, A.; Rosen, B., Analysis of the 4050-Å Group of the C_{3} Molecule., Astrophys. J., 1965, 142, 45, https://doi.org/10.1086/148262 . [all data]

Merer, 1967
Merer, A.J., ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF C, Can. J. Phys., 1967, 45, 12, 4103, https://doi.org/10.1139/p67-342 . [all data]

Smith, Anselment, et al., 1987
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Notes

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