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Biphenylene

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas99.71 ± 0.45kcal/molReviewRoux, Temprado, et al., 2008There are sufficient literature values to make a qualified recommendation where the suggested value is in good agreement with values predicted using thermochemical cycles or from reliable estimates. In general, the evaluated uncertainty limits are on the order of (2 to 4) kJ/mol.; DRB
Deltafgas100.48 ± 0.46kcal/molCcbDouslin, Scott, et al., 1976see Good, 1978; ALS
Deltafgas105.2kcal/molN/ABedford, Carey, et al., 1962Value computed using «DELTA»fHsolid° value of 353.0 kj/mol from Bedford, Carey, et al., 1962 and «DELTA»subH° value of 87.0 kj/mol from Douslin, Scott, et al., 1976.; DRB

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
10.3650.Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997p=1 bar.; GT
14.89100.
19.74150.
25.387200.
34.775273.15
38.074298.15
38.317300.
50.74400.
61.11500.
69.41600.
76.00700.
81.36800.
85.76900.
89.391000.
92.471100.
95.121200.
97.281300.
99.191400.
100.91500.

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid79.68 ± 0.43kcal/molReviewRoux, Temprado, et al., 2008There are sufficient literature values to make a qualified recommendation where the suggested value is in good agreement with values predicted using thermochemical cycles or from reliable estimates. In general, the evaluated uncertainty limits are on the order of (2 to 4) kJ/mol.; DRB
Deltafsolid79.68 ± 0.26kcal/molCcbDouslin, Scott, et al., 1976crystal phase; see Good, 1978; ALS
Deltafsolid84.4kcal/molCcbBedford, Carey, et al., 1962ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-1481.56 ± 0.22kcal/molCcbDouslin, Scott, et al., 1976crystal phase; see Good, 1978; Corresponding «DELTA»fsolid = 79.69 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacsolid-1486.3 ± 0.7kcal/molCcbBedford, Carey, et al., 1962Corresponding «DELTA»fsolid = 84.4 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacsolid-1481.4 ± 2.5kcal/molCcbCass, Springall, et al., 1955Corresponding «DELTA»fsolid = 79.5 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus384.4KN/AYokozeki, Wilcox, et al., 1974Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub22. ± 8.kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
19.8383.GSNass, Lenoir, et al., 1995Based on data from 313. - 453. K.; AC
16.4 ± 0.2295.VWolf and Weghofer, 1938ALS

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C10H8+ + Biphenylene = (C10H8+ bullet Biphenylene)

By formula: C10H8+ + C12H8 = (C10H8+ bullet C12H8)

Bond type: Charge transfer bond (positive ion)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar15.9kcal/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.cal/mol*KN/AMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
7.2309.PHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated

C12H9+ + Biphenylene = (C12H9+ bullet Biphenylene)

By formula: C12H9+ + C12H8 = (C12H9+ bullet C12H8)

Bond type: Charge transfer bond (positive ion)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.cal/mol*KN/AMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated
Deltar29.cal/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
5.9277.PHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
MM - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner)
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

View reactions leading to C12H8+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)7.58 ± 0.03eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)202.7kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity195.8kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
0.89 ± 0.10CIDCChen and Cooks, 1995B

Proton affinity at 298K

Proton affinity (kcal/mol) Reference Comment
202.0Aue, Guidoni, et al., 2000Experimental literature data re-evaluated by the authors using ab initio protonation entropies; MM

Gas basicity at 298K

Gas basicity (review) (kcal/mol) Reference Comment
195.8Aue, Guidoni, et al., 2000Experimental literature data re-evaluated by the authors using ab initio protonation entropies; MM

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
7.56 ± 0.05EQMautner(Meot-Ner), 1980LLK
7.61 ± 0.04PEBoschi, Clar, et al., 1974LLK
7.53 ± 0.05PEEland, 1972LLK
7.56 ± 0.05PEEland, 1969RDSH
7.61PEDewar and Tien, 1985Vertical value; LBLHLM
7.60 ± 0.02PEMaier and Turner, 1972Vertical value; LLK

Ion clustering data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

C10H8+ + Biphenylene = (C10H8+ bullet Biphenylene)

By formula: C10H8+ + C12H8 = (C10H8+ bullet C12H8)

Bond type: Charge transfer bond (positive ion)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar15.9kcal/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.cal/mol*KN/AMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
7.2309.PHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated

C12H9+ + Biphenylene = (C12H9+ bullet Biphenylene)

By formula: C12H9+ + C12H8 = (C12H9+ bullet C12H8)

Bond type: Charge transfer bond (positive ion)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.cal/mol*KN/AMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated
Deltar29.cal/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kcal/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
5.9277.PHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner), 1980gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
State gas
Instrument HP-GC/MS/IRD

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Due to licensing restrictions, this spectrum cannot be downloaded.

Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Chemical Concepts
NIST MS number 190117

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Eugeny B. Stern, Antonina A. Goncharova, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source missing citation
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 9010
Instrument Unicam SP 700
Melting point 107-111

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5248.9Wang, Hou, et al., 200730. m/0.30 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 200. C @ 15. min
CapillaryHP-5249.1Shao, Wang, et al., 200630. m/0.3 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 200. C @ 15. min
CapillarySPB-5249.2Knobloch and Engewald, 199340. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 300. C

Lee's RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5MS240.Aracil, Font, et al., 2005Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS244.96Cheng, Liu, et al., 200530. m/0.30 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 50 0C (2 min) 8 0C/min -> 120 0C (3 min) 10 0C/min -> 230 0C

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Roux, Temprado, et al., 2008
Roux, M.V.; Temprado, M.; Chickos, J.S.; Nagano, Y., Critically Evaluated Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2008, 37, 4, 1855-1996. [all data]

Douslin, Scott, et al., 1976
Douslin, D.R.; Scott, D.W.; Good, W.D.; Osborn, A.G., Thermodynamic properties of organic compounds and thermodynamic properties of fluids, Gov. Rep. Announce. Index U.S., 1976, 76, 97. [all data]

Good, 1978
Good, W.D., The enthalpies of formation of some bridged-ring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1978, 10, 553-558. [all data]

Bedford, Carey, et al., 1962
Bedford, A.F.; Carey, J.G.; Millar, I.T.; Mortimer, C.T.; Springall, H.D., Heats of combustion and molecular structure. Part VIII. Biphenylene, J. Chem. Soc., 1962, 3895-3898. [all data]

Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997
Thermodynamics Research Center, Selected Values of Properties of Chemical Compounds., Thermodynamics Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 1997. [all data]

Cass, Springall, et al., 1955
Cass, R.C.; Springall, H.D.; Quincey, P.G., Heats of combustion and molecular structure. Part III. Diphenylene, J. Chem. Soc., 1955, 1188-1190. [all data]

Yokozeki, Wilcox, et al., 1974
Yokozeki, A.; Wilcox, C.F.; Bauer, S.H., Biphenylene. Internuclear Distances and Their Root Mean Square Amplitudes of Vibration, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1974, 96, 1026. [all data]

Nass, Lenoir, et al., 1995
Nass, Karen; Lenoir, Dieter; Kettrup, Antonius, Calculation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by an Incremental Procedure, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1995, 34, 16, 1735-1736, https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.199517351 . [all data]

Wolf and Weghofer, 1938
Wolf, K.L.; Weghofer, H., Uber sublimationswarmen, Z. Phys. Chem., 1938, 39, 194-208. [all data]

Meot-Ner (Mautner), 1980
Meot-Ner (Mautner), M., Dimer Cations of Polycyclic Aromatics: Experimental Bonding Energies and Resonance Stabilization, J. Phys. Chem., 1980, 84, 21, 2724, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100458a012 . [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Chen and Cooks, 1995
Chen, G.D.; Cooks, R.G., Electron affinities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by the kinetic method, J. Mass Spectrom., 1995, 30, 8, 1167, https://doi.org/10.1002/jms.1190300814 . [all data]

Aue, Guidoni, et al., 2000
Aue, D.H.; Guidoni, M.; Betowski, L.D., Ab initio calculated gas-phase basicities of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 2000, 201, 283. [all data]

Mautner(Meot-Ner), 1980
Mautner(Meot-Ner), M., Ion thermochemistry of low volatility compounds in the gas phase. 3. Polycyclic aromatics: Ionization energies, proton, and hydrogen affinities. Extrapolations to graphite, J. Phys. Chem., 1980, 84, 2716. [all data]

Boschi, Clar, et al., 1974
Boschi, R.; Clar, E.; Schmidt, W., Photoelectron spectra of polynuclear aromatics. III. The effect of nonplanarity in sterically overcrowded aromatic hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Phys., 1974, 60, 4406. [all data]

Eland, 1972
Eland, J.H.D., Photoelectron spectra and ionization potentials of aromatic hydrocarbons, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1972, 9, 214. [all data]

Eland, 1969
Eland, J.H.D., Photoelectron spectra of conjugated hydrocarbons and heteromolecules, Intern. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1969, 2, 471. [all data]

Dewar and Tien, 1985
Dewar, M.J.S.; Tien, T.-P., Photoelectron spectrum of benzyne, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1985, 1243. [all data]

Maier and Turner, 1972
Maier, J.P.; Turner, D.W., Steric inhibition of resonance studied by molecular photoelectron spectroscopy. Part I. Biphenyls, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc., 1972, 54, 149. [all data]

Wang, Hou, et al., 2007
Wang, G.; Hou, Z.; Sun, Y.; Liu, Y.; Xie, B.; Liu, S., Investigation of pyrolysis behavior of fenoxycarb using PY-GC-MS assisted with chemometric methods, Chem. Anal., 2007, 52, 141-156. [all data]

Shao, Wang, et al., 2006
Shao, X.; Wang, G.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, R.; Xie, K.; Liu, H., Determination and Characterization of the Pyrolysis Products of Isoprocarb by GC-MS, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 2006, 44, 3, 141-147, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/44.3.141 . [all data]

Knobloch and Engewald, 1993
Knobloch, T.; Engewald, W., Identification of some polar polycyclic compounds in emissions from brown-coal-fired residential stoves, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1993, 16, 4, 239-242, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240160407 . [all data]

Aracil, Font, et al., 2005
Aracil, I.; Font, R.; Conesa, J.A., Semivolatile and volatile compounds from the pyrolysis and combustion of polyvinyl chloride, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 2005, 74, 1-2, 465-478, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2004.09.008 . [all data]

Cheng, Liu, et al., 2005
Cheng, D.-X.; Liu, B.-X.; Sun, Y.-A.; Xie, B.; Zhang, H.-L., rapid analysis of pyrolysis products of cholesterol by GC-MS assited with boiling point - Lee retention index, journal of Instrumental Analysis - Fenxi ceshi xuebao, 2005, 24, 6, 85-88. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References