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Cyclobutane

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Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C4H8+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.8 ± 0.1eVN/AN/AL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.82 ± 0.05EIHolmes and Lossing, 1991LL
9.6 ± 0.1PEBieri, Burger, et al., 1977LLK
9.92 ± 0.05PERaymonda, 1972LLK
10.06EILossing, 1972LLK
<=10.3PIDoepker and Ausloos, 1966Personal communication from P. Natalis, B. Steiner, and M.G. Inghram; RDSH
10.7 ± 0.1PEBieri, Burger, et al., 1977Vertical value; LLK
10.7 ± 0.1PEBischof, Haselbach, et al., 1970Vertical value; RDSH

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C2H2+16.8?EIHughes and Tiernan, 1969RDSH
C2H3+17.7?EIHughes and Tiernan, 1969RDSH
C2H4+11.0 ± 0.15?EIMeisels, Park, et al., 1970RDSH
C2H5+13.8?EIHughes and Tiernan, 1969RDSH
C3H3+14.8?EIHughes and Tiernan, 1969RDSH
C3H5+11.00CH3EILossing, 1972LLK
C4H6+11.2 ± 0.1H2EIHolmes, Weese, et al., 1977LLK
C4H7+10.91HEILossing, 1972LLK

De-protonation reactions

C4H7- + Hydrogen cation = Cyclobutane

By formula: C4H7- + H+ = C4H8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar417.4 ± 2.0kcal/molBranDePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989gas phase; B
Deltar419.9 ± 2.0kcal/molBranPeerboom, Rademaker, et al., 1992gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar408.4 ± 2.1kcal/molH-TSDePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989gas phase; B
Deltar410.9 ± 2.1kcal/molH-TSPeerboom, Rademaker, et al., 1992gas phase; B

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Holmes and Lossing, 1991
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P., Ionization energies of homologous organic compounds and correlation with molecular size, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1991, 26, 537. [all data]

Bieri, Burger, et al., 1977
Bieri, G.; Burger, F.; Heilbronner, E.; Maier, J.P., Valence ionization enrgies of hydrocarbons, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1977, 60, 2213. [all data]

Raymonda, 1972
Raymonda, J.W., Rydberg states in cyclic alkanes, J. Chem. Phys., 1972, 56, 3912. [all data]

Lossing, 1972
Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XLV. Ionization potentials and heats of formation of C3H3, C3H5, and C4H7 radicals and ions, Can. J. Chem., 1972, 50, 3973. [all data]

Doepker and Ausloos, 1966
Doepker, R.D.; Ausloos, P., Gas-phase radiolysis of cyclobutane, J. Chem. Phys., 1966, 44, 1641. [all data]

Bischof, Haselbach, et al., 1970
Bischof, P.; Haselbach, E.; Heilbronner, E., Photoelectron spectrum of cyclobutane, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1970, 9, 953. [all data]

Hughes and Tiernan, 1969
Hughes, B.M.; Tiernan, T.O., Ionic reactions in gaseous cyclobutane, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 51, 4373. [all data]

Meisels, Park, et al., 1970
Meisels, G.G.; Park, J.Y.; Giessner, B.G., Ionization and dissociation of C4H8 isomers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1970, 92, 254. [all data]

Holmes, Weese, et al., 1977
Holmes, J.L.; Weese, G.M.; Blair, A.S.; Terlouw, J.K., Metastable ion studies IX-Thermochemistry and ion structures among fragmenting [C4H8]+ ions, an electron impact and field ionization investigation, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1977, 12, 424. [all data]

DePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989
DePuy, C.H.; Gronert, S.; Barlow, S.E.; Bierbaum, V.M.; Damrauer, R., The Gas Phase Acidities of the Alkanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 6, 1968, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00188a003 . [all data]

Peerboom, Rademaker, et al., 1992
Peerboom, R.A.L.; Rademaker, G.J.; Dekoning, L.J.; Nibbering, N.M.M., Stabilization of Cycloalkyl Carbanions in the Gas Phase, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 1992, 6, 6, 394, https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.1290060608 . [all data]


Notes

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