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Thiophene

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas218.4kJ/molN/AZaheeruddin and Lodhi, 1991Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of 183.0 kj/mol from Zaheeruddin and Lodhi, 1991 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 35.4 kj/mol from Hubbard, Scott, et al., 1955.; DRB
Deltafgas116.4kJ/molN/ASunner, 1963Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of 81.0±0.6 kj/mol from Sunner, 1963 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 35.4 kj/mol from Hubbard, Scott, et al., 1955.; DRB
Deltafgas115.0 ± 1.0kJ/molCcbHubbard, Scott, et al., 1955see Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949; ALS
Deltafgas116.7kJ/molN/AMoore, Renquist, et al., 1940Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of 81.3±2.6 kj/mol from Moore, Renquist, et al., 1940 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 35.4 kj/mol from Hubbard, Scott, et al., 1955.; DRB

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid  CcbZaheeruddin and Lodhi, 1991uncertain value: 182.96 kJ/mol; Author's hf_SO2=-320.5 kJ/mol; ALS
Deltafliquid80.96 ± 0.63kJ/molCcrSunner, 1963Correction of Sunner, 1955; ALS
Deltafliquid79.6 ± 1.0kJ/molCcbHubbard, Scott, et al., 1955Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = 80.33 ± 1.0 kJ/mol; see Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949; ALS
Deltafliquid81.3 ± 2.6kJ/molCcbMoore, Renquist, et al., 1940Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = 81.76 kJ/mol; hf_H2SO4=-135.01; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid  CcbZaheeruddin and Lodhi, 1991uncertain value: -2649.19 kJ/mol; Author's hf_SO2=-320.5 kJ/mol; ALS
Deltacliquid-2828.8kJ/molCcrSunner, 1963Correction of Sunner, 1955; ALS
Deltacliquid-2827.6 ± 0.92kJ/molCcbHubbard, Scott, et al., 1955Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -2826.5 ± 0.90 kJ/mol; see Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949; ALS
Deltacliquid-2829.3 ± 2.5kJ/molCcbMoore, Renquist, et al., 1940Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -2792.4 ± 2.5 kJ/mol; hf_H2SO4=-135.01; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid181.2J/mol*KN/AFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
liquid181.17J/mol*KN/AWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949DH
liquid176.6J/mol*KN/AJacobs and Parks, 1934Details of extrapolation below 90 K not given. Scatter in data for solid introduce uncertainty. Value good to about 4 J/mol*K.; DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
122.40298.14Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985T = 13 to 300 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH
123.85297.45Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949T = 11 to 336 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH
123.22289.3Jacobs and Parks, 1934T = 93 to 294 K. Data for solid, 90 to 237 K, not given (table omitted, apparently). Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil357.3 ± 0.6KAVGN/AAverage of 7 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus234.93KN/AGoates, Ott, et al., 1973Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Tfus234.94KN/ATimmermans and Hennaut-Roland, 1959Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Tfus233.15KN/ATimmermans and Mattaar, 1921Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple235.02KN/AFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985, 2Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Ttriple234.900KN/AWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949, 2Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.08 K; TRC
Ttriple234.95KN/AWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949, 2Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.06 K; TRC
Ttriple233.7KN/AJacobs and Parks, 1934, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc579.4KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Tc579.4KN/ACheng, McCoubrey, et al., 1962Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; Visual (5-cm 2-mm bore tubes) in nitrate-nitrite bath, TE or TH cal. vs NPL thermometer J.C.McCoubrey, A.R.Ubbelohde Trans. Faraday Soc. 1960,56,114; TRC
Tc580.KN/AKobe, Ravicz, et al., 1956Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc57.00barN/AKobe, Ravicz, et al., 1956Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.6894 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Vc0.220l/molN/AKobe, Ravicz, et al., 1956Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.005 l/mol; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap34.79kJ/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap34.6kJ/molN/AReid, 1972AC
Deltavap34.7 ± 0.03kJ/molVHubbard, Scott, et al., 1955see Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949; ALS
Deltavap35.4kJ/molN/AHubbard, Scott, et al., 1955DRB

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
31.48357.3N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
35.8282.N/ADykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999Based on data from 267. - 381. K.; AC
34.8348.IEon, Pommier, et al., 1971Based on data from 333. - 373. K.; AC
34.1315.EBWhite, Barnard--Smith, et al., 1952Based on data from 300. - 366. K.; AC
33.7326.N/AWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949Based on data from 311. - 393. K.; AC
33.6 ± 0.1319.CWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949AC
32.7 ± 0.1336.CWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949AC
31.5 ± 0.1357.CWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949AC
32.6353.N/AFawcett and Rasmussen, 1945Based on data from 344. - 363. K.; AC
35.270.N/AMilazzo, 1944Based on data from 228. - 289. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-βTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kJ/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

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Temperature (K) A (kJ/mol) beta Tc (K) Reference Comment
319. - 357.49.560.288579.4Majer and Svoboda, 1985 

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
333.4 - 373.55.067161790.319-2.805Eon, Pommier, et al., 1971Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.
312.21 - 392.944.073581239.578-52.585Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
46.8213.Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 195. - 228. K. See also Milazzo, 1956.; AC
49.203.Milazzo, 1944Based on data from 192. - 213. K.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
4.97235.2Domalski and Hearing, 1996See also Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985.; AC

Temperature of phase transition

Ttrs (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
90.76crystaline, V'crystaline, IV'Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984Metastable transition.; DH
139.2crystaline, IV'crystaline, III'Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984Metastable transition.; DH
112.35crystaline, Vcrystaline, IVFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984DH
138.5crystaline, IVcrystaline, IIIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984DH
170.70crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984DH
175.03crystaline, IIcrystaline, IFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984DH
235.03crystaline, IliquidFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984DH
111.3crystaline, Vcrystaline, IVAndre, Dworkin, et al., 1982DH
136.8crystaline, IVcrystaline, IIIAndre, Dworkin, et al., 1982DH
170.5crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIAndre, Dworkin, et al., 1982DH
174.5crystaline, IIcrystaline, IAndre, Dworkin, et al., 1982DH

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
0.42844. - 170.crystaline, Vcrystaline, IIIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
0.8097170.70crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
1.83637. - 216.crystaline, II'crystaline, IFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
5.040235.02crystaline, IliquidFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
0.6376171.6crystaline, IIcrystaline, IWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949Anomalous heat capacity 100 to 150 K. Apparently two second order transitions at about 112, 138 K, with small energies involved.; DH
5.0861234.95crystaline, IliquidWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949DH
1.209171.1crystaline, IIcrystaline, IJacobs and Parks, 1934DH
4.966233.7crystaline, IliquidJacobs and Parks, 1934DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
4.044. - 170.crystaline, Vcrystaline, IIIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
4.74170.70crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
15.037. - 216.crystaline, II'crystaline, IFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
21.43235.02crystaline, IliquidFiguiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985DH
3.72171.6crystaline, IIcrystaline, IWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949Anomalous; DH
21.65234.95crystaline, IliquidWaddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949DH
7.1171.1crystaline, IIcrystaline, IJacobs and Parks, 1934DH
21.3233.7crystaline, IliquidJacobs and Parks, 1934DH

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Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C4H3S- + Hydrogen cation = Thiophene

By formula: C4H3S- + H+ = C4H4S

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1595. ± 13.kJ/molG+TSDePuy, Kass, et al., 1988gas phase; Between MeOH, EtOH. D exchange implies anion at C-2.; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1561. ± 13.kJ/molIMRBDePuy, Kass, et al., 1988gas phase; Between MeOH, EtOH. D exchange implies anion at C-2.; B

C4H4S+ + Thiophene = (C4H4S+ bullet Thiophene)

By formula: C4H4S+ + C4H4S = (C4H4S+ bullet C4H4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar70.7kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar96.7J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase; M

(C4H4S+ bullet Thiophene) + Thiophene = (C4H4S+ bullet 2Thiophene)

By formula: (C4H4S+ bullet C4H4S) + C4H4S = (C4H4S+ bullet 2C4H4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar31.kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH<; M

C4H5S+ + Thiophene = (C4H5S+ bullet Thiophene)

By formula: C4H5S+ + C4H4S = (C4H5S+ bullet C4H4S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar48.1kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH<; M

IR Spectrum

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Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: Tanya L. Myers, Russell G. Tonkyn, Ashley M. Oeck, Tyler O. Danby, John S. Loring, Matthew S. Taubman, Stephen W. Sharpe, Jerome C. Birnbaum, and Timothy J. Johnson


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1998.
NIST MS number 291513

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Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Takehiko Shimanouchi

Symmetry:   C2nu     Symmetry Number sigma = 2


 Sym.   No   Approximate   Selected Freq.  Infrared   Raman   Comments 
 Species   type of mode   Value   Rating   Value  Phase  Value  Phase

a1 1 CH str 3126  C 3126 M gas 3107 p liq.
a1 2 CH str 3098  C 3098 S gas 3084 liq.
a1 3 ip-Ring II 1409  C 1409 S gas 1407 p liq.
a1 4 ip-Ring III 1360  C 1360 VW gas 1358 p liq.
a1 5 CH ip-bend 1083  C 1083 S gas 1081 p liq.
a1 6 CH ip-bend 1036  C 1036 S gas 1035 liq.
a1 7 ip-Ring IV 839  C 839 VS gas 832 p liq.
a1 8 ip-Ring VII 608  C 608 W gas 606 p liq.
a2 9 CH op-bend 903  D 900 ia VW sln. 903 dp liq.
a2 10 CH op-bend 688  D  ia 688 dp liq.
a2 11 op-Ring I 567  D 565 ia VW liq. 567 dp liq.
b1 12 CH str 3125  E Frequencies were estimated from isotopic rule
b1 13 CH str 3086  C 3086 S gas 3076 sh liq.
b1 14 ip-Ring I 1504  D 1504 VW liq. 1502 dp liq.
b1 15 CH ip-bend 1256  C 1256 S gas 1257 liq.
b1 16 CH ip-bend 1085  E OV(«nu»5). Frequencies were estimated from isotopic rule
b1 17 ip-Ring V 872  C 872 M gas 869 dp liq.
b1 18 ip-Ring VI 751  D 763 VW gas 751 dp liq.
b2 19 CH op-bend 867  E OC(«nu»9+«nu»19, 2«nu»19)
b2 20 CH op-bend 712  C 712 VS gas
b2 21 op-Ring II 452  C 452 W gas 453 dp liq.

Source: Shimanouchi, 1972

Notes

VSVery strong
SStrong
MMedium
WWeak
VWVery weak
iaInactive
shShoulder
pPolarized
dpDepolarized
OCFrequency estimated from an overtone or a combination tone indicated in the parentheses.
OVOverlapped by band indicated in parentheses.
C3~6 cm-1 uncertainty
D6~15 cm-1 uncertainty
E15~30 cm-1 uncertainty

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Zaheeruddin and Lodhi, 1991
Zaheeruddin, M.; Lodhi, Z.H., Enthalpies of formation of some cyclic compounds, Phys. Chem. (Peshawar Pak.), 1991, 10, 111-118. [all data]

Hubbard, Scott, et al., 1955
Hubbard, W.N.; Scott, D.W.; Frow, F.R.; Waddington, G., Thiophene: Heat of combustion and chemical thermodynamic properties, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1955, 77, 5855-58. [all data]

Sunner, 1963
Sunner, S., Corrected heat of combustion and formation values for a number of organic sulphur compounds, Acta Chem. Scand., 1963, 17, 728-730. [all data]

Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949
Waddington, G.; Knowlton, J.W.; Scott, D.W.; Oliver, G.D.; Todd, S.S.; Hubbard, W.N.; Smith, J.C.; Huffman, H.M., Thermodynamic propertie of thiophene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1949, 71, 797-808. [all data]

Moore, Renquist, et al., 1940
Moore, G.E.; Renquist, M.L.; Parks, G.S., Thermal data on organic compounds. XX. Modern combustion data for two methylnonanes, methyl ethyl ketone, thiophene and six cycloparaffins, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940, 62, 1505-1507. [all data]

Sunner, 1955
Sunner, S., Thermochemical investigations on organic sulfur compounds. V. On the resonance energy of thiolacetic acid, thiourea, thiosemicarbzaide, thiophene and thianthrene, Acta Chem. Scand., 1955, 9, 847-854. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985
Figuiere, P.; Szwarc, H.; Oguni, M.; Suga, H., Calorimetric study of thiophene from 13 to 300 K. Emergence of two glassy crystalline states, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1985, 17, 949-966. [all data]

Jacobs and Parks, 1934
Jacobs, C.J.; Parks, G.S., Thermal data on organic compounds. XIV. Some heat capacity, entropy and free energy data for cyclic substances, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1934, 56, 1513-1517. [all data]

Goates, Ott, et al., 1973
Goates, J.R.; Ott, J.B.; Reeder, J., Solid + liquid phae equilibria and solid compound formation in hexafluorobenzene + benzene, + pyridine, + furan, and + thiophen, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1973, 5, 135. [all data]

Timmermans and Hennaut-Roland, 1959
Timmermans, J.; Hennaut-Roland, M., Work of the International Bureau of Physico-Chemical Properties physical constants of twenty organic compounds, J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol., 1959, 56, 984-1023. [all data]

Timmermans and Mattaar, 1921
Timmermans, J.; Mattaar, J.F., Freezing points of orgainic substances VI. New experimental determinations., Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg., 1921, 30, 213. [all data]

Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1985, 2
Figuiere, P.; Szwarc, H.; Oguni, M.; Suga, H., Calorimetric study of thiophene from 13 to 300 K. Emergence of two glassy crystalline states, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1985, 17, 10, 949, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(85)90008-4 . [all data]

Waddington, Knowlton, et al., 1949, 2
Waddington, G.; Knowlton, J.W.; Scott, D.W.; Oliver, G.D.; Todd, S.S.; Hubbard, W.N.; Smith, J.C.; Huffman, H.M., Thermodynamic Properties of Thiophene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1949, 71, 797. [all data]

Jacobs and Parks, 1934, 2
Jacobs, C.J.; Parks, G.S., Thermal data on organic compounds. XIV. Some heat capacity, entropy and free energy data for cyclic substances, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1934, 56, 1513-17. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Cheng, McCoubrey, et al., 1962
Cheng, D.C.H.; McCoubrey, J.C.; Phillips, D.G., Critical Temperatures of Some Organic Cyclic Compounds, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1962, 58, 224. [all data]

Kobe, Ravicz, et al., 1956
Kobe, K.A.; Ravicz, A.E.; Vohra, S.P., Critical Properties and Vapor Pressures of Some Ethers and Heterocyclic Compounds, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1956, 1, 50. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Dykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999
Dykyj, J.; Svoboda, J.; Wilhoit, R.C.; Frenkel, M.L.; Hall, K.R., Vapor Pressure of Chemicals: Part A. Vapor Pressure and Antoine Constants for Hydrocarbons and Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium and Hydrogen Containing Organic Compounds, Springer, Berlin, 1999, 373. [all data]

Eon, Pommier, et al., 1971
Eon, C.; Pommier, C.; Guiochon, G., Vapor pressures and second virial coefficients of some five-membered heterocyclic derivatives, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1971, 16, 4, 408-410, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60051a008 . [all data]

White, Barnard--Smith, et al., 1952
White, P.T.; Barnard--Smith, D.G.; Fidler, F.A., Vapor Pressure--Temperature Relationships of Sulfur Compounds Related to Petroleum, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1952, 44, 6, 1430-1438, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50510a064 . [all data]

Fawcett and Rasmussen, 1945
Fawcett, Frank S.; Rasmussen, Herbert E., Physical Properties of Thiophene 1, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1945, 67, 10, 1705-1709, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01226a026 . [all data]

Milazzo, 1944
Milazzo, G., Gazz. Chim. Ital., 1944, 74, 58. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Milazzo, 1956
Milazzo, G., Ann. Chim. (Rome), 1956, 46, 1105. [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Figuiere, Szwarc, et al., 1984
Figuiere, P.; Szwarc, H.; Oguni, M.; Suga, H., Crystalline thiophene - calorimetric evidence for a glassy crystalline state in both phase sequences, J. Phys., Lett., 1984, 45(24), L1167-L1173. [all data]

Andre, Dworkin, et al., 1982
Andre, D.; Dworkin, A.; Figuiere, P.; Fuchs, A.H.; Szwarc, H., Heat capacity of stable and metastable phases of crystalline thiophene, C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. 2, 1982, 295, 145-147. [all data]

DePuy, Kass, et al., 1988
DePuy, C.H.; Kass, S.R.; Bean, G.P., Formation and Reactions of Heteroaromatic Anions in the Gas Phase, J. Org. Chem., 1988, 53, 19, 4427, https://doi.org/10.1021/jo00254a001 . [all data]

Hiraoka, Takimoto, et al., 1987
Hiraoka, K.; Takimoto, H.; Yamabe, S., Stabilities and Structures in Cluster Ions of Five-Membered Heterocyclic Compounds Containing O, N and S Atoms, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1987, 109, 24, 7346, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00258a018 . [all data]

Shimanouchi, 1972
Shimanouchi, T., Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies Consolidated Volume I, National Bureau of Standards, 1972, 1-160. [all data]


Notes

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