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Sodium trimer


Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Marilyn E. Jacox

State:   D


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

gas D-X 410 440 Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986, 2
Wang, Pollack, et al., 1990
Buhler, Thalweiser, et al., 1992
Kuhling, Rutz, et al., 1993

State:   C


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To = 20813 gas C-X 467 481 Delacretaz and Woste, 1985
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1987
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989
Wang, Pollack, et al., 1990


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

a1' 1 Sym. stretch 135 gas DPI Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989

State:   B


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

Tx = 19200 gas Wang, Pollack, et al., 1990
To = 16124.46 gas B-X 550 625 Herrmann, Hofmann, et al., 1979
Delacretaz and Woste, 1985
Delacretaz, Grant, et al., 1986
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986, 2
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1987
Wang, Pollack, et al., 1990
Rutz, Kobe, et al., 1993
Baumert, Thalweiser, et al., 1993
Gaus, Kobe, et al., 1993
Kobe, 1993
Ernst and Rakowsky, 1994
Ernst and Rakowsky, 1994, 2
Ernst and Rakowsky, 1995
Vituccio, Golonzka, et al., 1997

State:   2 4E'


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To = 15791.39+ x He 4E'-4A2' 616 649 Higgins, Ernst, et al., 1996
Higgins, Hollebeek, et al., 2000


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

e' 2 Asym. stretch 88.2 He LF Higgins, Ernst, et al., 1996

State:   A


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To = 14894.769 ± 0.004 gas A-X 658 675 Herrmann, Hofmann, et al., 1979
Delacretaz and Woste, 1985
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986, 2
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1987
Dugourd, Chevaleyre, et al., 1990
Wang, Pollack, et al., 1990
Foth, Gress, et al., 1991
zur Heyde, Tiemann, et al., 1992
Eckel, Gress, et al., 1993
Stoll, Tiemann, et al., 1995
Vituccio, Golonzka, et al., 1997


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

a1' 1 Sym. stretch 150 gas MPI Dugourd, Chevaleyre, et al., 1990
1 Sym. stretch 127 gas MPI Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1987
Dugourd, Chevaleyre, et al., 1990
Stoll, Tiemann, et al., 1995
2 Bend 47 gas MPI Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1987
Dugourd, Chevaleyre, et al., 1990

State:   A'


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

Tx = 13200 U gas Wang, Pollack, et al., 1990
Wang, Kramer, et al., 1999

State:   1 4A2'


 Energy 
 (cm-1
 Med.   Transition   «lambda»min 
 (nm) 
 «lambda»max 
 (nm) 
 References

To x He 4E'-4A2' 616 649 Higgins, Ernst, et al., 1996
Higgins, Hollebeek, et al., 2000


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

a1' 1 Sym. stretch 40 T He LF Higgins, Hollebeek, et al., 2000
e' 2 Asym. stretch 40 T He LF Higgins, Hollebeek, et al., 2000

State:   B,B'


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

128 gas MPI Herrmann, Hofmann, et al., 1979
Delacretaz, Grant, et al., 1986
Baumert, Thalweiser, et al., 1993
105 gas MPI TPE Baumert, Thalweiser, et al., 1993
74 gas MPI TPE Baumert, Thalweiser, et al., 1993

State:   X


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

1 Sym. stretch 139 gas MPI SEP Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1987
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989, 2
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989, 3
2 Bend 49.5 gas MPI SEP Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1987
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989, 2
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989, 3
3 Asym. stretch 87 gas MPI SEP Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1987
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989, 2
Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989, 3

Additional references: Jacox, 1994, page 58; Jacox, 1998, page 160; Jacox, 2003, page 49; Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1988; Schreiber, Kobe, et al., 1995

Notes

UUpper bound
TTentative assignment or approximate value
oEnergy separation between the v = 0 levels of the excited and electronic ground states.
xEnergy separation between the band maximum of the excited electronic state and the v = 0 level of the ground state.

References

Go To: Top, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986
Broyer, M.; Delacretaz, G.; Labastie, P.; Whetten, R.L.; Wolf, J.P.; Woste, L., Z. Phys. D - Atoms, 1986, Molecules, and Clusters 3, 131. [all data]

Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1986, 2
Broyer, M.; Delacretaz, G.; Labastie, P.; Wolf, J.P.; Woste, L., Size-Selective Depletion Spectroscopy of Predissociated States of Na_{3}, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1986, 57, 15, 1851, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.57.1851 . [all data]

Wang, Pollack, et al., 1990
Wang, C.R.C.; Pollack, S.; Cameron, D.; Kappes, M.M., Optical absorption spectroscopy of sodium clusters as measured by collinear molecular beam photodepletion, J. Chem. Phys., 1990, 93, 6, 3787, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.458765 . [all data]

Buhler, Thalweiser, et al., 1992
Buhler, B.; Thalweiser, R.; Gerber, G., Photoionization and fragmentation dynamics of Na3 studied by ion and electron kinetic energy analysis, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1992, 188, 3-4, 247, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(92)90017-H . [all data]

Kuhling, Rutz, et al., 1993
Kuhling, H.; Rutz, S.; Kobe, K.; Schreiber, E.; Woste, L., Femtosecond fragmentation of the sodium cluster (Na3) D state, J. Phys. Chem., 1993, 97, 48, 12500, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100150a009 . [all data]

Delacretaz and Woste, 1985
Delacretaz, G.; Woste, L., Vibrationally resolved spectroscopy of sodium clusters, Surf. Sci., 1985, 156, 770, https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-6028(85)90248-1 . [all data]

Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1987
Broyer, M.; Delacretaz, G.; Labastie, P.; Wolf, J.P.; Woste, L., Spectroscopy of vibrational ground-state levels of sodium molecule (Na3), J. Phys. Chem., 1987, 91, 10, 2626, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100294a033 . [all data]

Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989
Broyer, M.; Delacretaz, G.; Ni, G.-Q.; Whetten, R.L.; Wolf, J.-P.; Woste, L., Spectroscopy of the predissociated C state of Na3, J. Chem. Phys., 1989, 90, 2, 843, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.456109 . [all data]

Herrmann, Hofmann, et al., 1979
Herrmann, A.; Hofmann, M.; Leutwyler, S.; Schumacher, E.; Woste, L., Optical spectroscopy of Na3 by two-photon ionization in a supersonic molecular beam, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1979, 62, 2, 216, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(79)80162-1 . [all data]

Delacretaz, Grant, et al., 1986
Delacretaz, G.; Grant, E.R.; Whetten, R.L.; Woste, L.; Zwanziger, J.W., Fractional Quantization of Molecular Pseudorotation in Na_{3}, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1986, 56, 24, 2598, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.2598 . [all data]

Rutz, Kobe, et al., 1993
Rutz, S.; Kobe, K.; Kuhling, H.; Schreiber, E.; Woste, L., Time-resolved TPI spectroscopy of Na3-clusters, Z. Phys. D, 1993, 26, 1-4, 276, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01429168 . [all data]

Baumert, Thalweiser, et al., 1993
Baumert, T.; Thalweiser, R.; Gerber, G., Femtosecond two-photon ionization spectroscopy of the B state of Na3 clusters, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1993, 209, 1-2, 29, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(93)87196-A . [all data]

Gaus, Kobe, et al., 1993
Gaus, J.; Kobe, K.; Bonacic-Koutecky, V.; Kuhling, H.; Manz, J.; Reischl, B.; Rutz, S.; Schreiber, E.; Woste, L., Experimental and theoretical approach to the pseudorotating sodium cluster (Na3(B)), J. Phys. Chem., 1993, 97, 48, 12509, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100150a011 . [all data]

Kobe, 1993
Kobe, K., H. Kuhling, 1993, S. Rutz, E. Schreiber, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, M. Broyer, and Ph. Dugourd, Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 554. [all data]

Ernst and Rakowsky, 1994
Ernst, W.E.; Rakowsky, S., Rotational structure of the, Can. J. Phys., 1994, 72, 11-12, 1307, https://doi.org/10.1139/p94-166 . [all data]

Ernst and Rakowsky, 1994, 2
Ernst, W.E.; Rakowsky, S., Integer Quantization of the Pseudorotational Motion in Na3B, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1994, 74, 1, 58, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.74.58 . [all data]

Ernst and Rakowsky, 1995
Ernst, W.E.; Rakowsky, S., Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1995, 99, 441. [all data]

Vituccio, Golonzka, et al., 1997
Vituccio, D.T.; Golonzka, O.; Ernst, W.E., Optical--Optical Double Resonance Spectroscopy of theA--XandB--XSystems of Na3, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1997, 184, 2, 237, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsp.1997.7272 . [all data]

Higgins, Ernst, et al., 1996
Higgins, J.; Ernst, W.E.; Callegari, C.; Reho, J.; Lehmann, K.K.; Scoles, G., Spin Polarized Alkali Clusters: Observation of Quartet States of the Sodium Trimer, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1996, 77, 22, 4532, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.4532 . [all data]

Higgins, Hollebeek, et al., 2000
Higgins, J.; Hollebeek, T.; Reho, J.; Ho, T.-S.; Lehmann, K.K.; Rabitz, H.; Scoles, G.; Gutowski, M., On the importance of exchange effects in three-body interactions: The lowest quartet state of Na[sub 3], J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 112, 13, 5751, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.481150 . [all data]

Dugourd, Chevaleyre, et al., 1990
Dugourd, Ph.; Chevaleyre, J.; Perrot, J.P.; Broyer, M., Jahn--Teller analysis of the Na3 A state, J. Chem. Phys., 1990, 93, 4, 2332, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.459012 . [all data]

Foth, Gress, et al., 1991
Foth, H.-J.; Gress, J.M.; Hertzler, C.; Demtroder, W., Sub-doppler-spectroscopy of Na3, Z. Phys. D, 1991, 18, 3, 257, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01437080 . [all data]

zur Heyde, Tiemann, et al., 1992
zur Heyde, M.M.; Tiemann, E.; Wendlandt, D., OODR spectroscopy of Na3 clusters and rotational assignment of the Ã---X system, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1992, 199, 6, 590, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(92)85015-3 . [all data]

Eckel, Gress, et al., 1993
Eckel, H.-A.; Gress, J.-M.; Biele, J.; Demtroder, W., Sub-Doppler optical double-resonance spectroscopy and rotational analysis of Na3, J. Chem. Phys., 1993, 98, 1, 135, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.464662 . [all data]

Stoll, Tiemann, et al., 1995
Stoll, Th.; Tiemann, E.; Wendlandt, D., OODR Spectroscopy of Na3and Rotational Analysis of a Vibrationally Excited Level in theÃState, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1995, 174, 2, 557, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsp.1995.0022 . [all data]

Wang, Kramer, et al., 1999
Wang, J.; Kramer, H.-G.; Keil, M.; von Busch, H.; Demtroder, W., Photodepletion spectroscopy and predissociation of the Na3 A state, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1999, 301, 3-4, 395, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(99)00002-0 . [all data]

Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989, 2
Broyer, M.; Delacretaz, B.; Ni, G.-Q.; Whetten, R.L.; Wolf, J.-P.; Woste, L., Stimulated emission spectroscopy of the ground state of Na3, J. Chem. Phys., 1989, 90, 8, 4620, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.456599 . [all data]

Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1989, 3
Broyer, M.; Delacretaz, G.; Ni, G.-Q.; Whetten, R.L.; Wolf, J.-P.; Woste, L., Vibronic structure of the Na_{3} ground state by stimulated emission spectroscopy, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1989, 62, 18, 2100, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.62.2100 . [all data]

Jacox, 1994
Jacox, M.E., Vibrational and electronic energy levels of polyatomic transient molecules, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1994, 464. [all data]

Jacox, 1998
Jacox, M.E., Vibrational and electronic energy levels of polyatomic transient molecules: supplement A, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 2, 115-393, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556017 . [all data]

Jacox, 2003
Jacox, M.E., Vibrational and electronic energy levels of polyatomic transient molecules: supplement B, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2003, 32, 1, 1-441, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1497629 . [all data]

Broyer, Delacretaz, et al., 1988
Broyer, M.; Delacretaz, G.; Guoquan, N.; Wolf, J.P.; Woste, L., Lifetimes and relaxation processes in electronically excited states of Na3, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1988, 145, 3, 232, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(88)80185-4 . [all data]

Schreiber, Kobe, et al., 1995
Schreiber, E.; Kobe, K.; Ruff, A.; Rutz, S.; Sommerer, G.; Woste, L., Ultrafast fragmentation probability of the Na3 C state, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1995, 242, 1-2, 106, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(95)00724-I . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, References