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2-Pentanone, 3-methyl-

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-284.1 ± 1.3kJ/molCcbDubois and Herzog, 1972ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
182.46 ± 0.27395.25von Geiseler G., 1973GT
183.72 ± 0.28399.65
184.97 ± 0.28403.75
187.36 ± 0.28411.35
188.66 ± 0.28416.25

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil390. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 20 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc571.9KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap40.59kJ/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap41.5kJ/molAStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 283. - 395. K.; AC
Deltavap41.2kJ/molN/AAmbrose, Ellender, et al., 1975Based on data from 283. - 457. K.; AC

Reduced pressure boiling point

Tboil (K) Pressure (bar) Reference Comment
391.21.01Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990BS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
34.16390.6N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
39.8301.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 286. - 400. K.; AC
36.5400.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 385. - 455. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-βTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kJ/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

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Temperature (K) A (kJ/mol) beta Tc (K) Reference Comment
348. - 390.59.0.2984571.9Majer and Svoboda, 1985 

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

3-Methyl-2-pentanone dimethylacetal + Water = 2-Pentanone, 3-methyl- + 2Methyl Alcohol

By formula: C8H18O2 + H2O = C6H12O + 2CH4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar19.92 ± 0.046kJ/molCmWiberg and Squires, 1979liquid phase; Heat of hydrolysis

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.21 ± 0.01eVN/AN/AL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.20 ± 0.05EIBouchoux, Flammang, et al., 1984LBLHLM
9.22EIHolmes, Fingas, et al., 1981LLK
9.209 ± 0.005PEHernandez, Masclet, et al., 1977LLK
9.69EIHatada and Hirota, 1965RDSH

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C4H8O+9.52C2H4EIHolmes and Lossing, 1980LLK
C4H9+10.78 ± 0.05CH3COEIHolmes and Lossing, 1984LBLHLM

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Sadtler Research Labs Under US-EPA Contract
State gas

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1990.
NIST MS number 114338

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-1333.734.8Hu, Lu, et al., 2006 
CapillaryHP-1110.738.96Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-130.732.26Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-150.733.49Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-170.734.94Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-190.736.84Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-1110.739.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryHP-150.734.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryHP-170.735.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryHP-190.737.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-Innowax110.1054.3Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-Innowax50.1033.9Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-Innowax70.1040.8Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-Innowax90.1047.6Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m

Kovats' RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1023.Tressl, Friese, et al., 1978He, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1005.Tressl, Friese, et al., 1978, 2He, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 190. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCP-Sil 8CB-MS752.Hierro, de la Hoz, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5750.0Xu, van Stee, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 2.5 K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillarySPB-1738.Larráyoz, Addis, et al., 200130. m/0.32 mm/4. «mu»m, He, 45. C @ 13. min, 5. K/min, 240. C @ 5. min
CapillaryBPX-5762.Aaslyng, Elmore, et al., 199850. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillarySPB-5751.Verdier-Metz., Coulon, et al., 199860. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 2. min

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-1736.Place, Imhof, et al., 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(5min) => 10C/min => 45C (5min) => 5C/min => 250C (10min)
CapillaryBPX-5760.Owens J.D., Allagheny N., et al., 199750. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: OC => 60C/min => 60C(5min) => 4C/min => 250C(20min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryZB-Wax1067.Ledauphin, Basset, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.15 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 220. C @ 10. min
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1011.Alasalvar, Taylor, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 35. C @ 4. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 203. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1016.Shimoda, Peralta, et al., 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 230. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101016.Tanchotikul and Hsieh, 198960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 175. C @ 20. min
CapillarySupelcowax-101019.Tanchotikul and Hsieh, 198960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 175. C @ 20. min

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1013.Alasalvar, Shahidi, et al., 200360. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C => 5C/min => 60C => 2.5C/min => 155C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-160.734.Amboni, Junkes, et al., 2002 
PackedApieson L120.727.Kurdina, Markovich, et al., 1969not specified, not specified

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOptima-5 MS743.Goeminne, Vandendriessche, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 35. C @ 3. min, 10. K/min, 250. C @ 5. min
CapillaryBPX-5759.Diaz and Kite, 20025. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 260. C
CapillaryHP-5752.García, Martín, et al., 200060. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryDB-5753.Meynier, Novelli, et al., 199930. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryHP-5750.Larsen and Frisvad, 199535. C @ 2. min, 6. K/min; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5 MS759.Nance and Setzer, 201130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (10 min) 3 0C/min -> 200 0C 2 0C/min -> 220 0C
CapillaryDB-1750.Xu, Tang, et al., 201030. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone735.Feng and Mu, 2007Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5747.Thierry, Maillard, et al., 200560. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-1734.Junkes, Amboni, et al., 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane734.Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone735.Estrada and Gutierrez, 1999Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes748.Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryTC-Wax1014.Suhardi, Suzuki, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 10. min

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySOLGel-Wax1019.Johanningsmeier and McFeeters, 201130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (2 min) 5 0C/min -> 140 0C 10 0C/min -> 250 0C (3 min)
CapillarySOLGel-Wax1016.Johanningsmeier and McFeeters, 201130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillarySupelcowax 101022.Soria, Martinez-Castro, et al., 200850. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 45 0C (15 min) 3 0C/min -> 75 0C 5 0C/min -> 180 0C (10 min)
CapillaryInnowax1034.Junkes, Amboni, et al., 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySupelcowax 101013.Castioni and Kapetanidis, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 60 0C (10 min) 2 0C/min -> 80 0C 3 0C/min -> 100 0C 4 0C/min -> 220 0C (30 min)
CapillarySupelcowax 101020.Castioni and Kapetanidis, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Dubois and Herzog, 1972
Dubois, J.-E.; Herzog, H., Heats of formation of aliphatic ketones: Structure correlation based on environment treatment, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 1972, 932-933. [all data]

von Geiseler G., 1973
von Geiseler G., The heat capacity and the heat of vaporization of isomeric butylmethylketones and propylacetates, Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig), 1973, 252, 170-176. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Ambrose, Ellender, et al., 1975
Ambrose, D.; Ellender, J.H.; Lees, E.B.; Sprake, C.H.S.; Townsend, R., Thermodynamic properties of organic oxygen compounds XXXVIII. Vapour pressures of some aliphatic ketones, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1975, 7, 5, 453-472, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(75)90275-X . [all data]

Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990
Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., Catalog Handbook of Fine Chemicals, Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., Milwaukee WI, 1990, 1. [all data]

Wiberg and Squires, 1979
Wiberg, K.B.; Squires, R.R., Thermodynamics of hydrolysis aliphatic ketals. An entropy component of steric effects, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, 101, 5512-5515. [all data]

Bouchoux, Flammang, et al., 1984
Bouchoux, G.; Flammang, R.; Hoppilliard, Y.; Jaudon, P.; Maquestiau, A.; Meyrant, P., Mecanismes de formation des ions [C5H9O]+ a partir des cetones [CH3COC4H9]+, Spectroscopy Ottawa, 1984, 3, 1. [all data]

Holmes, Fingas, et al., 1981
Holmes, J.L.; Fingas, M.; Lossing, F.P., Towards a general scheme for estimating the heats of formation of organic ions in the gas phase. Part I. Odd-electron cations, Can. J. Chem., 1981, 59, 80. [all data]

Hernandez, Masclet, et al., 1977
Hernandez, R.; Masclet, P.; Mouvier, G., Spectroscopie de photoelectrons d'aldehydes et de cetones aliphatiques, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1977, 10, 333. [all data]

Hatada and Hirota, 1965
Hatada, M.; Hirota, K., The ionization and dissociation of aliphatic ketones under electron impact. II. Methyl-sec-butylketone and methyl-tert-butylketone, Z. Physik. Chem. (Frankfurt), 1965, 44, 328. [all data]

Holmes and Lossing, 1980
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P., Gas-phase heats of formation of keto and enol ions of carbonyl compounds., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1980, 102, 1591. [all data]

Holmes and Lossing, 1984
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P., Heats of formation of organic radicals from appearance energies, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1984, 58, 113. [all data]

Hu, Lu, et al., 2006
Hu, X.-F.; Lu, C.-H.; Yin, C.-S., Modeling Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices of Oxygen-containing Compounds by Novel Atom-type Topological Indices, Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics, 2006, 19, 3, 243-247, https://doi.org/10.1360/cjcp2006.19(3).243.5 . [all data]

Héberger, Görgényi, et al., 2002
Héberger, K.; Görgényi, M.; Kowalska, T., Temperature dependence of Kováts indices in gas chromatography revisited, J. Chromatogr. A, 2002, 973, 1-2, 135-142, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(02)01198-6 . [all data]

Héberger and Görgényi, 1999
Héberger, K.; Görgényi, M., Principal component analysis of Kováts indices for carbonyl compounds in capillary gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1999, 845, 1-2, 21-31, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00323-4 . [all data]

Tressl, Friese, et al., 1978
Tressl, R.; Friese, L.; Fendesack, F.; Köppler, H., Gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric investigation of hop aroma constituents in beer, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1978, 26, 6, 1422-1426, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60220a037 . [all data]

Tressl, Friese, et al., 1978, 2
Tressl, R.; Friese, L.; Fendesack, F.; Köppler, H., Studies of the volatile composition of hops during storage, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1978, 26, 6, 1426-1430, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60220a036 . [all data]

Hierro, de la Hoz, et al., 2004
Hierro, E.; de la Hoz, L.; Ordóñez, J.A., Headspace volatile compounds from salted and occasionally smoked dried meats (cecinas) as affected by animal species, Food Chem., 2004, 85, 4, 649-657, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.07.001 . [all data]

Xu, van Stee, et al., 2003
Xu, X.; van Stee, L.L.P.; Williams, J.; Beens, J.; Adahchour, M.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.; Lelieveld, J., Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) measurements of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2003, 3, 3, 665-682, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-665-2003 . [all data]

Larráyoz, Addis, et al., 2001
Larráyoz, P.; Addis, M.; Gauch, R.; Bosset, J.O., Comparison of dynamic headspace and simultaneous distillation extraction techniques used for the analysis of the volatile components in three European PDO ewes milk cheeses, Int. Dairy J., 2001, 11, 11-12, 911-926, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(01)00144-3 . [all data]

Aaslyng, Elmore, et al., 1998
Aaslyng, M.D.; Elmore, J.S.; Mottram, D.S., Comparison of the aroma characteristics of acid-hydrolyzed and enzyme-hydrolyzed vegetable proteins produced from soy, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 12, 5225-5231, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9806816 . [all data]

Verdier-Metz., Coulon, et al., 1998
Verdier-Metz., I.; Coulon, J.-B.; PPradel, P.; Viallon, C.; Berdague, J.-L., Effect of forage conservation (hay or silage) and cow breed on the coagulation properties of milks and on the characteristics of ripened cheeses, J. Dairy Res., 1998, 65, 1, 9-21, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029997002616 . [all data]

Place, Imhof, et al., 2003
Place, R.B.; Imhof, M.; Teuber, M.; Olivier Bosset, J., Distribution of the volatile (flavour) compounds in Raclette cheese produced with different staphylococci in the smear, Mitt. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg., 2003, 94, 192-211. [all data]

Owens J.D., Allagheny N., et al., 1997
Owens J.D.; Allagheny N.; Kipping G.; Ames J.M., Formation of volatile compounds during Bacillus subtilis fermentation of soya beans, J. Sci. Food Agric., 1997, 74, 1, 132-140, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199705)74:1<132::AID-JSFA779>3.0.CO;2-8 . [all data]

Ledauphin, Basset, et al., 2006
Ledauphin, J.; Basset, B.; Cohen, S.; Payot, T.; Barillier, D., Identification of trace volatile compounds in freshly distilled Calvados and Cognac: Carbonyl and sulphur compounds, J. Food Comp. Anal., 2006, 19, 1, 28-40, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.03.001 . [all data]

Alasalvar, Taylor, et al., 2005
Alasalvar, C.; Taylor, K.D.A.; Shahidi, F., Comparison of volatiles of cultured and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata) during storage in ice by dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 7, 2616-2622, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0483826 . [all data]

Shimoda, Peralta, et al., 1996
Shimoda, M.; Peralta, R.R.; Osajima, Y., Headspace gas analysis of fish sauce, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44, 11, 3601-3605, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960345u . [all data]

Tanchotikul and Hsieh, 1989
Tanchotikul, U.; Hsieh, T.C.-Y., Volatile Flavor Components in Crayfish Waste, J. Food Sci., 1989, 54, 6, 1515-1520, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1989.tb05149.x . [all data]

Alasalvar, Shahidi, et al., 2003
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Notes

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