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Benzene, 1-chloro-3-methyl-

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Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-3751. ± 8.kJ/molCcbSmith, Bjellerup, et al., 1953At 291.7 °K

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil435.2KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil431.2KN/AOgimachi, Andrews, et al., 1955Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Tboil434.89KN/AStuckey and Saylor, 1940Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus225.35KN/AMartin, Yalkowsky, et al., 1979Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Tfus224.26KN/ABrown and Stock, 1957Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.6 K; TRC
Tfus246.9KN/ATimmermans, 1934as reported in Chem. Abstracts; TRC
Tfus225.35KN/AHaase, 1893Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
41.9388.N/ADykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999Based on data from 373. - 435. K.; AC
43.7292.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 277. - 436. K. See also Stull, 1947.; AC
46.2288.N/AStuckey and Saylor, 1940, 2Based on data from 273. - 348. K.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
277.9 - 435.54.481481807.576-32.105Stull, 1947Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: John E. Bartmess

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C7H6Cl- + Hydrogen cation = Benzene, 1-chloro-3-methyl-

By formula: C7H6Cl- + H+ = C7H7Cl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1565. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSCaldwell and Bartmessgas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1535. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRECaldwell and Bartmessgas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)783.9kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity754.5kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.7 ± 0.1EITajima and Tsuchiya, 1972LLK
8.83 ± 0.02PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C5H5+15.7 ± 0.2C2H2+ClEITajima and Tsuchiya, 1973LLK
C5H5+15.71 ± 0.15C2H2+ClEITajima and Tsuchiya, 1972LLK
C7H6Cl+12.05 ± 0.07HEISelim, Rabbih, et al., 1994LL
C7H7+11.25 ± 0.06ClEISelim, Rabbih, et al., 1994LL
C7H7+11.3 ± 0.1ClEITajima and Tsuchiya, 1972LLK
C7H7+11.9ClEIYeo and Williams, 1970RDSH
C7H7+11.3 ± 0.1ClEIBrown, 1970RDSH

De-protonation reactions

C7H6Cl- + Hydrogen cation = Benzene, 1-chloro-3-methyl-

By formula: C7H6Cl- + H+ = C7H7Cl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1565. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSCaldwell and Bartmessgas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1535. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRECaldwell and Bartmessgas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B

IR Spectrum

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Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1990.
NIST MS number 114660

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Bolshakov, et al., 1969
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 20251
Instrument unknown
Boiling point 161.8

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-1927.7Sun and Stremple, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 325. C
CapillaryOV-1934.9Gautzsch and Zinn, 19968. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH933.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryE-301100.954.Bermejo, Moinelo, et al., 1980N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane100.944.Bermejo, Moinelo, et al., 1980N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySPB-1959.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes938.Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1959.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillaryOV-1932.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1960.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1313.Peng, Yang, et al., 1991Program: not specified
CapillarySuperox 0.6; Carbowax 20M1288.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillarySuperox 0.6; Carbowax 20M1301.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 400, Carbowax 20M, Carbowax 1540, Carbowax 4000, Superox 06, PEG 20M, etc.1288.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1291.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP5-MS150.Vrana, Paschke, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 280. C @ 10. min

Lee's RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5MS160.7Aracil, Font, et al., 2005Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Smith, Bjellerup, et al., 1953
Smith, L.; Bjellerup, L.; Krook, S.; Westermark, H., Heats of combustion of organic chloro compounds determined by the "quartz wool" method, Acta Chem. Scand., 1953, 7, 65. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Ogimachi, Andrews, et al., 1955
Ogimachi, N.N.; Andrews, L.J.; Keefer, R.M., The Free Energies and Heats of Formation of Polyalkoxybenzene-Iodine Monochloride Complexes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1955, 77, 4202. [all data]

Stuckey and Saylor, 1940
Stuckey, J.M.; Saylor, J.H., Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds I., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940, 62, 2922. [all data]

Martin, Yalkowsky, et al., 1979
Martin, E.L.; Yalkowsky, S.H.; Wells, J.E., J. Pharm. Sci., 1979, 68, 565. [all data]

Brown and Stock, 1957
Brown, H.C.; Stock, L.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957, 79, 5175. [all data]

Timmermans, 1934
Timmermans, J., Theory of Concentrated Solutions XII., Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg., 1934, 43, 626. [all data]

Haase, 1893
Haase, E., Chem. Ber., 1893, 26, 1053. [all data]

Dykyj, Svoboda, et al., 1999
Dykyj, J.; Svoboda, J.; Wilhoit, R.C.; Frenkel, M.L.; Hall, K.R., Vapor Pressure of Chemicals: Part A. Vapor Pressure and Antoine Constants for Hydrocarbons and Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium and Hydrogen Containing Organic Compounds, Springer, Berlin, 1999, 373. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Stull, 1947
Stull, Daniel R., Vapor Pressure of Pure Substances. Organic and Inorganic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1947, 39, 4, 517-540, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50448a022 . [all data]

Stuckey and Saylor, 1940, 2
Stuckey, James M.; Saylor, John H., The Vapor Pressures of Some Organic Compounds. I. 1, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940, 62, 11, 2922-2925, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01868a011 . [all data]

Caldwell and Bartmess
Caldwell, G.; Bartmess, J.E., , Unpublished results. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Tajima and Tsuchiya, 1972
Tajima, S.; Tsuchiya, T., The effects of the repeller voltage and the shield voltage on appearance potential measurements by electron impact, Shitsuryo Bunseki, 1972, 20, 117. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Tajima and Tsuchiya, 1973
Tajima, S.; Tsuchiya, T., Energetics consideration of C5H5+ ions produced from various precursors by electron impact, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1973, 46, 3291. [all data]

Selim, Rabbih, et al., 1994
Selim, E.T.M.; Rabbih, M.A.; Fahmey, M.A.; Hawash, M.F., Loss of H and Cl from the molecular ions of chlorotoluene isomers using electron impact mass spectrometry, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1994, 134, 119. [all data]

Yeo and Williams, 1970
Yeo, A.N.H.; Williams, D.H., Rearrangement in the molecular ions of halogenotoluenes prior to fragmentation in the mass spectrometer, Chem. Commun., 1970, 886. [all data]

Brown, 1970
Brown, P., Kinetic studies in mass spectrometry-IV. The [M - Cl] reaction in substituted chlorobenzenes and the question of molecular ion isomerization, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1970, 3, 639. [all data]

Bolshakov, et al., 1969
Bolshakov, G.F., et al., Ultraviolet Spectra of Heteroorganic Compounds, 1969, 465. [all data]

Sun and Stremple, 2003
Sun, G.; Stremple, P., Retention index characterization of flavor, fragrance, and many other compounds on DB-1 and DB-XLB, 2003, retrieved from http://www.chem.agilent.com/cag/cabu/pdf/b-0279.pdf. [all data]

Gautzsch and Zinn, 1996
Gautzsch, R.; Zinn, P., Use of incremental models to estimate the retention indexes of aromatic compounds, Chromatographia, 1996, 43, 3/4, 163-176, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02292946 . [all data]

White, Hackett, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Hackett, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Kail, S.; Spock, P.S., Linear temperature programmed retention indices of gasoline range hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons on cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 105-120, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150211 . [all data]

Bermejo, Moinelo, et al., 1980
Bermejo, J.; Moinelo, S.R.; Suarez Canga, C., Calculo de indices de retencion a patir de DI y de la polaridad de la fase, Calculo de indices de retencion a patir de DI y de la polaridad de la fase, Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados Francisco Pintado Fe (INCAR), La Corredoria, Oviedo, Espana, 1980, 13. [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996
Zenkevich, I.G.; Chupalov, A.A., New Possibilities of Chromato Mass Pectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds Using Increments of Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices of Molecular Structural Fragments, Zh. Org. Khim. (Rus.), 1996, 32, 5, 656-666. [all data]

Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992
Strete, P.J.; Ruprah, M.; Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning, Analyst, 1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9921701111 . [all data]

Waggott and Davies, 1984
Waggott, A.; Davies, I.W., Identification of organic pollutants using linear temperature programmed retention indices (LTPRIs) - Part II, 1984, retrieved from http://dwi.defra.gov.uk/research/completed-research/reports/dwi0383.pdf. [all data]

Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982
Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood by Headspace Gas Chromatography as an Aid to the Diagnosis of Solvent Abuse, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 240, 2, 423-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)99622-5 . [all data]

Peng, Yang, et al., 1991
Peng, C.T.; Yang, Z.C.; Ding, S.F., Prediction of rentention idexes. II. Structure-retention index relationship on polar columns, J. Chromatogr., 1991, 586, 1, 85-112, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(91)80028-F . [all data]

Vrana, Paschke, et al., 2005
Vrana, B.; Paschke, H.; Paschke, A.; Popp, P.; Schuurmann, G., Performance of semipermeable membrane devices for sampling of organic contaminants in groun water, J. Envirom. Monit., 2005, 7, 5, 500-508, https://doi.org/10.1039/b411645c . [all data]

Aracil, Font, et al., 2005
Aracil, I.; Font, R.; Conesa, J.A., Semivolatile and volatile compounds from the pyrolysis and combustion of polyvinyl chloride, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 2005, 74, 1-2, 465-478, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2004.09.008 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References