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Diethyl sulfide

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-20.0 ± 0.55kcal/molCcbVoronkov, Klyuchnikov, et al., 1989 
Deltafgas-19.77 ± 0.19kcal/molCcrHubbard, Good, et al., 1958see Hubbard, Katz, et al., 1954

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-28.51 ± 0.48kcal/molCcbVoronkov, Klyuchnikov, et al., 1989ALS
Deltafliquid-28.54 ± 0.20kcal/molCcrHubbard, Good, et al., 1958Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -28.34 ± 0.19 kcal/mol; see Hubbard, Katz, et al., 1954; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-833.20 ± 0.16kcal/molCcrHubbard, Good, et al., 1958Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -833.04 ± 0.16 kcal/mol; see Hubbard, Katz, et al., 1954; ALS
Deltacliquid-829.6kcal/molCcbBerthelot, 1901ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid64.359cal/mol*KN/AScott, Finke, et al., 1952DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
40.970298.15Scott, Finke, et al., 1952T = 16 to 316 K.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil365. ± 1.KAVGN/AAverage of 12 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus169.85KN/ATimmermans, 1952Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.6 K; TRC
Tfus169.24KN/AMcallan, Cullum, et al., 1951Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Tfus169.85KN/ATimmermans and Hennaut-Roland, 1935Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple169.21KN/AScott, Finke, et al., 1952, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc557.KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Tc557.0KN/ABerthoud and Brum, 1924Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; by disappearance of meniscus; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc39.08atmN/ABerthoud and Brum, 1924Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4000 atm; vapor pressure at Tc; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc3.151mol/lN/ABerthoud and Brum, 1924Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 mol/l; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap8.6 ± 0.2kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 8 values; Individual data points

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
7.593365.3N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
8.34327.N/ABaev, 2008Based on data from 293. - 361. K.; AC
8.22333.A,EBStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 318. - 396. K. See also Scott, Finke, et al., 1952 and Osborn and Douslin, 1966.; AC
8.32324.EBWhite, Barnard--Smith, et al., 1952Based on data from 309. - 371. K.; AC
8.96248.N/AStull, 1947Based on data from 233. - 361. K.; AC
8.01364.N/AThompson and Linnett, 1935AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-βTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kcal/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

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Temperature (K) A (kcal/mol) beta Tc (K) Reference Comment
325. - 365.12.390.2843557.Majer and Svoboda, 1985 

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (atm)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
319.07 - 395.584.047551257.833-54.488Osborn and Douslin, 1966 
233.6 - 361.4.660121560.523-26.557Stull, 1947Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.
361. - 536.4.410981541.596-11.154Stull, 1947Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
2.8449169.21Scott, Finke, et al., 1952DH
2.849169.2Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
16.81169.21Scott, Finke, et al., 1952DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C4H10S+ + Diethyl sulfide = (C4H10S+ bullet Diethyl sulfide)

By formula: C4H10S+ + C4H10S = (C4H10S+ bullet C4H10S)

Bond type: Charge transfer bond (positive ion)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar24.9kcal/molDTJames, McKee, et al., 1996gas phase; «DELTA»rH(0K) = 25.6 kcal/mol
Deltar26.8kcal/molDTDeng, Illies, et al., 1995gas phase; «DELTA»rH(0K) = 28.8 kcal/mol
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.2cal/mol*KDTJames, McKee, et al., 1996gas phase; «DELTA»rH(0K) = 25.6 kcal/mol
Deltar34.2cal/mol*KDTDeng, Illies, et al., 1995gas phase; «DELTA»rH(0K) = 28.8 kcal/mol

Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference
0.564600.MN/A
0.46 VN/A

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)8.42 ± 0.01eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)204.8kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity197.7kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.41CTSAloisi, Santini, et al., 1974LLK
8.42 ± 0.01PIAkopyan, Sergeev, et al., 1970RDSH
8.430 ± 0.005PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
8.4PEAue and Bowers, 1979Vertical value; LLK
8.46PEWeiner and Lattman, 1978Vertical value; LLK
8.44PEWagner and Bock, 1974Vertical value; LLK
8.44PEBock, Wagner, et al., 1972Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
CHS+15.3 ± 0.5?EIHobrock and Kiser, 1963RDSH
CH2S+11.75 ± 0.03C2H4+CH4PIAkopyan, Sergeev, et al., 1970RDSH
CH2S+12.5 ± 0.3?EIHobrock and Kiser, 1963RDSH
CH3S+12.00 ± 0.05C2H4+CH3PIAkopyan, Sergeev, et al., 1970RDSH
CH3S+12.3 ± 0.1?EIKeyes and Harrson, 1968RDSH
C2H2+21.7 ± 0.3?EIGal'perin, Bogolyubov, et al., 1969RDSH
C2H3+16.7 ± 0.5?EIHobrock and Kiser, 1963RDSH
C2H3S+14.6 ± 0.4?EIHobrock and Kiser, 1963RDSH
C2H4+14.5 ± 0.3?EIGal'perin, Bogolyubov, et al., 1969RDSH
C2H4S+9.9 ± 0.3C2H6PIAkopyan, Sergeev, et al., 1970RDSH
C2H4S+11.2 ± 0.2?EIHobrock and Kiser, 1963RDSH
C2H5+14.5 ± 0.3?EIHobrock and Kiser, 1963RDSH
C2H5S+10.23 ± 0.03C2H5PIAkopyan, Sergeev, et al., 1970RDSH
C2H5S+11.05C2H5EIGowenlock, Kay, et al., 1963RDSH
C2H6S+9.90 ± 0.03C2H4PIAkopyan, Sergeev, et al., 1970RDSH
C2H6S+10.4 ± 0.2?EIHobrock and Kiser, 1963RDSH
C3H5+12.41 ± 0.05CH3SH+HPIAkopyan, Sergeev, et al., 1970RDSH
C3H7S+10.7 ± 0.15CH3EIBroer and Weringa, 1980LLK
C3H7S+10.16 ± 0.05CH3PIAkopyan, Sergeev, et al., 1970RDSH
C3H7S+10.65CH3EIGowenlock, Kay, et al., 1963RDSH
C4H9S+10.2 ± 0.1HPIAkopyan, Sergeev, et al., 1970RDSH

Ion clustering data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

C4H10S+ + Diethyl sulfide = (C4H10S+ bullet Diethyl sulfide)

By formula: C4H10S+ + C4H10S = (C4H10S+ bullet C4H10S)

Bond type: Charge transfer bond (positive ion)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar24.9kcal/molDTJames, McKee, et al., 1996gas phase; «DELTA»rH(0K) = 25.6 kcal/mol
Deltar26.8kcal/molDTDeng, Illies, et al., 1995gas phase; «DELTA»rH(0K) = 28.8 kcal/mol
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.2cal/mol*KDTJames, McKee, et al., 1996gas phase; «DELTA»rH(0K) = 25.6 kcal/mol
Deltar34.2cal/mol*KDTDeng, Illies, et al., 1995gas phase; «DELTA»rH(0K) = 28.8 kcal/mol

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
State gas
Instrument HP-GC/MS/IRD

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW-2557
NIST MS number 229882

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Eugeny B. Stern, Antonina A. Goncharova, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Fehnel and Carmack, 1949
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 3281
Instrument Beckman DU
Melting point -103.9
Boiling point 92.1

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5100.708.5Miller and Bruno, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.1 «mu»m
CapillaryDB-5120.717.9Miller and Bruno, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.1 «mu»m
CapillaryDB-560.700.4Miller and Bruno, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.1 «mu»m
CapillaryDB-580.703.7Miller and Bruno, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.1 «mu»m
PackedApiezon M130.698.Garbuzov, Misharina, et al., 1985He or N2, Chromosorb W, AW-DMCS; Column length: 2.1 m
PackedSE-30110.698.Möckel and Zolg, 1977Chromosorb W AW (80-100 mesh); Column length: 2. m
PackedApiezon M130.698.Golovnya, Garbuzov, et al., 1976N2, Chromosorb W; Column length: 2.1 m
PackedApiezon M130.699.Golovnya and Garbuzov, 1974N2, Chromosorb W; Column length: 2.1 m
CapillaryApiezon L120.696.Agr, Tesaric, et al., 1973 
CapillarySqualane120.695.Agr, Tesaric, et al., 1973 
CapillarySqualane86.692.Agr, Tesaric, et al., 1973 
CapillarySqualane120.695.Agrawal, Tesarík, et al., 1972N2, Celite 545; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillarySqualane86.692.Agrawal, Tesarík, et al., 1972N2, Celite 545; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryApiezon L120.696.Agrawal, Tesarík, et al., 1972N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
PackedDC-200120.693.Golovnya and Arsen'ev, 1970Column length: 1.5 m
PackedDC-20060.693.Golovnya and Arsen'ev, 1970Column length: 1.5 m
PackedSE-30130.692.Golovnya and Arsen'ev, 1970Column length: 1.5 m
PackedSE-3060.692.Golovnya and Arsen'ev, 1970Column length: 1.5 m
PackedApiezon L110.694.Martinu and Janák, 1970 
PackedApiezon L130.698.Martinu and Janák, 1970 
PackedApiezon L150.704.Martinu and Janák, 1970 

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedCarbowax 20M110.903.Möckel and Zolg, 1977He, Chromosorb W AW (80-100 mesh); Column length: 6. m
PackedPolyethylene Glycol130.927.Golovnya, Garbuzov, et al., 1976N2, Chromosorb W; Column length: 2.1 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groups100.708.Safa and Hadjmohannadi, 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.10 «mu»m, Nitrogen
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groups60.700.Safa and Hadjmohannadi, 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.10 «mu»m, Nitrogen
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groups80.704.Safa and Hadjmohannadi, 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.10 «mu»m, Nitrogen
PackedApiezon L100.720.Kavan, 1973Column length: 3.2 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPONA704.Yang, Wang, et al., 200450. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, N2, 2. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryDB-5699.Savel'eva, Zenkevich, et al., 200325. m/0.20 mm/0.33 «mu»m, Helium, 40. C @ 1. min, 5. K/min, 270. C @ 15. min
CapillaryDB-5699.Savel'eva, Zenkevich, et al., 200325. m/0.20 mm/0.33 «mu»m, Helium, 40. C @ 1. min, 5. K/min, 270. C @ 15. min
CapillaryOV-101690.Egolf and Jurs, 19932. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-30690.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB698.Gijs, Piraprez, et al., 200050. m/0.32 mm/1.2 «mu»m, He; Program: 33C (16.5min) => 2C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C (9min)
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes693.Zenkevich, 1998Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52704.van Langenhove and Schamp, 1986Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.50 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.683.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.685.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M904.Egolf and Jurs, 19932. K/min; Column length: 80. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M895.Shibamoto and Russell, 19771. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M899.Shibamoto and Russell, 19771. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M895.Shibamoto and Russell, 1976N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M899.Shibamoto and Russell, 1976N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-Innowax903.Narain, Galvao, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 30 0C (5 min) 5 0C/min -> 100 0C (5 min) 1 0C/min -> 130 0C 10 0C/min -> 195 0C (45 min)
CapillaryCarbowax 20M904.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Voronkov, Klyuchnikov, et al., 1989
Voronkov, M.G.; Klyuchnikov, V.A.; Kolabin, S.N.; Shvets, G.N.; Varusin, P.I.; Deryagina, E.N.; Korchevin, N.A.; Tsvetnitskaya, S.I., Thermochemical properties of diorganyl chalcogenides and dichalcogenides RMnR(M = S, Se, Te; n = 1, 2)., Dokl. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 1989, 307, 650-653, In original 1139. [all data]

Hubbard, Good, et al., 1958
Hubbard, W.N.; Good, W.D.; Waddington, G., The heats of combustion, formation and isomerization of the seven isomeric C4H10S alkane thiols and sulfides, J. Phys. Chem., 1958, 62, 614-617. [all data]

Hubbard, Katz, et al., 1954
Hubbard, W.N.; Katz, C.; Waddington, G., A rotating combustion bomb for precision calorimetry. Heats of combustion of some sulfur-containing compounds, J. Phys. Chem., 1954, 58, 142. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Berthelot, 1901
Berthelot, M., Chimie Organique. - Nouvelles recherches sur l'isomerie des ethers sulfocyaniques, Compt. Rend., 1901, 132, 57-58. [all data]

Scott, Finke, et al., 1952
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Notes

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