Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Benzo[b]thiophene

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas39.74 ± 0.11kcal/molCmSabbah, 1979ALS
Deltafgas39.82kcal/molN/AGood, 1972Value computed using «DELTA»fHsolid° value of 100.9±0.9 kj/mol from Good, 1972 and «DELTA»subH° value of 65.7 kj/mol from Sabbah, 1979.; DRB

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid24.04 ± 0.11kcal/molCmSabbah, 1979ALS
Deltafsolid24.11 ± 0.22kcal/molCcrGood, 1972ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-1125.29 ± 0.19kcal/molCcrGood, 1972ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
solid,1 bar42.330cal/mol*KN/AFinke, Gross, et al., 1954DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of solid

Cp,solid (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
41.142295.859Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991crystaline, I phase; T = 277 to 495 K. Unsmoothed experimental datum. Cp(liq, 298.15 K, smoothed, graphical extrapolation) = 188.17 J/mol*K.; DH
38.960298.15Finke, Gross, et al., 1954T = 12 to 335 K.; DH

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil494.2KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil494. - 495.KN/ABuckingham and Donaghy, 1982BS
Tboil494.15KN/ACooper, Crowne, et al., 1967Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Tboil493.1KN/AHaines, Helm, et al., 1956Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus305.KN/ABuckingham and Donaghy, 1982BS
Tfus304.49KN/AHaines, Helm, et al., 1956Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; determined at U. S. Bureau of Mines, Barltlesville, OK; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple304.48KN/AChirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Ttriple304.50KN/AFinke, Gross, et al., 1954, 2Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub15.7 ± 0.05kcal/molCSabbah, 1979, 2AC
Deltasub15.70 ± 0.041kcal/molCSabbah, 1979ALS
Deltasub15.7kcal/molN/ASabbah, 1979DRB

Reduced pressure boiling point

Tboil (K) Pressure (atm) Reference Comment
377.20.026Weast and Grasselli, 1989BS
376. - 378.0.026Buckingham and Donaghy, 1982BS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
12.5364.Dykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999Based on data from 349. - 424. K.; AC
11.4439.Dykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999Based on data from 424. - 498. K.; AC
10.8513.Dykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999Based on data from 498. - 631. K.; AC
13.0320.Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991Based on data from 310. - 542. K.; AC
12.4360.Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991Based on data from 310. - 542. K.; AC
11.9400.Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991Based on data from 310. - 542. K.; AC
11.0460.Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991Based on data from 310. - 542. K.; AC
10.5500.Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991Based on data from 310. - 542. K.; AC
9.85540.Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991Based on data from 310. - 542. K.; AC
12.9326.Edwards and Prausnitz, 1981Based on data from 306. - 346. K. See also Dykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999.; AC
11.3425.Wieczorek and Kobayashi, 1981AC
10.2505.Wieczorek and Kobayashi, 1981AC
8.63605.Wieczorek and Kobayashi, 1981AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
2.8267304.50Finke, Gross, et al., 1954DH
2.830304.5Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
9.283304.50Finke, Gross, et al., 1954DH

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
2.82483304.48crystaline, IliquidChirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
9.278304.48crystaline, IliquidChirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)8.17 ± 0.03eVN/AN/AL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.13 ± 0.015PEGusten, Klasinc, et al., 1976LLK
8.73 ± 0.05EIThorstad and Undheim, 1974LLK
8.20PEClark, Gleiter, et al., 1973LLK
8.17 ± 0.05PEEland, 1969RDSH

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

IR spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived.

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Sadtler Research Labs Under US-EPA Contract
State gas

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

Mass spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW-8776
NIST MS number 229836

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-1100.1168.Zhang, Li, et al., 1992N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryHP-1100.1169.Zhang, Li, et al., 1992N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101140.1196.0Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
PackedSE-301200.Ramsey, Lee, et al., 1980He, Chromosorb G HP (80-100 mesh); Column length: 1.5 m; Program: not specified

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51180.5Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51188.3Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51192.9Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51180.5Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51188.3Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51192.9Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51195.Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-1011155.Yasuhara, Shiraishi, et al., 199715. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C(2min) => (20C/min) => 120C => (7C/min) => 310C(10min)
Capillary5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane1189.Yasuhara, Shiraishi, et al., 199725. m/0.31 mm/0.52 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C(2min) => (20C/min) => 120C => (7C/min) => 310C(10min)
CapillaryMethyl Silicone1165.Oda, Ichikawa, et al., 1996Program: 50C (2min) => 20C/min => 160C => 5C/min => 210C => 10C/min => 300C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-101799.Cadwallader, Tan, et al., 199560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 30. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPONA1205.Yang, Wang, et al., 200450. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, N2, 2. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryPONA1165.Yang, Wang, et al., 200350. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, 2. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 150. C
CapillaryPB-11169.Andersson and Weis, 199450. m/0.32 mm/0.2 «mu»m, H2, 80. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 270. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-51172.Andersson and Weis, 199430. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 80. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 270. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-11145.Yu, Wu, et al., 199460. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryUltra-11159.Okumura, 199125. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 260. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPONA1168.Yang, Wang, et al., 200350. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane, unknown content of Ph-groups1194.Geldon, 1989Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane, unknown content of Ph-groups1196.Geldon, 1989Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-11161.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.1161.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
OtherMethyl Silicone1200.Ardrey and Moffat, 1981Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySuperox 0.6; Carbowax 20M1751.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 400, Carbowax 20M, Carbowax 1540, Carbowax 4000, Superox 06, PEG 20M, etc.1751.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5201.57Williams and Bottrill, 1995He, 60. C @ 2. min, 5. K/min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm; Tend: 270. C
CapillaryPB-1200.92Andersson and Weis, 199450. m/0.32 mm/0.2 «mu»m, H2, 80. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 270. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5201.34Andersson and Weis, 199430. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 80. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 270. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5201.29Wise, Benner, et al., 198830. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 5. min
CapillaryOV-73201.6Arpino, Ignatiadis, et al., 198768. m/0.28 mm/0.15 «mu»m, 1.5 K/min
CapillaryDB-5201.84Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min
CapillarySE-52201.43Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 198220. m/0.30 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 265. C
CapillarySE-52201.57Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 198220. m/0.30 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 265. C
CapillarySE-52201.47Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 197912. m/0.3 mm/0.34 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C

Lee's RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5201.5Fuentes, Font, et al., 2007Column length: 60. m; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-5201.5Lundstedt, Haglund, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-5200.51Thuss, Popp, et al., 200060. m/0.32 mm/0.10 «mu»m, He; Program: A: 105 0C (2 min) 2.5 0C -> 230 0C 50 0C/min -> 305 0C (15 min) B: 95 0C (2 min) 3.8 0C/min -> 310 0C (5 min)
CapillarySE-54201.44Guillen, Iglesias, et al., 1992Program: not specified

Lee's RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax207.63Andersson and Weis, 199430. m/0.2 mm/0.15 «mu»m, H2, 80. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 270. C @ 5. min

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Sabbah, 1979
Sabbah, R., Thermodynamique de substances soufrees. I. Etude thermochimique du benzo-2,3 thiophene et du dibenzothiophene, Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1979, 9, 434-437. [all data]

Good, 1972
Good, W.D., Enthalpies of combustion of 18 organic sulfur compounds related to petroleum, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1972, 17, 158-162. [all data]

Finke, Gross, et al., 1954
Finke, H.L.; Gross, M.E.; Messerly, J.F.; Waddington, G., Benzothiophene: heat capacity, heat of transition, heat of fusion and entropy. An order-disorder transition, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1954, 76, 854-857. [all data]

Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991
Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V., The thermodynamic properties of benzo[b]thiophene, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1991, 23, 759-779. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Buckingham and Donaghy, 1982
Buckingham, J.; Donaghy, S.M., Dictionary of Organic Compounds: Fifth Edition, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1982, 1. [all data]

Cooper, Crowne, et al., 1967
Cooper, A.R.; Crowne, C.W.P.; Farrell, P.G., Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Studies of Electron-Donor-Acceptor Systems, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1967, 63, 447. [all data]

Haines, Helm, et al., 1956
Haines, W.E.; Helm, R.V.; Cook, G.L.; Ball, J.S., Purification and Properties of Organic Sulfur Compounds, J. Phys. Chem., 1956, 60, 549-55. [all data]

Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1991, 2
Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V., The thermodynamic properties of benzo[b]thiophene, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1991, 23, 759-79. [all data]

Finke, Gross, et al., 1954, 2
Finke, H.L.; Gross, M.E.; Messerly, J.F.; Waddington, G., Benzothiophene: heat capacity, heat of transition, heat of fusion and entropy. an order-disorder transition, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1954, 76, 854. [all data]

Sabbah, 1979, 2
Sabbah, R., Thermodynamics of sulfur compounds.  I.  Thermochemical study of 2,3-benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1979, 9-10, 434. [all data]

Dykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999
Dykyj, J.; Svoboda, J.; Wilhoit, R.C.; Frenkel, M.L.; Hall, K.R., Vapor Pressure of Chemicals: Part A. Vapor Pressure and Antoine Constants for Hydrocarbons and Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium and Hydrogen Containing Organic Compounds, Springer, Berlin, 1999, 373. [all data]

Edwards and Prausnitz, 1981
Edwards, D.R.; Prausnitz, J.M., Vapor pressures of some sulfur-containing, coal-related compounds, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1981, 26, 2, 121-124, https://doi.org/10.1021/je00024a005 . [all data]

Wieczorek and Kobayashi, 1981
Wieczorek, Stefan A.; Kobayashi, Riki, Vapor-pressure measurements of 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene at elevated temperatures, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1981, 26, 1, 8-11, https://doi.org/10.1021/je00023a005 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Gusten, Klasinc, et al., 1976
Gusten, H.; Klasinc, L.; Ruscic, B., Photoelectron spectroscopy of J. Heterocycl. Chem.. Indene analogs, Z. Naturforsch. A:, 1976, 31, 1051. [all data]

Thorstad and Undheim, 1974
Thorstad, O.; Undheim, K., Mass spectrometry of onium compounds. XXIV. Ionisation potential in structure analysis of pyridodiazo-oxides, Chem. Scr., 1974, 6, 222. [all data]

Clark, Gleiter, et al., 1973
Clark, P.A.; Gleiter, R.; Heilbronner, E., Photoelectron spectra of planar sulfur J. Heterocycl. Chem., Tetrahedron, 1973, 29, 3085. [all data]

Eland, 1969
Eland, J.H.D., Photoelectron spectra of conjugated hydrocarbons and heteromolecules, Intern. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1969, 2, 471. [all data]

Zhang, Li, et al., 1992
Zhang, M.J.; Li, S.D.; Chen, B.J., Compositional studies of high-temperature coal tar by GC/FTIR analysis of light oil fractions, Chromatographia, 1992, 33, 3/4, 138-146, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02275894 . [all data]

Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981
Gerasimenko, V.A.; Kirilenko, A.V.; Nabivach, V.M., Capillary gas chromatography of aromatic compounds found in coal tar fractions, J. Chromatogr., 1981, 208, 1, 9-16, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)87953-4 . [all data]

Ramsey, Lee, et al., 1980
Ramsey, J.D.; Lee, T.D.; Osselton, M.D.; Moffat, A.C., Gas-liquid chromatographic retention indices of 296 non-drug substances on SE-30 or OV-1 likely to be encountered in toxicological analyses, J. Chromatogr., 1980, 184, 2, 185-206, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)85641-1 . [all data]

Song, Lai, et al., 2003
Song, C.; Lai, W.-C.; Madhusudan Reddy, K.; Wei, B., Chapter 7. Temperature-programmed retention indices for GC and GC-MS of hydrocarbon fuels and simulated distillation GC of heavy oils in Analytical advances for hydrocarbon research, Hsu,C.S., ed(s)., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2003, 147-193. [all data]

Lai and Song, 1995
Lai, W.-C.; Song, C., Temperature-programmed retention indices for g.c. and g.c.-m.s. analysis of coal- and petroleum-derived liquid fuels, Fuel, 1995, 74, 10, 1436-1451, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(95)00108-H . [all data]

Rostad and Pereira, 1986
Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E., Kovats and Lee retention indices determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for organic compounds of environmental interest, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1986, 9, 6, 328-334, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240090603 . [all data]

Yasuhara, Shiraishi, et al., 1997
Yasuhara, A.; Shiraishi, H.; Nishikawa, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Uehiro, T.; Nakasugi, O.; Okumura, T.; Kenmotsu, K.; Fukui, H.; Nagase, M.; Ono, Y.; Kawagoshi, Y.; Baba, K.; Noma, Y., Determination of organic components in leachates from hazardous waste disposal sites in Japan by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 1997, 774, 1-2, 321-332, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(97)00078-2 . [all data]

Oda, Ichikawa, et al., 1996
Oda, J.; Ichikawa, S.; Mori, T., Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulates by capillary GC/MS method with programmed temperature relative retention index, Bunseki Kagaku, 1996, 45, 9, 825-835, https://doi.org/10.2116/bunsekikagaku.45.825 . [all data]

Cadwallader, Tan, et al., 1995
Cadwallader, K.R.; Tan, Q.; Chen, F.; Meyers, S.P., Evaluation of the aroma of cooked spiny lobster tail meat by aroma extract dilution analysis, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1995, 43, 9, 2432-2437, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00057a022 . [all data]

Yang, Wang, et al., 2004
Yang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zong, B.; Yang, H., Determination of sulfur compounds in fluid catalytic cracking gasoline by gas chromatography with a sulfur chemiluminiscence detector, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 2004, 22, 3, 216-219. [all data]

Yang, Wang, et al., 2003
Yang, Y.-T.; Wang, Z.; Han. J.-H.; Tian, H.-P.; Yang, H.-Y., Determination of sulfur compounds in gasoline fraction of microreactor products by gas chromatography - Atomic emission detector, Petrochemical Technology (Shiyou Huagong), 2003, 32, 11, 995-998. [all data]

Andersson and Weis, 1994
Andersson, J.T.; Weis, U., Gas Chromatographic Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds with Fluorinated Analogues as Internal Standards, J. Chromatogr. A, 1994, 659, 1, 151-161, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)85017-8 . [all data]

Yu, Wu, et al., 1994
Yu, T.-H.; Wu, C.-M.; Ho, C.-T., Meat-like flavor generated from thermal interactions of glucose and alliin or deoxyalliin, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1994, 42, 4, 1005-1009, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00040a032 . [all data]

Okumura, 1991
Okumura, T., retention indices of environmental chemicals on methyl silicone capillary column, Journal of Environmental Chemistry (Japan), 1991, 1, 2, 333-358, https://doi.org/10.5985/jec.1.333 . [all data]

Geldon, 1989
Geldon, A.L., Ground Water Hydrology of the Central Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, US Geological Survey, US Government Printing Office, 1989, 104. [all data]

Waggott and Davies, 1984
Waggott, A.; Davies, I.W., Identification of organic pollutants using linear temperature programmed retention indices (LTPRIs) - Part II, 1984, retrieved from http://dwi.defra.gov.uk/research/completed-research/reports/dwi0383.pdf. [all data]

Ardrey and Moffat, 1981
Ardrey, R.E.; Moffat, A.C., Gas-liquid chromatographic retention indices of 1318 substances of toxicological interest on SE-30 or OV-1 stationary phase, J. Chromatogr., 1981, 220, 3, 195-252, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)81925-1 . [all data]

Williams and Bottrill, 1995
Williams, P.T.; Bottrill, R.P., Sulfur-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tyre pyrolysis oil, Fuel, 1995, 74, 5, 736-742, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(94)00005-C . [all data]

Wise, Benner, et al., 1988
Wise, S.A.; Benner, B.A.; Byrd, G.D.; Chesler, S.N.; Rebbert, R.E.; Schantz, M.M., Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coal tar standard reference material, Anal. Chem., 1988, 60, 9, 887-894, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00160a012 . [all data]

Arpino, Ignatiadis, et al., 1987
Arpino, P.J.; Ignatiadis, I.; de Rycke, G., Sulphur-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum. Examination of their possible statistical formation in sediments, J. Chromatogr., 1987, 390, 2, 329-348, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)94385-7 . [all data]

Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 1982
Vassilaros, D.L.; Kong, R.C.; Later, D.W.; Lee, M.L., Linear retention index system for polycyclic aromatic compounds. Critical evaluation and additional indices, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 252, 1-20, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)88394-1 . [all data]

Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 1979
Lee, M.L.; Vassilaros, D.L.; White, C.M.; Novotny, M., Retention Indices for Programmed-Temperature Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 1979, 51, 6, 768-773, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50042a043 . [all data]

Fuentes, Font, et al., 2007
Fuentes, M.J.; Font, R.; Gomez-Rico, M.F.; Martin-Gullon, I., Pyrolysis and combustion of waste lubricant oil from diesel cars: Decomposition and pollutants, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 2007, 79, 1-2, 215-226, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2006.12.004 . [all data]

Lundstedt, Haglund, et al., 2003
Lundstedt, S.; Haglund, P.; Öberg, L., Degradation and formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds during bioslurry treatment of an aged gasworks soil, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2003, 22, 7, 1413-1420, https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620220701 . [all data]

Thuss, Popp, et al., 2000
Thuss, U.; Popp, P.; Ehrlich, C.; Kalkoff, W.-D., Identification and quantification of thaarenes in the flue gas of lignite-fired domestic heating, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 2000, 23, 7/8, 457-473, https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4168(20000801)23:7/8<457::AID-JHRC457>3.0.CO;2-7 . [all data]

Guillen, Iglesias, et al., 1992
Guillen, M.D.; Iglesias, M.J.; Dominguez, A.; Blanco, C.G., Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon retention indices on SE-54 stationary phase of the volatile components of a coal tar pitch. Relationships between chromatographic retention and thermal reactivity, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 591, 1-2, 287-295, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)80246-Q . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References