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Bismuth dimer


Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Constants of diatomic molecules, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
1.22 ± 0.10LPESSun, Sun, et al., 2009B
1.2710 ± 0.0080LPESPolak, Ho, et al., 1991B
1.20 ± 0.10LPESSobhy, Reveles, et al., 2009B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
<=7.34PIYoo, Ruscic, et al., 1993LL
7.6 ± 0.5EIWagner and Grimley, 1974LLK
7.3 ± 0.5EIGingerich, Cocke, et al., 1974LLK
7.2 ± 0.5EIUy and Drowart, 1969RDSH
7.1 ± 0.3EIKohl, Uy, et al., 1967RDSH
7.4 ± 0.1EIKohl, Uy, et al., 1967RDSH

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
Bi+9.6 ± 0.5?EIWagner and Grimley, 1974LLK
Bi+9.7 ± 0.1BiEIKohl, Uy, et al., 1967RDSH

Constants of diatomic molecules

Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Klaus P. Huber and Gerhard H. Herzberg

Data collected through May, 1976

Symbols used in the table of constants
SymbolMeaning
State electronic state and / or symmetry symbol
Te minimum electronic energy (cm-1)
ωe vibrational constant – first term (cm-1)
ωexe vibrational constant – second term (cm-1)
ωeye vibrational constant – third term (cm-1)
Be rotational constant in equilibrium position (cm-1)
αe rotational constant – first term (cm-1)
γe rotation-vibration interaction constant (cm-1)
De centrifugal distortion constant (cm-1)
βe rotational constant – first term, centrifugal force (cm-1)
re internuclear distance (Å)
Trans. observed transition(s) corresponding to electronic state
ν00 position of 0-0 band (units noted in table)
Diatomic constants for 209Bi2
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
y x+15746.3 94.7 H 5.2        y rarrow x R 15741.4 H
Singh, Nair, et al., 1971
x x 103.2 H 2.45         
Fragments of several absorption systems in the region 44800 - 52900 cm-1.
Almy and Sparks, 1933; Nakamura and Shidel, 1935; Topouzkhanian, Sibai, et al., 1974
D (42228) 1 129 H 9.7        D larrow (A) 1 R 24485 H
missing citation
Three diffuse absorption bands at 40115, 40275, 40467 cm-1.
Almy and Sparks, 1933
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
C 36456 155.2 2 H 2.3 3        C larrow X R 36447 H
missing citation; Nakamura and Shidel, 1935
I 33216.7 156.4 H 6.1        I rarrow A V 15487.9 H
missing citation
H [32657.1] 4          H rarrow A V 14851.6 H
missing citation
Continuous absorption with maximum at 32000 cm-1.
Almy and Sparks, 1933
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
G (29609.0) 5 107.0 5 H 0.2        (G rarrow A) 5 R 11857.0 H
missing citation
E (26504.7) (63.5) 6 (8.5)  (0.01425) 6 (0.00015)     E rarrow B (21470.9) 7 (Z)
Gerber and Broida, 1976
A 0u+ 17739.3 132.49 H 0.302 8 -0.0021 0.01968 9 10 0.000053  11  2.863 A lrarrow X R 17719.2 H
missing citation; Nakamura and Shidel, 1935; Aslund, Barrow, et al., 1965; missing citation; Gerber and Broida, 1976
A' (8000) 12 141.2 0.37 -0.0019        
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
B (5000) 12 127.05 0.29 13 -0.001 (0.01790) (0.000046)      
X 1Sigmag+ 0 12 172.71 H 0.341 14 -0.0018 [0.022781] 10 0.000055 15  [1.50E-09]  2.6596  
X' (-1500) 12 154.3 0.42         

Notes

1Contrary to the conclusion of Almy and Sparks Almy and Sparks, 1933 that the violet system involves low vibrational levels of A, Gerber and Broida Gerber and Broida, 1976 consider it more probable that the absorption originates in high vibrational levels (v" ~20) of X', thereby reducing to (Te= 26000 cm-1) Gerber and Broida, 1976. Additional unassigned diffuse absorption features in the region 22000 - 24000 cm-1.
2 Nakamura and Shidel, 1935 give omegae 146.0 Nakamura and Shidel, 1935, omegaexe = 0.50 Nakamura and Shidel, 1935. All bands except those with v'=1 are diffuse. Observed to v'=4. At shorter wavelengths are additional features probably belonging to ClarrowX but not assigned by Almy and Sparks, 1933.
3The value of omegaexe given by Almy and Sparks, 1933 is clearly 2omegaexe. The constants listed above take account of this correction.
4Only v'=0.
5Gerber et al. Gerber and Broida, 1976 have found very similar constants (omegae = 105.68 Gerber and Broida, 1976, omegaexe = 0.63 Gerber and Broida, 1976) for the lower state of an unidentified transition in the laser photoluminescence spectrum and have tentatively identified this lower state with the upper state of Reddy and Ali's Reddy and Ali, 1970 G rarrow A system. They suggest that the emission from G involves high vibrational levels (v" ~ 50) of X, rather than v=0,...,4 of A, and they estimate Te ~ 20000 Gerber and Broida, 1976.
6Constants derived from intensity data; see Gerber and Broida, 1976.
7Recalculated from data in Gerber and Broida, 1976.
8omegaeze = +0.000055 Reddy and Ali, 1970. Slightly different constants in Almy and Sparks, 1933, Gerber and Broida, 1976.
9Extrapolated from B8, B9, B11 Aslund, Barrow, et al., 1965.
10RKR potential curves Rao and Lakshman, 1970, Gerber and Broida, 1976.
11D8 = 1.71E-9.
12All four states give rise to long lower state progressions in the laser photoluminescence spectrum of Bi2 Gerber and Broida, 1976. Their relative energies were estimated Gerber and Broida, 1976 from the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence intensities. The upper levels of the transitions, except those belonging to A and E, could not be identified.
13missing note
14omegaeze = +0.000010 Reddy and Ali, 1970. Slightly different constants in Almy and Sparks, 1933, Gerber and Broida, 1976.
15From the laser photoluminescence spectrum Gerber and Broida, 1976, adjusted for best overall fit of observed with calculated intensities.
16The state designations adopted in the Bi2 table agree with those of Gerber and Broida, 1976. They are compared below with designations used elsewhere: <TABLE> <TR> <TD>This table, and Gerber and Broida, 1976:</TD> <TD> X' </TD> <TD> X </TD> <TD> B </TD> <TD> A' </TD> <TD> A </TD> <TD> E </TD> <TD> G </TD> <TD> H </TD> <TD> I </TD> <TD> C </TD> <TD> D </TD> </TR> <TR> <TD> Almy and Sparks, 1933 </TD> <TD></TD> <TD> A </TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD> B </TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD> C </TD> <TD> D </TD> </TR> <TR> <TD> Herzberg, 1950 </TD> <TD></TD> <TD> X </TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD> B </TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD> D </TD> <TD> E </TD> </TR> <TR> <TD> Aslund, Barrow, et al., 1965 </TD> <TD></TD> <TD> X </TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD> A </TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD> Rosen, 1970 </TD> <TD></TD> <TD> X </TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD> A </TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD> C </TD> <TD> D </TD> </TR> <TR> <TD> Reddy and Ali, 1970 </TD> <TD></TD> <TD> X </TD> <TD></TD> <TD></TD> <TD> A </TD> <TD></TD> <TD> G </TD> <TD> H </TD> <TD> I </TD> <TD> D </TD> <TD> E </TD> </TR> </TABLE>
17Thermochemical value (mass-spectrom.) Kohl, Uy, et al., 1967, Rovner, Drowart, et al., 1967, calculated for a 1Sigma ground state and disregarding other low-lying states.

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Constants of diatomic molecules, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Sun, Sun, et al., 2009
Sun, Z.; Sun, S.T.; Liu, H.T.; Zhu, Q.H.; Gao, Z.; Tang, Z.C., Photoelectron Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies of MmC6F5 Anionic Complexes (M = Ph and Bi; m=1-4), J. Phys. Chem. A, 2009, 113, 28, 8045-8054, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp8099626 . [all data]

Polak, Ho, et al., 1991
Polak, M.L.; Ho, J.; Gerber, G.; Lineberger, W.C., Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Negatively Charged Bismuth Clusters: Bi2-, Bi3-, and Bi4-, J. Chem. Phys., 1991, 95, 5, 3053, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.460862 . [all data]

Sobhy, Reveles, et al., 2009
Sobhy, M.A.; Reveles, J.U.; Gupta, U.; Khanna, S.N.; Castleman, A.W., Photoelectron imaging and theoretical investigation of bimetallic Bi1-2Ga0-2- and Pb-1-4(-) cluster anions, J. Chem. Phys., 2009, 130, 5, 054304, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3069295 . [all data]

Yoo, Ruscic, et al., 1993
Yoo, R.K.; Ruscic, B.; Berkowitz, J., Photoionization mass spectrometric studies of Sb2 and Bi2, J. Chem. Phys., 1993, 99, 8445. [all data]

Wagner and Grimley, 1974
Wagner, L.C.; Grimley, R.T., A mass spectrometric study of the bismuth vapor system by the angular distribution technique, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1974, 29, 594. [all data]

Gingerich, Cocke, et al., 1974
Gingerich, K.A.; Cocke, D.L.; Kordis, J., Gaseous phosphorus compounds. X. Mass spectrometric determination of the dissociation energies of arsenic and bismuth monophosphides, J. Phys. Chem., 1974, 78, 603. [all data]

Uy and Drowart, 1969
Uy, O.M.; Drowart, J., Mass spectrometric determination of the dissociation energies of the molecules BiO, BiS, BiSe and BiTe, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans., 1969, 65, 3221. [all data]

Kohl, Uy, et al., 1967
Kohl, F.J.; Uy, O.M.; Carlson, K.D., Cross sections for electron-impact fragmentation and dissociation energies of the dimer and tetramer of bismuth, J. Chem. Phys., 1967, 47, 2667. [all data]

Singh, Nair, et al., 1971
Singh, J.; Nair, K.P.R.; Rai, D.K., A new band system in the emission spectrum of diatomic bismuth, Spectrosc. Lett., 1971, 4, 313. [all data]

Almy and Sparks, 1933
Almy, G.M.; Sparks, F.M., The absorption spectrum of diatomic bismuth, Phys. Rev., 1933, 44, 365. [all data]

Nakamura and Shidel, 1935
Nakamura, G.; Shidel, T., 3. The band spectra of elements of the fifth group, Jpn. J. Phys., 1935, 10, 11. [all data]

Topouzkhanian, Sibai, et al., 1974
Topouzkhanian, A.; Sibai, A.M.; d'Incan, J., Observation et analyse vibrationnelle de nouveauz systemes de bandes d'absorption de molecules lourdes dans l'ultraviolet lointain Cas de Sb2 et Bi2, Z. Naturforsch. A, 1974, 29, 436. [all data]

Gerber and Broida, 1976
Gerber, G.; Broida, H.P., Electronic states and molecular constants of Bi2, J. Chem. Phys., 1976, 64, 3423. [all data]

Aslund, Barrow, et al., 1965
Aslund, N.; Barrow, R.F.; Richards, W.G.; Travis, D.N., Rotational analysis of bands of the B-X system of Cu2 and of the A-X system of Bi2, Ark. Fys., 1965, 30, 171. [all data]

Reddy and Ali, 1970
Reddy, S.P.; Ali, M.K., The emission spectrum of diatomic bismuth, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1970, 35, 285. [all data]

Rao and Lakshman, 1970
Rao, T.V.R.; Lakshman, S.V.J., True potential energy curves for the bands of the Bi2 molecule, Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys., 1970, 8, 785. [all data]

Herzberg, 1950
Herzberg, G., Molecular spectra and molecular structure. I. Spectra of diatomic molecules, Pub. D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1950, 0. [all data]

Rosen, 1970
Rosen, B., International tables of selected constants. 17. Spectroscopic data relative to diatomic molecules, Pub. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1970, 0. [all data]

Rovner, Drowart, et al., 1967
Rovner, L.; Drowart, A.; Drowart, J., Mass spectrometric determination of dissociation energies of molecules Bi2, Bi3, Bi4, and BiPb, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1967, 63, 2906. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Constants of diatomic molecules, References