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Thiophene

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas218.4kJ/molN/AZaheeruddin and Lodhi, 1991Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of 183.0 kj/mol from Zaheeruddin and Lodhi, 1991 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 35.4 kj/mol from Hubbard, Scott, et al., 1955.; DRB
Deltafgas116.4kJ/molN/ASunner, 1963Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of 81.0±0.6 kj/mol from Sunner, 1963 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 35.4 kj/mol from Hubbard, Scott, et al., 1955.; DRB
Deltafgas115.0 ± 1.0kJ/molCcbHubbard, Scott, et al., 1955see Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949; ALS
Deltafgas116.7kJ/molN/AMoore, Renquist, et al., 1940Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of 81.3±2.6 kj/mol from Moore, Renquist, et al., 1940 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 35.4 kj/mol from Hubbard, Scott, et al., 1955.; DRB

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid  CcbZaheeruddin and Lodhi, 1991uncertain value: 182.96 kJ/mol; Author's hf_SO2=-320.5 kJ/mol; ALS
Deltafliquid80.96 ± 0.63kJ/molCcrSunner, 1963Correction of Sunner, 1955; ALS
Deltafliquid79.6 ± 1.0kJ/molCcbHubbard, Scott, et al., 1955Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = 80.33 ± 1.0 kJ/mol; see Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949; ALS
Deltafliquid81.3 ± 2.6kJ/molCcbMoore, Renquist, et al., 1940Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = 81.76 kJ/mol; hf_H2SO4=-135.01; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid  CcbZaheeruddin and Lodhi, 1991uncertain value: -2649.19 kJ/mol; Author's hf_SO2=-320.5 kJ/mol; ALS
Deltacliquid-2828.8kJ/molCcrSunner, 1963Correction of Sunner, 1955; ALS
Deltacliquid-2827.6 ± 0.92kJ/molCcbHubbard, Scott, et al., 1955Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -2826.5 ± 0.90 kJ/mol; see Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949; ALS
Deltacliquid-2829.3 ± 2.5kJ/molCcbMoore, Renquist, et al., 1940Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -2792.4 ± 2.5 kJ/mol; hf_H2SO4=-135.01; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid181.2J/mol*KN/AFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
liquid181.17J/mol*KN/AWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949DH
liquid176.6J/mol*KN/AJacobs and Parks, 1934Details of extrapolation below 90 K not given. Scatter in data for solid introduce uncertainty. Value good to about 4 J/mol*K.; DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
122.40298.14Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985T = 13 to 300 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH
123.85297.45Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949T = 11 to 336 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH
123.22289.3Jacobs and Parks, 1934T = 93 to 294 K. Data for solid, 90 to 237 K, not given (table omitted, apparently). Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil357.3 ± 0.6KAVGN/AAverage of 7 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus234.93KN/AGoates, Ott, et al., 1973Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Tfus234.94KN/ATimmermans and Hennaut-Roland, 1959Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Tfus233.15KN/ATimmermans and Mattaar, 1921Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple235.02KN/AFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985, 2Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Ttriple234.900KN/AWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949, 2Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.08 K; TRC
Ttriple234.95KN/AWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949, 2Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.06 K; TRC
Ttriple233.7KN/AJacobs and Parks, 1934, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc579.4KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Tc579.4KN/ACheng, McCoubrey, et al., 1962Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; Visual (5-cm 2-mm bore tubes) in nitrate-nitrite bath, TE or TH cal. vs NPL thermometer J.C.McCoubrey, A.R.Ubbelohde Trans. Faraday Soc. 1960,56,114; TRC
Tc580.KN/AKobe, Ravicz, et al., 1956Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc57.00barN/AKobe, Ravicz, et al., 1956Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.6894 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Vc0.220l/molN/AKobe, Ravicz, et al., 1956Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.005 l/mol; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap34.79kJ/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap34.6kJ/molN/AReid, 1972AC
Deltavap34.7 ± 0.03kJ/molVHubbard, Scott, et al., 1955see Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949; ALS
Deltavap35.4kJ/molN/AHubbard, Scott, et al., 1955DRB

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
31.48357.3N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
35.8282.N/ADykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999Based on data from 267. - 381. K.; AC
34.8348.IEon, Pommier, et al., 1971Based on data from 333. - 373. K.; AC
34.1315.EBWhite, Barnard--Smith, et al., 1952Based on data from 300. - 366. K.; AC
33.7326.N/AWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949Based on data from 311. - 393. K.; AC
33.6 ± 0.1319.CWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949AC
32.7 ± 0.1336.CWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949AC
31.5 ± 0.1357.CWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949AC
32.6353.N/AFawcett and Rasmussen, 1945Based on data from 344. - 363. K.; AC
35.270.N/AMilazzo, 1944Based on data from 228. - 289. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-βTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kJ/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

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Temperature (K) A (kJ/mol) beta Tc (K) Reference Comment
319. - 357.49.560.288579.4Majer and Svoboda, 1985 

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
333.4 - 373.55.067161790.319-2.805Eon, Pommier, et al., 1971Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.
312.21 - 392.944.073581239.578-52.585Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
46.8213.Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 195. - 228. K. See also Milazzo, 1956.; AC
49.203.Milazzo, 1944Based on data from 192. - 213. K.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
4.97235.2Domalski and Hearing, 1996See also Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985.; AC

Temperature of phase transition

Ttrs (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
90.76crystaline, V'crystaline, IV'Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984Metastable transition.; DH
139.2crystaline, IV'crystaline, III'Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984Metastable transition.; DH
112.35crystaline, Vcrystaline, IVFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984DH
138.5crystaline, IVcrystaline, IIIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984DH
170.70crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984DH
175.03crystaline, IIcrystaline, IFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984DH
235.03crystaline, IliquidFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984DH
111.3crystaline, Vcrystaline, IVAndre, Dworkin, et al., 1982DH
136.8crystaline, IVcrystaline, IIIAndre, Dworkin, et al., 1982DH
170.5crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIAndre, Dworkin, et al., 1982DH
174.5crystaline, IIcrystaline, IAndre, Dworkin, et al., 1982DH

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
0.42844. - 170.crystaline, Vcrystaline, IIIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
0.8097170.70crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
1.83637. - 216.crystaline, II'crystaline, IFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
5.040235.02crystaline, IliquidFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
0.6376171.6crystaline, IIcrystaline, IWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949Anomalous heat capacity 100 to 150 K. Apparently two second order transitions at about 112, 138 K, with small energies involved.; DH
5.0861234.95crystaline, IliquidWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949DH
1.209171.1crystaline, IIcrystaline, IJacobs and Parks, 1934DH
4.966233.7crystaline, IliquidJacobs and Parks, 1934DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
4.044. - 170.crystaline, Vcrystaline, IIIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
4.74170.70crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
15.037. - 216.crystaline, II'crystaline, IFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
21.43235.02crystaline, IliquidFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
3.72171.6crystaline, IIcrystaline, IWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949Anomalous; DH
21.65234.95crystaline, IliquidWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949DH
7.1171.1crystaline, IIcrystaline, IJacobs and Parks, 1934DH
21.3233.7crystaline, IliquidJacobs and Parks, 1934DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C4H3S- + Hydrogen cation = Thiophene

By formula: C4H3S- + H+ = C4H4S

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1595. ± 13.kJ/molG+TSDePuy, Kass, et al., 1988gas phase; Between MeOH, EtOH. D exchange implies anion at C-2.; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1561. ± 13.kJ/molIMRBDePuy, Kass, et al., 1988gas phase; Between MeOH, EtOH. D exchange implies anion at C-2.; B

C4H4S+ + Thiophene = (C4H4S+ bullet Thiophene)

By formula: C4H4S+ + C4H4S = (C4H4S+ bullet C4H4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar70.7kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar96.7J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase; M

(C4H4S+ bullet Thiophene) + Thiophene = (C4H4S+ bullet 2Thiophene)

By formula: (C4H4S+ bullet C4H4S) + C4H4S = (C4H4S+ bullet 2C4H4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar31.kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH<; M

C4H5S+ + Thiophene = (C4H5S+ bullet Thiophene)

By formula: C4H5S+ + C4H4S = (C4H5S+ bullet C4H4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar48.1kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH<; M

Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference Comment
0.34 QN/A missing citation give several references for the Henry's law constants but don't assign them to specific species.
0.443700.MN/A 

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman

View reactions leading to C4H4S+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)8.86 ± 0.02eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)815.0kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity784.3kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.85PEKlasinc, Sabljic, et al., 1982LBLHLM
8.85PEGalasso, Klasinc, et al., 1981LLK
9.0 ± 0.1CEMSTedder and Vidaud, 1980LLK
8.87 ± 0.01PEButler and Baer, 1980LLK
~8.8EIVan Veen, 1976LLK
8.80 ± 0.05EIThorstad and Undheim, 1974LLK
8.90PEClark, Gleiter, et al., 1973LLK
9.05CTSAloisi and Pignataro, 1973LLK
8.874 ± 0.005SDiLonardo, Galloni, et al., 1972LLK
9.12 ± 0.05EILinda, Marino, et al., 1971LLK
8.87 ± 0.01PEDerrick, Asbrink, et al., 1971LLK
8.86 ± 0.01PIPotapov and Bazhenov, 1970RDSH
8.80 ± 0.05PEBaker, Betteridge, et al., 1970RDSH
8.87 ± 0.05PEEland, 1969RDSH
8.860 ± 0.005PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
8.95 ± 0.02SPrice and Walsh, 1941RDSH
8.85PEBajic, Humski, et al., 1985Vertical value; LBLHLM
8.90PEBock and Roth, 1983Vertical value; LBLHLM
8.90PEMellink and Janssen, 1978Vertical value; LLK
8.85PEBozic, Humski, et al., 1977Vertical value; LLK
8.87PESchafer, Schweig, et al., 1973Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
CHS+13.0 ± 0.2C3H3CEMSTedder and Vidaud, 1980LLK
CHS+13.19 ± 0.04C3H3PEButler and Baer, 1980LLK
CHS+13.0 ± 0.2?EIKhvostenko, 1962RDSH
C2H2S+12.5 ± 0.2C2H2CEMSTedder and Vidaud, 1980LLK
C2H2S+12.1 ± 0.1C2H2PEButler and Baer, 1980LLK
C2H2S+10.8 ± 0.2?EIKhvostenko, 1962RDSH
C3HS+12.95 ± 0.05CH3PEButler and Baer, 1980LLK
C3H3+13.0 ± 0.2CHSCEMSTedder and Vidaud, 1980LLK
C3H3+13.06 ± 0.05CHSPEButler and Baer, 1980LLK
C3H3+12.8 ± 0.2?EIKhvostenko, 1962RDSH
C4H3S+12.93 ± 0.07HPEButler and Baer, 1980LLK
S+20.0 ± 0.5?EIStepanov, Perov, et al., 1988LL

De-protonation reactions

C4H3S- + Hydrogen cation = Thiophene

By formula: C4H3S- + H+ = C4H4S

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1595. ± 13.kJ/molG+TSDePuy, Kass, et al., 1988gas phase; Between MeOH, EtOH. D exchange implies anion at C-2.; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1561. ± 13.kJ/molIMRBDePuy, Kass, et al., 1988gas phase; Between MeOH, EtOH. D exchange implies anion at C-2.; B

Ion clustering data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

C4H4S+ + Thiophene = (C4H4S+ bullet Thiophene)

By formula: C4H4S+ + C4H4S = (C4H4S+ bullet C4H4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar70.7kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar96.7J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase

(C4H4S+ bullet Thiophene) + Thiophene = (C4H4S+ bullet 2Thiophene)

By formula: (C4H4S+ bullet C4H4S) + C4H4S = (C4H4S+ bullet 2C4H4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar31.kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH<

C4H5S+ + Thiophene = (C4H5S+ bullet Thiophene)

By formula: C4H5S+ + C4H4S = (C4H5S+ bullet C4H4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar48.1kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH<

IR Spectrum

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Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: Tanya L. Myers, Russell G. Tonkyn, Ashley M. Oeck, Tyler O. Danby, John S. Loring, Matthew S. Taubman, Stephen W. Sharpe, Jerome C. Birnbaum, and Timothy J. Johnson


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1998.
NIST MS number 291513

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Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Takehiko Shimanouchi

Symmetry:   C2nu     Symmetry Number sigma = 2


 Sym.   No   Approximate   Selected Freq.  Infrared   Raman   Comments 
 Species   type of mode   Value   Rating   Value  Phase  Value  Phase

a1 1 CH str 3126  C 3126 M gas 3107 p liq.
a1 2 CH str 3098  C 3098 S gas 3084 liq.
a1 3 ip-Ring II 1409  C 1409 S gas 1407 p liq.
a1 4 ip-Ring III 1360  C 1360 VW gas 1358 p liq.
a1 5 CH ip-bend 1083  C 1083 S gas 1081 p liq.
a1 6 CH ip-bend 1036  C 1036 S gas 1035 liq.
a1 7 ip-Ring IV 839  C 839 VS gas 832 p liq.
a1 8 ip-Ring VII 608  C 608 W gas 606 p liq.
a2 9 CH op-bend 903  D 900 ia VW sln. 903 dp liq.
a2 10 CH op-bend 688  D  ia 688 dp liq.
a2 11 op-Ring I 567  D 565 ia VW liq. 567 dp liq.
b1 12 CH str 3125  E Frequencies were estimated from isotopic rule
b1 13 CH str 3086  C 3086 S gas 3076 sh liq.
b1 14 ip-Ring I 1504  D 1504 VW liq. 1502 dp liq.
b1 15 CH ip-bend 1256  C 1256 S gas 1257 liq.
b1 16 CH ip-bend 1085  E OV(«nu»5). Frequencies were estimated from isotopic rule
b1 17 ip-Ring V 872  C 872 M gas 869 dp liq.
b1 18 ip-Ring VI 751  D 763 VW gas 751 dp liq.
b2 19 CH op-bend 867  E OC(«nu»9+«nu»19, 2«nu»19)
b2 20 CH op-bend 712  C 712 VS gas
b2 21 op-Ring II 452  C 452 W gas 453 dp liq.

Source: Shimanouchi, 1972

Notes

VSVery strong
SStrong
MMedium
WWeak
VWVery weak
iaInactive
shShoulder
pPolarized
dpDepolarized
OCFrequency estimated from an overtone or a combination tone indicated in the parentheses.
OVOverlapped by band indicated in parentheses.
C3~6 cm-1 uncertainty
D6~15 cm-1 uncertainty
E15~30 cm-1 uncertainty

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedApiezon L160.694.Kurbatova, Finkelstein, et al., 2004Chromaton N-AW; Column length: 1. m; Large deviations from similar measurements
CapillaryDB-5100.686.1Miller and Bruno, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.1 «mu»m
CapillaryDB-5120.700.0Miller and Bruno, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.1 «mu»m
CapillaryDB-560.674.6Miller and Bruno, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.1 «mu»m
CapillaryDB-580.679.6Miller and Bruno, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.1 «mu»m
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.685.3Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000He; Column length: 3.3 m
CapillarySPB-1100.668.Misharina, Beletsky, et al., 199460. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillarySE-30100.668.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 199260. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He
CapillaryOV-101100.668.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 199260. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.683.0Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992Chromosorb G HP; Column length: 3.3 m
PackedApolane130.686.Dutoit, 1991Column length: 3.7 m
PackedApiezon M130.694.Garbuzov, Misharina, et al., 1985He or N2, Chromosorb W, AW-DMCS; Column length: 2.1 m
PackedApiezon M60.675.Mikhailova, Gren, et al., 1985Chromosorb WAW; Column length: 2.1 m
PackedApiezon M130.694.Golovnya, Garbuzov, et al., 1978Chromosorb W, AW/DMS; Column length: 2.1 m
PackedApolane70.664.6Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976He, Chromosorb; Column length: 2.4 m
CapillarySqualane60.641.Ryba, 1976Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane60.648.Ryba, 1976Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryApiezon L120.693.Agr, Tesaric, et al., 1973 
CapillarySqualane120.644.Agr, Tesaric, et al., 1973 
CapillarySqualane86.632.Agr, Tesaric, et al., 1973 
CapillarySqualane120.644.Agrawal, Tesarík, et al., 1972N2, Celite 545; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillarySqualane86.632.Agrawal, Tesarík, et al., 1972N2, Celite 545; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryApiezon L120.693.Agrawal, Tesarík, et al., 1972N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
PackedDC-200120.670.Reymond, Mueggler-Chavan, et al., 1966Celite; Column length: 4. m
PackedDC-200100.671.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 4. m
PackedSqualane100.652.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 5. m
PackedApiezon L100.690.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 5. m

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedCarbowax 20M160.1054.Kurbatova, Finkelstein, et al., 2004Chromaton N-AW; Column length: 1. m
CapillaryCarbowax 40M100.1039.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 199250. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He
PackedCarbowax 20M100.1046.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 2. m

Kovats' RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1023.Shimoda and Shibamoto, 1990He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 190. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5672.Methven L., Tsoukka M., et al., 200760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 260. C @ 10. min
CapillaryMega 5MS703.Condurso, Verzera, et al., 200660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB673.Elmore, Campo, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryBPX-5665.Ames, Guy, et al., 200150. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryBPX-5665.Ames, Guy, et al., 200150. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-1649.Kim, 200160. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB671.Elmore, Mottram, et al., 200060. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillarySPB-1658.Misharina, Beletsky, et al., 199460. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 8. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-101668.Misharina, Golovnya, et al., 199350. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-101648.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 199260. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-1650.Zhang and Ho, 199160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 220. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryDB-1646.Zhang and Ho, 198960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 220. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryDB-1648.Zhang, Chien, et al., 198860. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 220. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5661.Klesk, Qian, et al., 200430. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (2min) => 5C/min => 100C => 4C/min => 230C (10min)
CapillaryDB-5661.Klesk and Qian, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(2min) => 5C/min => 100C => 4C/min => 230C(10min)
CapillaryCP-Sil 8CB-MS626.Elmore, Mottram, et al., 2000, 260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 0C(5min) => 40C/min => 40C (2min) => 4C/min => 280C
CapillaryDB-5636.Parker, Hassell, et al., 200050. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: oC(5min) => 60C/min => 60C (5min) => 4C/min => 250C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1017.Kim, 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 30. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1023.Chung, Eiserich, et al., 1994He, 60. C @ 4. min, 3. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryCarbowax 40M1028.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 199250. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-101022.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1028.Condurso, Verzera, et al., 200660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 45C(5min) => 10C/min => 80C => 2C/min => 240C
CapillaryStabilwax1034.Klesk, Qian, et al., 200430. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (2min) => 5C/min => 100C => 4C/min => 230C (10min)
CapillaryStabilwax1030.Klesk and Qian, 200330. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(2min) => 5C/min => 100C => 4C/min => 230C(10min)

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groups100.686.Safa and Hadjmohannadi, 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.10 «mu»m, Nitrogen
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groups60.675.Safa and Hadjmohannadi, 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.10 «mu»m, Nitrogen
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groups80.680.Safa and Hadjmohannadi, 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.10 «mu»m, Nitrogen
PackedApiezon L100.693.Kavan, 1973Column length: 3.2 m
PackedPolydimethyl siloxane110.655.Ferrand, 1962 

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPONA648.Yang, Wang, et al., 200450. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, N2, 2. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryPONA646.Yang, Wang, et al., 200350. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, 2. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 150. C
CapillaryPONA647.Yang, Yang, et al., 200350. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 2. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryMethyl Silicone643.23Baraldi, Rapparini, et al., 199960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 10. min, 5. K/min; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryDB-1685.Tai and Ho, 199860. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryOV-101650.Egolf and Jurs, 19932. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-5677.Macku and Shibamoto, 1991He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 160. C
CapillaryCP-Sil 5644.Damste, van Dalen, et al., 198825. m/0.32 mm/0.45 «mu»m, Helium, 0. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryCP-Sil 5645.Damste, van Dalen, et al., 198825. m/0.32 mm/0.45 «mu»m, Helium, 0. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB644.Damste, Kock-van Dalen, et al., 198825. m/0.32 mm/0.45 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB645.Damste, Kock-van Dalen, et al., 198825. m/0.32 mm/0.45 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 300. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5665.Rotsatschakul, Visesanguan, et al., 200960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 30 0C (2 min) 2 0Cmin -> 60 0C 10 0C/min -> 100 0C 20 0C/min -> 140 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C (10 min)
CapillarySE-30650.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-5665.Begnaud, Pérès, et al., 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryBPX-5667.Machiels, van Ruth, et al., 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (4min) => 2C/min => 90C => 4C/min => 130C => 8C/min => 250 C (10min)
CapillaryPONA647.Yang, Wang, et al., 200350. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryApiezon L694.Finkelstein, Kurbatova, et al., 2002Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-5 MS680.Luo and Agnew, 200130. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1651.Nedjma and Maujean, 199530. m/0.32 mm/4. «mu»m, H2; Program: 35(1)-10 -> 55-25 ->250
CapillaryMethyl Silicone653.Zenkevich and Kuznetsova, 1990Program: not specified
CapillarySE-30665.P'yanova, Zvereva, et al., 1987Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-101650.Shibamoto, 1987Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.647.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
PackedApiezon M700.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 1983N2, Chromosorb W AW/DMCS; Column length: 5.6 m; Program: 60C(7min), 100C(7min), 150C isothermal

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-Innowax1010.Puvipirom and Chaisei, 201215. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryFFAP1024.Budryn, Nebesny, et al., 201130. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen, 35. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 45. min
CapillaryFFAP1024.Nebesny, Budryn, et al., 200730. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, N2, 35. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 320. C @ 45. min
CapillaryTC-Wax1026.Ishikawa, Ito, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 8. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1021.Sanz, Maeztu, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1021.Maeztu, Sanz, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1021.Sanz, Ansorena, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1041.Schlüter, Steinhart, et al., 199960. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 34. C @ 3. min, 5. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-Wax995.Schlüter, Steinhart, et al., 199960. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 34. C @ 3. min, 5. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1022.Umano, Hagi, et al., 1995He, 40. C @ 2. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1035.Egolf and Jurs, 19932. K/min; Column length: 80. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1032.Shibamoto and Russell, 19771. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1034.Shibamoto and Russell, 19771. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1032.Shibamoto and Russell, 1976N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1035.Shibamoto and Russell, 1976N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1035.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1054.Finkelstein, Kurbatova, et al., 2002Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1022.Peng, Yang, et al., 1991Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1025.Peng, Yang, et al., 1991Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 400, Carbowax 20M, Carbowax 1540, Carbowax 4000, Superox 06, PEG 20M, etc.1018.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Zaheeruddin and Lodhi, 1991
Zaheeruddin, M.; Lodhi, Z.H., Enthalpies of formation of some cyclic compounds, Phys. Chem. (Peshawar Pak.), 1991, 10, 111-118. [all data]

Hubbard, Scott, et al., 1955
Hubbard, W.N.; Scott, D.W.; Frow, F.R.; Waddington, G., Thiophene: Heat of combustion and chemical thermodynamic properties, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1955, 77, 5855-58. [all data]

Sunner, 1963
Sunner, S., Corrected heat of combustion and formation values for a number of organic sulphur compounds, Acta Chem. Scand., 1963, 17, 728-730. [all data]

Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949
Waddington, G.; Knowlton, J.W.; Scott, D.W.; Oliver, G.D.; Todd, S.S.; Hubbard, W.N.; Smith, J.C.; Huffman, H.M., Thermodynamic propertie of thiophene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1949, 71, 797-808. [all data]

Moore, Renquist, et al., 1940
Moore, G.E.; Renquist, M.L.; Parks, G.S., Thermal data on organic compounds. XX. Modern combustion data for two methylnonanes, methyl ethyl ketone, thiophene and six cycloparaffins, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940, 62, 1505-1507. [all data]

Sunner, 1955
Sunner, S., Thermochemical investigations on organic sulfur compounds. V. On the resonance energy of thiolacetic acid, thiourea, thiosemicarbzaide, thiophene and thianthrene, Acta Chem. Scand., 1955, 9, 847-854. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985
Figuiere, P.; Szwarc, H.; Oguni, M.; Suga, H., Calorimetric study of thiophene from 13 to 300 K. Emergence of two glassy crystalline states, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1985, 17, 949-966. [all data]

Jacobs and Parks, 1934
Jacobs, C.J.; Parks, G.S., Thermal data on organic compounds. XIV. Some heat capacity, entropy and free energy data for cyclic substances, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1934, 56, 1513-1517. [all data]

Goates, Ott, et al., 1973
Goates, J.R.; Ott, J.B.; Reeder, J., Solid + liquid phae equilibria and solid compound formation in hexafluorobenzene + benzene, + pyridine, + furan, and + thiophen, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1973, 5, 135. [all data]

Timmermans and Hennaut-Roland, 1959
Timmermans, J.; Hennaut-Roland, M., Work of the International Bureau of Physico-Chemical Properties physical constants of twenty organic compounds, J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol., 1959, 56, 984-1023. [all data]

Timmermans and Mattaar, 1921
Timmermans, J.; Mattaar, J.F., Freezing points of orgainic substances VI. New experimental determinations., Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg., 1921, 30, 213. [all data]

Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985, 2
Figuiere, P.; Szwarc, H.; Oguni, M.; Suga, H., Calorimetric study of thiophene from 13 to 300 K. Emergence of two glassy crystalline states, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1985, 17, 10, 949, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(85)90008-4 . [all data]

Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949, 2
Waddington, G.; Knowlton, J.W.; Scott, D.W.; Oliver, G.D.; Todd, S.S.; Hubbard, W.N.; Smith, J.C.; Huffman, H.M., Thermodynamic Properties of Thiophene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1949, 71, 797. [all data]

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Jacobs, C.J.; Parks, G.S., Thermal data on organic compounds. XIV. Some heat capacity, entropy and free energy data for cyclic substances, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1934, 56, 1513-17. [all data]

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Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Cheng, McCoubrey, et al., 1962
Cheng, D.C.H.; McCoubrey, J.C.; Phillips, D.G., Critical Temperatures of Some Organic Cyclic Compounds, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1962, 58, 224. [all data]

Kobe, Ravicz, et al., 1956
Kobe, K.A.; Ravicz, A.E.; Vohra, S.P., Critical Properties and Vapor Pressures of Some Ethers and Heterocyclic Compounds, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1956, 1, 50. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Dykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999
Dykyj, J.; Svoboda, J.; Wilhoit, R.C.; Frenkel, M.L.; Hall, K.R., Vapor Pressure of Chemicals: Part A. Vapor Pressure and Antoine Constants for Hydrocarbons and Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium and Hydrogen Containing Organic Compounds, Springer, Berlin, 1999, 373. [all data]

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Eon, C.; Pommier, C.; Guiochon, G., Vapor pressures and second virial coefficients of some five-membered heterocyclic derivatives, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1971, 16, 4, 408-410, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60051a008 . [all data]

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White, P.T.; Barnard--Smith, D.G.; Fidler, F.A., Vapor Pressure--Temperature Relationships of Sulfur Compounds Related to Petroleum, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1952, 44, 6, 1430-1438, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50510a064 . [all data]

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Fawcett, Frank S.; Rasmussen, Herbert E., Physical Properties of Thiophene 1, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1945, 67, 10, 1705-1709, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01226a026 . [all data]

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Milazzo, G., Gazz. Chim. Ital., 1944, 74, 58. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

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Milazzo, G., Ann. Chim. (Rome), 1956, 46, 1105. [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

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Figuiere, P.; Szwarc, H.; Oguni, M.; Suga, H., Crystalline thiophene - calorimetric evidence for a glassy crystalline state in both phase sequences, J. Phys., Lett., 1984, 45(24), L1167-L1173. [all data]

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Andre, D.; Dworkin, A.; Figuiere, P.; Fuchs, A.H.; Szwarc, H., Heat capacity of stable and metastable phases of crystalline thiophene, C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. 2, 1982, 295, 145-147. [all data]

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DePuy, C.H.; Kass, S.R.; Bean, G.P., Formation and Reactions of Heteroaromatic Anions in the Gas Phase, J. Org. Chem., 1988, 53, 19, 4427, https://doi.org/10.1021/jo00254a001 . [all data]

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Shibamoto and Russell, 1976
Shibamoto, T.; Russell, G.F., Study of meat volatiles associated with aroma generated in a D-glucose-hydrogen sulfide-ammonia model system, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1976, 24, 4, 843-846, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60206a047 . [all data]

Peng, Yang, et al., 1991
Peng, C.T.; Yang, Z.C.; Ding, S.F., Prediction of rentention idexes. II. Structure-retention index relationship on polar columns, J. Chromatogr., 1991, 586, 1, 85-112, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(91)80028-F . [all data]


Notes

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