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Iodine

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Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Constants of diatomic molecules, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

View reactions leading to I2+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.3074 ± 0.0002eVN/AN/AL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
2.5240 ± 0.0050LPESZanni, Taylor, et al., 1997B
2.52 ± 0.10NBIEAuerbach, Baeda, et al., 1973B
2.42 ± 0.20EndoHughes, Lifschitz, et al., 1973B
2.58 ± 0.10EndoChupka, Berkowitz, et al., 1971B
2.60 ± 0.10EIAEDeCorpo and Franklin, 1971From CHI3; B
2.40 ± 0.10NBIEMoutinho, Aten, et al., 1971B
2.33004ECDAyala, Wentworth, et al., 1981Vertical Detachment Energy: 1.7 eV; B
1.722 ± 0.050NBIEHubers, Kleyn, et al., 1976Stated electron affinity is the Vertical Detachment Energy; B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.3074 ± 0.0002TECockett, Donovan, et al., 1996LL
9.3074 ± 0.0002TECockett, Goode, et al., 1995LL
9.33PECarlson, Gerard, et al., 1988LL
9.29 ± 0.05PIGrade and Rosinger, 1985LBLHLM
9.3 ± 0.2EIGrade and Rosinger, 1985LBLHLM
9.3 ± 0.2EIGrade and Rosinger, 1984LBLHLM
9.3 ± 0.2EIGrade, Rosinger, et al., 1984LBLHLM
9.3 ± 0.05EIHoareau, Cabaud, et al., 1981LLK
9.5EIPittermann and Weil, 1980LLK
9.311 ± 0.002PEHigginson, Lloyd, et al., 1973LLK
9.22 ± 0.01PEPotts and Price, 1971LLK
~9.37PIDibeler, Walker, et al., 1971LLK
9.3995 ± 0.0012SVenkateswarlu, 1970RDSH
9.331PIMyer and Samson, 1970RDSH
9.356PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981Vertical value; LLK
9.34PECornford, Frost, et al., 1971Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
I+8.8 ± 0.2I-EIGrade and Rosinger, 1985LBLHLM
I+11.94 ± 0.15IPIGrade and Rosinger, 1985LBLHLM
I+8.83 ± 0.07I-PIGrade and Rosinger, 1985LBLHLM
I+8.9 ± 0.2I-EIGrade and Rosinger, 1984LBLHLM
I+8.8 ± 0.2I-EIGrade, Rosinger, et al., 1984LBLHLM
I+13.0IEIPittermann and Weil, 1980LLK
I+8.922 ± 0.013I-PIMyer and Samson, 1970RDSH
I+8.95 ± 0.02I-PIMorrison, Hurzeler, et al., 1960RDSH
I+8.83 ± 0.02I-PIWatanabe, 1957RDSH

Constants of diatomic molecules

Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Klaus P. Huber and Gerhard H. Herzberg

Data collected through January, 1977

Symbols used in the table of constants
SymbolMeaning
State electronic state and / or symmetry symbol
Te minimum electronic energy (cm-1)
ωe vibrational constant – first term (cm-1)
ωexe vibrational constant – second term (cm-1)
ωeye vibrational constant – third term (cm-1)
Be rotational constant in equilibrium position (cm-1)
αe rotational constant – first term (cm-1)
γe rotation-vibration interaction constant (cm-1)
De centrifugal distortion constant (cm-1)
βe rotational constant – first term, centrifugal force (cm-1)
re internuclear distance (Å)
Trans. observed transition(s) corresponding to electronic state
ν00 position of 0-0 band (units noted in table)
Diatomic constants for 127I2
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
The absorption spectrum from 450000 to 870000 cm-1 (55.8 to 107.9 eV) at low resolution has been described by Myer and Samson, 1970. It corresponds to excitation from 4d shell to various unfilled orbitals.
Comes, Nielsen, et al., 1973
The absorption spectrum in the VUV region at high resolution has most recently been photographed by Venkateswarlu, 1970 who gives an extensive table of observed features in the region 56500 - 75800 cm-1. Most of the bands are assigned to extended Rydberg series converging to a common limit at 75814 cm-1 (9.400 eV), a smaller number to fragments of series converging to 80895 cm-1 (10.03 eV). The limits are assumed to correspond to v=0 of X 2 Pig, 3/2 and 1/2, respectively, of I2+; see, however, 1. Several of the progressions observed in absorption Venkateswarlu, 1970 appear to correspond to emission bands recorded by Haranath and Rao, 1958 under medium resolution in the region 56000 - 68000 cm-1 and classified by them as belonging to twelve systems. See also Cordes, 1935 Myer and Samson, 1970*.
Haranath and Rao, 1958; missing citation
I (51973) 2 112.4 H 0.705 0.004       I rarrow (B) 2 R 36197 H
Venkateswarlu, 1951; Verma, 1959; Mulliken, 1971
(H) (46063) 103.7 H 0.095        (H rarrow B) 3 R 30283 H
Verma, 1959; Mulliken, 1971
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
F (1Sigmau+) 6 47217.8 95.955 H 0.3623       (3.6) 4 F lrarrow X 5 R 47158.6 H
Verma, 1959; Mulliken, 1971; missing citation
F' 45230 93.4 H 0.6        F' rarrow X 7 R 45169 H
Haranath and Rao, 1958
G' (3Pi1g) 9 (42300) 8          G' larrow A 
Skorko, 1933; Mulliken, 1971
E 3Pio+g 9 41411.4 101.59 H 0.2380       (3.65) E rarrow B 10 R 25630.5 H
Haranath and Rao Prasada, 1960; Mulliken, 1971; Wieland, Tellinghuisen, et al., 1972
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
D 1Sigmau+ 13 (40679) 104.41 H 0.2343 11 0.00045       D lrarrow X 12 R (40624)
missing citation; Mulliken, 1971; Mulliken, 1971
G 3Pi2g 9 (40300) 14          G larrow A' 15 
Skorko, 1933; Mulliken, 1971
C 3Sigma1u+ 13 16          C larrow X 
Kortum and Friedheim, 1947; Mathieson and Rees, 1956; Mulliken, 1971
B" 1Pi1u 19 17          B" lrarrow X 18 
Oldman, Sander, et al., 1971; Tellinghuisen, 1973; Brown and Burns, 1974
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
B' 3Pi0-u 19 20           
B 3Pi0+u 19 15769.01 125.697 Z 0.7642 21 22  0.029039 23 24 0.0001582 25 22  5.43E-9 26 0.30E-9 3.0247 B lrarrow X 18 27 28 R 15724.57 29 Z
Barrow and Yee, 1973; missing citation; Wei and Tellinghuisen, 1974
A 3Pi1u 19 (11888) (44.0) 30 H (1.0)  30      A larrow X 31 R (11803) 30
Brown, 1931; Tellinghuisen, 1973
A' 3Pi2u 19 (10100) 32           
X 1Sigmag+ 0 214.502 33 Z 0.6147 33  0.037372 33 34 0.0001138 33  4.25E-9 35 3.2E-10 2.6663 36  
Kiefer and Bernstein, 1972; Williams, Rousseau, et al., 1974

Notes

1From the photoelectron spectrum Potts and Price, 1971, Higginson, Lloyd, et al., 1973; adiabatic potential established by temperature variation. The same method yields 9.953 eV for the ionization potential to 2Pi1/2g(v=0). Neither result agrees with the values obtained by Venkateswarlu, 1970 from Rydberg series, i.e. 9.400 and 10.03 eV. The discrepancy could be understood if the Rydberg series were to correspond to v'=3, but the absence of series with v' = 0, 1, 2 would still be puzzling.
2Weak emission bands in the presence of foreign gases, 2785-2731 . Te is based on the assumption that the lower state is the B state, but Mulliken, 1971, has suggested that instead it may be the D state leading to Te ~ 76872 cm-1 Mulliken, 1971.
3Strong emission bands in the presence of foreign gases, 3460 - 3015 Angstroms. It is by no means certain that the lower state has been correctly identified as the B state. Mulliken, 1971, suggests that the bands arise from the transition G rarrow A'.
4From the intensity distribution and Franck-Condon principle Mulliken, 1971, Wieland, Tellinghuisen, et al., 1972.
5In emission in electric discharges in the presence of foreign gases, 2740 - 2490 . Also observed for 129 I2, confirming the vibrational numbering. Emission bands in the region 2240 - 1950 Angstroms are assigned by Haranath and Rao, 1958, to a separate system (called H rarrow X), with v00 = 48072 and w ~ 79. It seems, however, possible that these bands belong to F rarrow X.
6Configuration...sigmag2piu3pig3sigmau2.
7The analysis of this fairly extensive system [2400 - 2240 , called E rarrow X by Haranath and Rao, 1958] is not yet supported by isotope studies, nor is it seen in absorption.
8Suggested upper state of high temperature absorption "continuum" shortward of 3263 (30640 cm-1)
9Configuration...sigmagpiu4pig3sigmau2.
10Emission bands in the presence of foreign gases, 4400 - 4000 . Also observed for 129I2, confirming the vibrational numbering. The E rarrow B fluorescence spectrum following two-photon absorption Rousseau and Williams, 1974, consists of transitions both to the discrete and to the continuous part of B, the latter giving rise to diffuse bands ("structured" continuum) Tellinghuisen, 1975. From a comparison of the calculated with the observed intensity distribution Tellinghuisen, 1975, obtains the potential function of E as well as the variation of the transition moment with r. The lifetime of E rarrow B is 27 ns Rousseau, 1975 confirming that this is an allowed transition and that the E state is 3Pi0+g.
11The v' numbering is uncertain and, therefore, the vibrational constants are subject to change.
12The system includes the absorption bands of Pringsheim and Rosen, 1928, Kimura and Miyanishi, 1929, Cordes, 1935, remeasured by Nobs and Wieland, 1966. It also includes the resonance series of Verma, 1960 in the region 1830 - 2370 which arise from very high vibrational levels (v' ~ 195), of the D state excited by the 1830 atomic line of iodine. The system further includes the diffuse emission bands in the region 2500 - 5000 with a characteristic group near 3250 [McLennan bands McLennan, 1913]. The diffuse bands have been recognized by Mulliken, 1971, to correspond to transitions from D to the continuum of X [Condon diffraction bands, see also Tellinghuisen, 1974]. Earlier summaries Mathieson and Rees, 1956, Haranath and Rao, 1958, Venkateswarlu, 1970 gave an electronic state at Te = 51427.9 with omegae = 169.41, omegaexe = 0.941, omegaeye = +0.0022 which was to represent the Cordes absorption bands from 1950 to 1795 Cordes, 1935. Following Mulliken, 1971, Mulliken, 1971, we consider these bands as part of D larrow X.
13Configuration . . . sigmagpiu4pig4sigmau.
14Suggested upper state of high temperature absorption "continuum" shortward of 3427 (29170 cm-1)
15The G rarrowA' transition has been observed to lase strongly when mixtures of HI or CF3I or CH3I with argon (1000 - 4000 torr), are excited by a pulsed high current electron beam Hays, Hoffman, et al., 1976. See also H rarrow B footnote 3.
16Repulsive state from 2P3/2 + 2P1/2 responsible for a weak but broad absorption continuum with maximum at 2700 (37000 cm-1). 38
17Repulsive state from 2P3/2 + 2P3/2, responsible for absorption continuum with maximum at 20050 cm-1 and for the predissociation of B 3Pi0+u.
18f values based on magnetic circular dichroism spectra have been estimated as 0.0018 (B"larrowX) and 0.009 (B larrowX) and have been compared with earlier results Brith, Rowe, et al., 1975. For a comparison of theoretical and observed intensities in the B rarrow X resonance series see Zare, 1964.
19Configuration . . . sigmag2piu4pig3sigmau.
20Repulsive state from 2P3/2 + 2P3/2. The previous assignment of B' as the state responsible for the magnetic field induced predissociation of B is now in doubt; See 23.
21-0.00178(v +1/2)3 - 0.0000738(v+1/2)4 + 0.00000103(v+1/2)5, from levels with 4leqvleq50 Barrow and Yee, 1973.
22Somewhat different constants, valid for 4leqvleq77, are given by Wei and Tellinghuisen, 1974, Te = 15768.32, omegae = 126.165, omegaexe = 0.8673, ..., Be = 0.028939, alphae = 0.0001204, ... (using calculated Dv values); see also Brown, Burns, et al., 1973, Tellinghuisen, 1976. RKR potential curve Barrow and Yee, 1973. For a discussion of the long-range potential and DeltaG, Bv values near the dissociation limit see LeRoy and Bernstein, 1971, LeRoy, 1972, Barrow and Yee, 1973, Le Roy, 1973, Yee, 1973, LeRoy, 1974.
23Collision induced predissociation of the B state missing citation; magnetic field induced predissociation Degenkolb, Steinfeld, et al., 1969, Capelle and Broida, 1972, Chapman and Bunker, 1972; spontaneous predissociation Tellinghuisen, 1972; hyperfine predissociation Broyer, Vigue, et al., 1976. The purely radiative lifetime Brewer and Tellinghuisen, 1972, Tellinghuisen, 1972, Broyer, Vigue, et al., 1976, increases smoothly from tau= 0.91 mus at v=7 to approximately tau= 10 mus at the highest observed levels. The measured lifetimes Brewer and Tellinghuisen, 1972, missing citation, Capelle and Broida, 1973, Keller, Broyer, et al., 1973, Paisner and Wallenstein, 1974, Broyer, Vigue, et al., 1975 are considerably reduced by spontaneous predissociation due to rotational and hyperfine mixing with B" 1Pi1u, the latter leading to differences in lifetime between ortho and para levels Broyer, Vigue, et al., 1976. Only near v=12 and above v~50 are the actual lifetimes close to the purely radiative ones. The magnetic field-induced predissociation of B 3Pi0+u was previously assumed to be caused by B' 3Pi0-u, and a potential function for this latter state was derived from magnetic quenching data Chapman and Bunker, 1972, Child, 1973. The recent observation, however, of a quantum interference effect between magnetic and spontaneous predissociations Broyer, Vigue, et al., 1973, Vigue, Broyer, et al., 1974, Vigue, Broyer, et al., 1975 has established that the magnetic predissociation, too, is produced by the B" 1Pi1u state.
24gJ varies from -0.059 at low v to -5.45 muN near the dissociation limit; from Hanle effect observations Broyer and Lehmann, 1972, Broyer, Lehmann, et al., 1975, Gouedard, Broyer, et al., 1976, Gouedard, Broyer, et al., 1976, 2. See also Wallenstein, Paisner, et al., 1974.
25-3.36E-7(v+1/2)2 - 4.78E-8(v+1/2)3 + 3.26E-10(v+1/2)4, from levels with 4leqvleq77 Barrow and Yee, 1973.
26For v leq 10 Barrow and Yee, 1973. Dv increases rapidly above v=20; for more details see Brown, Burns, et al., 1973, Wei and Tellinghuisen, 1974.
27The continuum joining onto the discrete bands is overlapped by the B"larrow X continuum. A resolution of these two continua and the A larrowX continuum was given by Tellinghuisen, 1973,. See also Tellinghuisen, 1973, 2.
28The hyperfine structure of several lines has been observed by various high resolution laser techiques; electric quadrupole, magnetic octupole, and other magnetic hfs constants have been evaluated Hanes and Dahlstrom, 1969, Kroll, 1969, Hansch, Levenson, et al., 1971, Hanes, Lapierre, et al., 1971, Sorem, Levenson, et al., 1971, Levenson and Schawlow, 1972, Sorem, Hansch, et al., 1972, Youmans, Hackel, et al., 1973, Ruben, Kukolich, et al., 1973, Bunker and Hanes, 1974, missing citation; similar analyses for 129I2 and 127,129I2 Tesic and Pao, 1975.
29Extrapolated from data with v' geq 4. The vibrational numbering, changed Steinfeld, Zare, et al., 1965, by 1 from the previous table in MOLSPEC 1, has been confirmed by isotope studies Brown and James, 1965.
30 Tellinghuisen, 1973, suggests that the v'=4 numbering of Brown, 1931, may have to be raised substantially. Preliminary results of a rotational analysis Ashby, 1975, of nine bands in the A larrowX, v"=5 progression and of three bands in the v"=4 progression indicate that w' ~ 57.5 Ashby, 1975, w'x' ~ 1.85 Ashby, 1975, B'(for the lowest analyzed level) = 0.02375 Ashby, 1975, alpha' ~ 0.0005 Ashby, 1975.
31The continuum joining onto the discrete bands has been studied by many investigators, most recently by Tellinghuisen, 1973, who derives an f value of f= 0.00062 Tellinghuisen, 1973; see also Brith, Rowe, et al., 1975.
32Suggested as lower state of high temperature absorption bands near 3427 Mulliken, 1971 Mulliken, 1971.
33These constants Barrow and Yee, 1973, represent the levels v=0-5; Wei and Tellinghuisen, 1974, for v=0-6, give omegae = 214.582, omegaexe = 0.6243, Be = 0.037363, alphae = 0.0001145 using calculated Dv values. On the basis of the resonance series of Rank and Baldwin, 1951, Rank and Rao, 1964 and Verma, 1960, LeRoy, 1970 has given polynomial formulae for G(v), Bv, and Dv valid up to v = 82; omegae = 214.548, omegaexe = 0.6163 , ...Be = 0.037395, alphae = 0.0001244, ... ,De = 4.54E-9, betae = 0.017E-9;... The most accurate constants for v = 0 were derived Gerstenkorn, Luc, et al., 1977 from the analysis by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy of the BlarrowX, 30-0 bands: B0 = 0.0373115, D0 = 4.55E-9, H0 = -0.76E-15. The vibrational levels of the ground state have been observed up to v = 84 [D rarrow X resonance series Verma, 1960], i.e. to within 400 cm-1 of the dissociation limit. The levels v" = 98...115 originally reported by Verma, 1960, were found to be due to an NO impurity Verma and LeRoy, 1974. As a consequence the RKR potential function of Verma, 1960, must be corrected at high v. The RKR curves of Zare, 1964 and LeRoy, 1970 extend only to v = 82 and are unaffected by this correction. 35 see 33.
34gJ(v=0, J=12,14)=9.l3E-4 muN Solarz and Levy, 1972 from non-linear level crossing.
35missing note
36Raman sp. 39
37From the convergence of the vibrational levels in the B 3Pi0+u state Barrow, Broyd, et al., 1973, Barrow and Yee, 1973.
38Nature of the upper state (1u) and of the dissociation products confirmed by photofragment spectroscopy Clear and Wilson, 1973.
39High resolution resonance Raman spectra of I2 vapor up to the eleventh overtone (12-0). Raman spectra in rare gas matrices Howard and Andrews, 1974.

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Constants of diatomic molecules, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Zanni, Taylor, et al., 1997
Zanni, M.T.; Taylor, T.R.; Greenblatt, J.; Soep, B.; Neumark, D.M., Characterization of the I2- Anion Ground State Using Conventional and Femtosecond Photoelectron Spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 1997, 107, 19, 7613, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.475110 . [all data]

Auerbach, Baeda, et al., 1973
Auerbach, J.; Baeda, A.P.M.; Los, D.J., Fragmentation of Negative Ions Formed in Collisions of Alkali Atoms and Halogen Molecules, Physica, 1973, 64, 1, 134, https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-8914(73)90119-5 . [all data]

Hughes, Lifschitz, et al., 1973
Hughes, B.M.; Lifschitz, C.; Tiernan, T.O., Electron affinities from endothermic negative-ion charge-transfer reactions. III. NO, NO2, S2, CS2, Cl2, Br2, I2, and C2H, J. Chem. Phys., 1973, 59, 3162. [all data]

Chupka, Berkowitz, et al., 1971
Chupka, W.A.; Berkowitz, J.; Gutman, D., Electron Affinities of Halogen Diatomic Molecules as Determined by Endoergic Charge Exchange, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 55, 6, 2724, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1676487 . [all data]

DeCorpo and Franklin, 1971
DeCorpo, J.J.; Franklin, J.L., Electron affinities of the halogen molecules by dissociative electron attachment, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 54, 1885. [all data]

Moutinho, Aten, et al., 1971
Moutinho, A.M.C.; Aten, J.A.; Los, J., Temperature dependence of the total cross section for chemi-ionization in ackali halide-galogen collisions, Physica, 1971, 53, 471. [all data]

Ayala, Wentworth, et al., 1981
Ayala, J.A.; Wentworth, W.E.; Chen, E.C.M., Electron attachment to halogens, J. Phys. Chem., 1981, 85, 768. [all data]

Hubers, Kleyn, et al., 1976
Hubers, M.M.; Kleyn, A.W.; Los, J., Ion pair formation in alkali-halogen collisions at high velocities, Chem. Phys., 1976, 17, 303. [all data]

Cockett, Donovan, et al., 1996
Cockett, M.C.R.; Donovan, R.J.; Lawley, K.P., Zero kinetic energy pulsed field ionization (ZEKE-PFI) spectroscopy of electronically and vibrationally excited states of I2+: The A 2«PI»3/2,u state and a new electronic state, the a 4«sigma»-u state, J. Chem. Phys., 1996, 105, 3347. [all data]

Cockett, Goode, et al., 1995
Cockett, M.C.R.; Goode, J.G.; Lawley, K.P.; Donovan, R.J., Zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy of Rydberg excited molecular iodine, J. Chem. Phys., 1995, 102, 5226. [all data]

Carlson, Gerard, et al., 1988
Carlson, T.A.; Gerard, P.; Pullen, B.P.; Grimm, F.A., Autoionization from the ione-pair orbitals of molecules containing iodine, J. Chem. Phys., 1988, 89, 1464. [all data]

Grade and Rosinger, 1985
Grade, M.; Rosinger, W., Correlation of electronic structures and stabilities of gaseous FeI2, Fe2I2 and Fe2I4 molecules, solid [FeI2], and iodine adsorbed on [Fe], Surf. Sci., 1985, 156, 920. [all data]

Grade and Rosinger, 1984
Grade, M.; Rosinger, W., A mass spectrometric investigation of iron(II)-iodide, Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem., 1984, 88, 767. [all data]

Grade, Rosinger, et al., 1984
Grade, M.; Rosinger, W.; Dowben, P.A., Core and valence electron binding energies of FeI2 and stabilities of gas phase species, Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem., 1984, 88, 65. [all data]

Hoareau, Cabaud, et al., 1981
Hoareau, A.; Cabaud, B.; Melinon, P., Time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of supersonic beam of metallic vapours: Intensities and appearance potentials of Mx aggregates, Surf. Sci., 1981, 106, 195. [all data]

Pittermann and Weil, 1980
Pittermann, U.; Weil, K.G., Massenspektrometrische Untersuchungen an Silberhalogeniden V: Verdampfung von Silberiodid, Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem., 1980, 84, 542. [all data]

Higginson, Lloyd, et al., 1973
Higginson, B.R.; Lloyd, D.R.; Roberts, P.J., Variable temperature photoelectron spectroscopy. The adiabatic ionization potential of the iodine molecule, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1973, 19, 480. [all data]

Potts and Price, 1971
Potts, A.W.; Price, W.C., Photoelectron spectra of the halogens and mixed halides ICI and lBr, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans., 1971, 67, 1242. [all data]

Dibeler, Walker, et al., 1971
Dibeler, V.H.; Walker, J.A.; McCulloh, K.E.; Rosenstock, H.M., Effect of hot bands on the ionization threshold of some diatomic halogen molecules, Intern. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1971, 7, 209. [all data]

Venkateswarlu, 1970
Venkateswarlu, P., Vacuum ultraviolet spectrum of the iodine molecule, Can. J. Phys., 1970, 48, 1055. [all data]

Myer and Samson, 1970
Myer, J.A.; Samson, J.A.R., Absorption cross section and photoionization yield of I2 between 1050 and 2200 A, J. Chem. Phys., 1970, 52, 716. [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Achiba, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Iwata, S., Ionization energies, Ab initio assignments, and valence electronic structure for 200 molecules in Handbook of HeI Photoelectron Spectra of Fundamental Organic Compounds, Japan Scientific Soc. Press, Tokyo, 1981. [all data]

Cornford, Frost, et al., 1971
Cornford, A.B.; Frost, D.C.; McDowell, C.A.; Ragle, J.L.; Stenhouse, I.A., Photoelectron spectra of the halogens, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 54, 2651. [all data]

Morrison, Hurzeler, et al., 1960
Morrison, J.D.; Hurzeler, H.; Inghram, M.G.; Stanton, H.E., Threshold law for the probability of excitation of molecules by photon impact. A study of the photoionization efficiencies of Br2, I2, HI, and CH3I, J. Chem. Phys., 1960, 33, 821. [all data]

Watanabe, 1957
Watanabe, K., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Chem. Phys., 1957, 26, 542. [all data]

Comes, Nielsen, et al., 1973
Comes, F.J.; Nielsen, U.; Schwarz, W.H.E., Inner electron excitation of iodine in the gaseous and solid phase, J. Chem. Phys., 1973, 58, 2230. [all data]

Haranath and Rao, 1958
Haranath, P.B.V.; Rao, P.T., Band spectra of iodine, chlorine, and bromine in the spectral region 2400-1400 A, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1958, 2, 428. [all data]

Cordes, 1935
Cordes, H., Das absorptionsspektrum des jodmolekuls im vakuumultraviolett, Z. Phys., 1935, 97, 603. [all data]

Venkateswarlu, 1951
Venkateswarlu, P., The spectrum of iodine excited in the presence of argon, Phys. Rev., 1951, 81, 821. [all data]

Verma, 1959
Verma, R.D., The spectrum of iodine excited in the presence of argon, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. A, 1959, 48, 197. [all data]

Mulliken, 1971
Mulliken, R.S., Iodine revisited, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 55, 288. [all data]

Skorko, 1933
Skorko, E., Absorption bands of iodine vapour at high temperatures, Nature (London), 1933, 131, 366. [all data]

Haranath and Rao Prasada, 1960
Haranath, P.B.V.; Rao Prasada, T.A., The emission band system of iodine in the blue violet, Indian J. Phys., 1960, 34, 123. [all data]

Wieland, Tellinghuisen, et al., 1972
Wieland, K.; Tellinghuisen, J.B.; Nobs, A., The band systems E --> B(4000-4360 Å) and F --> X(2530-2740 Å) of 127I2 and 129I2, and the corresponding system E = B of Br2 and Cl2, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1972, 41, 69. [all data]

Kortum and Friedheim, 1947
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Notes

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