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1-Butene

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Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C4H8+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.55 ± 0.06eVN/AN/AL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.55 ± 0.06PIPECOVan der Meij, Van Eck, et al., 1989LL
9.57PITraeger, 1986LBLHLM
9.58PITraeger, 1984LBLHLM
9.62 ± 0.05EIHolmes and Lossing, 1983LBLHLM
9.59 ± 0.02PIWood and Taylor, 1979LLK
9.63 ± 0.02PEBieri, Burger, et al., 1977LLK
9.625 ± 0.003PEMasclet, Grosjean, et al., 1973LLK
9.58EILossing, 1972LLK
9.59PEDewar and Worley, 1969RDSH
9.62CICermak, 1968RDSH
9.61 ± 0.02PISteiner, Giese, et al., 1961RDSH
9.58 ± 0.01PIWatanabe, 1957RDSH
9.77 ± 0.01PEKrause, Taylor, et al., 1978Vertical value; LLK
10.0PEWhite, Carlson, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK
9.72PEMollere, Bock, et al., 1972Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
CH3+14.1C3H5EISenSharma and Franklin, 1973LLK
C2H3+13.6?EIOmura, 1962RDSH
C2H4+11.65 ± 0.06C2H4PIPECOVan der Meij, Van Eck, et al., 1989LL
C2H4+11.7 ± 0.2?EIMeisels, Park, et al., 1970RDSH
C2H5+14.22 ± 0.06C2H3PIPECOVan der Meij, Van Eck, et al., 1989LL
C3H3+14.07 ± 0.10H2+CH3PIPECOVan der Meij, Van Eck, et al., 1989LL
C3H3+13.82?EIOmura, 1961RDSH
C3H5+11.36 ± 0.06CH3PIPECOVan der Meij, Van Eck, et al., 1989LL
C3H5+11.20CH3PITraeger, 1984LBLHLM
C3H5+11.8CH3EISenSharma and Franklin, 1973LLK
C3H5+11.28CH3EILossing, 1971LLK
C4H5+14.33 ± 0.07H2+HPIPECOVan der Meij, Van Eck, et al., 1989LL
C4H7+11.17 ± 0.06HPIPECOVan der Meij, Van Eck, et al., 1989LL
C4H7+11.13HPITraeger, 1986LBLHLM
C4H7+11.26HEILossing, 1972LLK

De-protonation reactions

C4H7- + Hydrogen cation = 1-Butene

By formula: C4H7- + H+ = C4H8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar412.0 ± 2.0kcal/molBranDePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989gas phase; B
Deltar413.2 ± 4.8kcal/molBranPeerboom, Rademaker, et al., 1992gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar404.0 ± 2.1kcal/molH-TSDePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989gas phase; B
Deltar405.2 ± 4.9kcal/molH-TSPeerboom, Rademaker, et al., 1992gas phase; B

C4H7- + Hydrogen cation = 1-Butene

By formula: C4H7- + H+ = C4H8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar408.0 ± 3.5kcal/molCIDTGraul and Squires, 1990gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar400.2 ± 3.6kcal/molH-TSGraul and Squires, 1990gas phase; B

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Van der Meij, Van Eck, et al., 1989
Van der Meij, C.E.; Van Eck, J.; Niehaus, A., The decomposition of C4H8 complexes at controlled internal energies, Chem. Phys., 1989, 130, 325. [all data]

Traeger, 1986
Traeger, J.C., Heat of formation for the 1-methylallyl cation by photoionization mass spectrometry, J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90, 4114. [all data]

Traeger, 1984
Traeger, J.C., A study of the allyl cation thermochemistry by photoionization mass spectrometry, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1984, 58, 259. [all data]

Holmes and Lossing, 1983
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P., The need for adequate thermochemical data for the interpretation of fragmentation mechanisms and ion structure assignments, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1983, 47, 133. [all data]

Wood and Taylor, 1979
Wood, K.V.; Taylor, J.W., A photoionization mass spectrometric study of autoionization in ethylene and trans-2-butene, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1979, 30, 307. [all data]

Bieri, Burger, et al., 1977
Bieri, G.; Burger, F.; Heilbronner, E.; Maier, J.P., Valence ionization enrgies of hydrocarbons, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1977, 60, 2213. [all data]

Masclet, Grosjean, et al., 1973
Masclet, P.; Grosjean, D.; Mouvier, G., Alkene ionization potentials. Part I. Quantitative determination of alkyl group structural effects, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1973, 2, 225. [all data]

Lossing, 1972
Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XLV. Ionization potentials and heats of formation of C3H3, C3H5, and C4H7 radicals and ions, Can. J. Chem., 1972, 50, 3973. [all data]

Dewar and Worley, 1969
Dewar, M.J.S.; Worley, S.D., Photoelectron spectra of molecules. I. Ionization potentials of some organic molecules and their interpretation, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 50, 654. [all data]

Cermak, 1968
Cermak, V., Penning ionization electron spectroscopy, Advan. Mass Spectrom., 1968, 4, 697. [all data]

Steiner, Giese, et al., 1961
Steiner, B.; Giese, C.F.; Inghram, M.G., Photoionization of alkanes. Dissociation of excited molecular ions, J. Chem. Phys., 1961, 34, 189. [all data]

Watanabe, 1957
Watanabe, K., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Chem. Phys., 1957, 26, 542. [all data]

Krause, Taylor, et al., 1978
Krause, D.A.; Taylor, J.W.; Fenske, R.F., An analysis of the effects of alkyl substituents on the ionization potentials of n-alkenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 718. [all data]

White, Carlson, et al., 1974
White, R.M.; Carlson, T.A.; Spears, D.P., Angular distribution of the photoelectron spectra for ethylene, propylene, butene and butadiene, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1974, 3, 59. [all data]

Mollere, Bock, et al., 1972
Mollere, P.; Bock, H.; Becker, G.; Fritz, G., Photoelectron spectra and molecular properties. XV. The effects of «alpha»- and «beta»-silyl substituents on «pi»-systems, J. Organomet. Chem., 1972, 46, 89. [all data]

SenSharma and Franklin, 1973
SenSharma, D.K.; Franklin, J.L., Heat of formation of free radicals by mass spectrometry, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1973, 95, 6562. [all data]

Omura, 1962
Omura, I., Study on unimolecular decomposition of excited olefin ions, Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 1962, 35, 1845. [all data]

Meisels, Park, et al., 1970
Meisels, G.G.; Park, J.Y.; Giessner, B.G., Ionization and dissociation of C4H8 isomers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1970, 92, 254. [all data]

Omura, 1961
Omura, I., Mass spectra at low ionizing voltage and bond dissociation energies of molecular ions from hydrocarbons, Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 1961, 34, 1227. [all data]

Lossing, 1971
Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XLIII. Ionization potentials and ionic heats of formation for vinyl, allyl, and benzyl radicals, Can. J. Chem., 1971, 49, 357. [all data]

DePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989
DePuy, C.H.; Gronert, S.; Barlow, S.E.; Bierbaum, V.M.; Damrauer, R., The Gas Phase Acidities of the Alkanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 6, 1968, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00188a003 . [all data]

Peerboom, Rademaker, et al., 1992
Peerboom, R.A.L.; Rademaker, G.J.; Dekoning, L.J.; Nibbering, N.M.M., Stabilization of Cycloalkyl Carbanions in the Gas Phase, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 1992, 6, 6, 394, https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.1290060608 . [all data]

Graul and Squires, 1990
Graul, S.T.; Squires, R.R., Gas-Phase Acidities Derived from Threshold Energies for Activated Reactions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1990, 112, 7, 2517, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00163a007 . [all data]


Notes

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