Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Formaldehyde

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Reaction thermochemistry data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-115.90kJ/molReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in March, 1961
Deltafgas-108.6 ± 0.46kJ/molCmFletcher and Pilcher, 1970ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacgas-570.78 ± 0.42kJ/molCmFletcher and Pilcher, 1970Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = -108.6 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacgas-561.1kJ/molCcbWartenberg and Lerner-Steinberg, 1925Gas phase; Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = -118. kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas,1 bar218.95J/mol*KReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in March, 1961

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
33.2650.Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997p=1 bar. Recommended entropies and heat capacities are in good agreement with other statistically calculated values [ Thompson, 1941, Pillai M.G.K., 1961, Gurvich, Veyts, et al., 1989]. Please also see Chao J., 1980, Chao J., 1986.; GT
33.26100.
33.28150.
33.50200.
34.70273.15
35.39 ± 0.02298.15
35.44300.
39.24400.
43.74500.
48.18600.
52.28700.
55.94800.
59.16900.
61.951000.
64.371100.
66.451200.
68.251300.
69.801400.
71.151500.
73.791750.
75.682000.
77.082250.
78.132500.
78.932750.
79.563000.

Gas Phase Heat Capacity (Shomate Equation)

Cp° = A + B*t + C*t2 + D*t3 + E/t2
H° − H°298.15= A*t + B*t2/2 + C*t3/3 + D*t4/4 − E/t + F − H
S° = A*ln(t) + B*t + C*t2/2 + D*t3/3 − E/(2*t2) + G
    Cp = heat capacity (J/mol*K)
    H° = standard enthalpy (kJ/mol)
    S° = standard entropy (J/mol*K)
    t = temperature (K) / 1000.

View plot Requires a JavaScript / HTML 5 canvas capable browser.

View table.

Temperature (K) 298. - 1200.1200. - 6000.
A 5.19376771.35268
B 93.232496.174497
C -44.85457-1.191090
D 7.8822790.079564
E 0.551175-15.58917
F -119.3591-170.6327
G 202.4663262.3180
H -115.8972-115.8972
ReferenceChase, 1998Chase, 1998
Comment Data last reviewed in March, 1961 Data last reviewed in March, 1961

Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias
B - John E. Bartmess
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
RCD - Robert C. Dunbar

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

CH2OH+ + Formaldehyde = (CH2OH+ bullet Formaldehyde)

By formula: CH3O+ + CH2O = (CH3O+ bullet CH2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bonds of the type OH-O between organics

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar116.kJ/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction(H3O+)H2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Cunningham, Payzant, et al., 1972, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Deltar123.kJ/molFAFehsenfeld, Dotan, et al., 1978gas phase; From thermochemical cycle,switching reaction(H3O+)H2O; Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Meot-Ner (Mautner), 1992; M
Deltar116.kJ/molICRLarson, Clair, et al., 1982gas phase; From thermochemical cycle,switching reaction(H2O/H2CO), Entropy change calculated or estimated; Cunningham, Payzant, et al., 1972, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar111.J/mol*KN/ALarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction(H3O+)H2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Cunningham, Payzant, et al., 1972, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Deltar115.J/mol*KFAFehsenfeld, Dotan, et al., 1978gas phase; From thermochemical cycle,switching reaction(H3O+)H2O; Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Meot-Ner (Mautner), 1992; M
Deltar111.J/mol*KN/ALarson, Clair, et al., 1982gas phase; From thermochemical cycle,switching reaction(H2O/H2CO), Entropy change calculated or estimated; Cunningham, Payzant, et al., 1972, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar82.8kJ/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction(H3O+)H2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Cunningham, Payzant, et al., 1972, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Deltar82.8kJ/molICRLarson, Clair, et al., 1982gas phase; From thermochemical cycle,switching reaction(H2O/H2CO), Entropy change calculated or estimated; Cunningham, Payzant, et al., 1972, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984; M

Lithium ion (1+) + Formaldehyde = (Lithium ion (1+) bullet Formaldehyde)

By formula: Li+ + CH2O = (Li+ bullet CH2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar151.kJ/molICRWoodin and Beauchamp, 1978gas phase; switching reaction(Li+)H2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Dzidic and Kebarle, 1970 interpolated; M
Deltar150.kJ/molICRStaley and Beauchamp, 1975gas phase; switching reaction(Li+)H2O, from graph; Dzidic and Kebarle, 1970 extrapolated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar110.J/mol*KN/AWoodin and Beauchamp, 1978gas phase; switching reaction(Li+)H2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Dzidic and Kebarle, 1970 interpolated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar118.kJ/molICRWoodin and Beauchamp, 1978gas phase; switching reaction(Li+)H2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Dzidic and Kebarle, 1970 interpolated; M

(CH3O- bullet 4294967295Formaldehyde) + Formaldehyde = CH3O-

By formula: (CH3O- bullet 4294967295CH2O) + CH2O = CH3O-

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar166.9 ± 2.1kJ/molN/ANee, Osterwalder, et al., 2006gas phase; B
Deltar171. ± 4.6kJ/molTherOsborn, Leahy, et al., 1998gas phase; B
Deltar175. ± 9.2kJ/molTherBartmess, Scott, et al., 1979gas phase; The acidity is 1.2 kcal/mol stronger than that from the D-EA cycle, due to the multi-compound fit for the acidity scale.; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B

CHO- + Hydrogen cation = Formaldehyde

By formula: CHO- + H+ = CH2O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1650.7 ± 0.96kJ/molD-EAMurray, Miller, et al., 1986gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1617.7 ± 1.7kJ/molH-TSMurray, Miller, et al., 1986gas phase; B
Deltar1648. ± 19.kJ/molIMRBKarpas and Klein, 1975gas phase; B

CH2N+ + Formaldehyde = (CH2N+ bullet Formaldehyde)

By formula: CH2N+ + CH2O = (CH2N+ bullet CH2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bonds of the type NH+-O between organics

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar91.2kJ/molFATanaka, Mackay, et al., 1978gas phase; switching reaction(HCNH+)HCN; Meot-Ner (Mautner), 1978; M

(dimethylamino)methanol = Dimethylamine + Formaldehyde

By formula: C3H9NO = C2H7N + CH2O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar126. ± 0.8kJ/molCmRogers and Rapiejko, 1974liquid phase; Heat of formation derived by 77PED/RYL; ALS

Methylal + Water = Formaldehyde + 2Methyl Alcohol

By formula: C3H8O2 + H2O = CH2O + 2CH4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar77.19 ± 0.50kJ/molCmBirley and Skinner, 1970liquid phase; Heat of hydrolysis; ALS

Formaldehyde + Urea, N,N-dimethyl- = Urea, 3-(hydroxymethyl)-1,1-dimethyl-

By formula: CH2O + C3H8N2O = C4H10N2O2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-20. ± 0.8kJ/molKinPerepelkova, Igranova, et al., 1981liquid phase; solvent: Phosphate buffer; ALS

2Dimethylamine + Formaldehyde = Methanediamine, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl- + Water

By formula: 2C2H7N + CH2O = C5H14N2 + H2O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-191. ± 3.kJ/molCmRogers and Rapiejko, 1974gas phase; ALS

(Iron ion (1+) bullet 2Formaldehyde) + Formaldehyde = (Iron ion (1+) bullet 3Formaldehyde)

By formula: (Fe+ bullet 2CH2O) + CH2O = (Fe+ bullet 3CH2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar76.1 ± 4.2kJ/molCIDTRodgers and Armentrout, 2000RCD

(Iron ion (1+) bullet 3Formaldehyde) + Formaldehyde = (Iron ion (1+) bullet 4Formaldehyde)

By formula: (Fe+ bullet 3CH2O) + CH2O = (Fe+ bullet 4CH2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50.2 ± 7.1kJ/molCIDTRodgers and Armentrout, 2000RCD

(Iron ion (1+) bullet Formaldehyde) + Formaldehyde = (Iron ion (1+) bullet 2Formaldehyde)

By formula: (Fe+ bullet CH2O) + CH2O = (Fe+ bullet 2CH2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar164. ± 4.2kJ/molCIDTRodgers and Armentrout, 2000RCD

Dimethylamine + Formaldehyde = (dimethylamino)methanol

By formula: C2H7N + CH2O = C3H9NO

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-126. ± 0.8kJ/molCmRogers and Rapiejko, 1974gas phase; ALS

Hydrogen + Carbon monoxide = Formaldehyde

By formula: H2 + CO = CH2O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-12.1kJ/molEqkNewton and Dodge, 1933gas phase; ALS

Iron ion (1+) + Formaldehyde = (Iron ion (1+) bullet Formaldehyde)

By formula: Fe+ + CH2O = (Fe+ bullet CH2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar138. ± 7.1kJ/molCIDTRodgers and Armentrout, 2000RCD

Aluminum ion (1+) + Formaldehyde = (Aluminum ion (1+) bullet Formaldehyde)

By formula: Al+ + CH2O = (Al+ bullet CH2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar115. ± 10.kJ/molEqGBouchard, Brenner, et al., 1997RCD

1,3,5-Trioxane = 3Formaldehyde

By formula: C3H6O3 = 3CH2O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar194.0 ± 2.5kJ/molEqkBusfield and Merigold, 1969solid phase; ALS

3Formaldehyde = 1,3,5-Trioxane

By formula: 3CH2O = C3H6O3

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-139.2 ± 2.1kJ/molEqkBusfield and Merigold, 1969gas phase; ALS

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Chase, 1998
Chase, M.W., Jr., NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, Fourth Edition, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 9, 1998, 1-1951. [all data]

Fletcher and Pilcher, 1970
Fletcher, R.A.; Pilcher, G., Measurements of heats of combustion by flame calorimetry, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1970, 66, 794-799. [all data]

Wartenberg and Lerner-Steinberg, 1925
Wartenberg, H.; Lerner-Steinberg, Heat of formation of formaldehyde, Z. Angew. Chem., 1925, 38, 591-592. [all data]

Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997
Thermodynamics Research Center, Selected Values of Properties of Chemical Compounds., Thermodynamics Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 1997. [all data]

Thompson, 1941
Thompson, H.W., Thermodynamic functions and equilibria of formaldehyde, deuteroformaldehyde, phosgene and thiophosgene, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1941, 37, 251-260. [all data]

Pillai M.G.K., 1961
Pillai M.G.K., Potential energy constants, rotational distortion constants, and calculated thermodynamic properties for some planar XYZ2 molecules, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1961, 6, 465-471. [all data]

Gurvich, Veyts, et al., 1989
Gurvich, L.V.; Veyts, I.V.; Alcock, C.B., Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances, 4th ed.; Vols. 1 and 2, Hemisphere, New York, 1989. [all data]

Chao J., 1980
Chao J., Perfect gas thermodynamic properties of methanal, ethanal and their deuterated species, Thermochim. Acta, 1980, 41, 41-54. [all data]

Chao J., 1986
Chao J., Thermodynamic properties of key organic oxygen compounds in the carbon range C1 to C4. Part 2. Ideal gas properties, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1986, 15, 1369-1436. [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1982
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Formation, Thermochemistry, and Relative Stabilities of Proton - Bound dimers of Oxygen n - Donor Bases from Ion Cyclotron Resonance Solvent - Exchange Equilibria Measurements, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 23, 6255, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00387a016 . [all data]

Cunningham, Payzant, et al., 1972
Cunningham, A.J.; Payzant, J.D.; Kebarle, P., A Kinetic Study of the Proton Hydrate H+(H2O)n Equilibria in the Gas Phase, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1972, 94, 22, 7627, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00777a003 . [all data]

Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984
Lias, S.G.; Liebman, J.F.; Levin, R.D., Evaluated gas phase basicities and proton affinities of molecules heats of formation of protonated molecules, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1984, 13, 695. [all data]

Keesee and Castleman, 1986
Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W., Jr., Thermochemical data on Ggs-phase ion-molecule association and clustering reactions, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1986, 15, 1011. [all data]

Fehsenfeld, Dotan, et al., 1978
Fehsenfeld, F.C.; Dotan, I.; Albritton, D.L.; Howard, C.J.; Ferguson, E.E., Stratospheric Positive Ion Chemistry of Formaldehyde and Methanol, J. Geophys. Res., 1978, 83, C3, 1333, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC083iC03p01333 . [all data]

Meot-Ner (Mautner), 1992
Meot-Ner (Mautner), M., Intermolecular Forces in Organic Clusters, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1992, 114, 9, 3312, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00035a024 . [all data]

Larson, Clair, et al., 1982
Larson, J.W.; Clair, R.L.; McMahon, T.B., Bimolecular Production of Proton Bound Dimers in the Gas Phase. A Low Pressure Ion Cyclotron Resonance Technique for Examination of Solvent Exchange Equilibria and Determination of Single Molecule Solvation Energetics, Can. J. Chem., 1982, 60, 4, 542, https://doi.org/10.1139/v82-079 . [all data]

Woodin and Beauchamp, 1978
Woodin, R.L.; Beauchamp, J.L., Bonding of Li+ to Lewis Bases in the Gas Phase. Reversals in Methyl Substituent Effects for Different Reference Acids, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 2, 501, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00470a024 . [all data]

Dzidic and Kebarle, 1970
Dzidic, I.; Kebarle, P., Hydration of the Alkali Ions in the Gas Phase. Enthalpies and Entropies of Reactions M+(H2O)n-1 + H2O = M+(H2O)n, J. Phys. Chem., 1970, 74, 7, 1466, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100702a013 . [all data]

Staley and Beauchamp, 1975
Staley, R.H.; Beauchamp, J.L., Intrinsic Acid - Base Properties of Molecules. Binding Energies of Li+ to pi - and n - Donor Bases, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1975, 97, 20, 5920, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00853a050 . [all data]

Nee, Osterwalder, et al., 2006
Nee, M.J.; Osterwalder, A.; Zhou, J.; Neumark, D.M., Slow electron velocity-map imaging photoelectron spectra of the methoxide anion, J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 125, 1, 014306, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2212411 . [all data]

Osborn, Leahy, et al., 1998
Osborn, D.L.; Leahy, D.J.; Kim, E.H.; deBeer, E.; Neumark, D.M., Photoelectron spectroscopy of CH3O- and CD3O-, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1998, 292, 4-6, 651-655, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(98)00717-9 . [all data]

Bartmess, Scott, et al., 1979
Bartmess, J.E.; Scott, J.A.; McIver, R.T., Jr., The gas phase acidity scale from methanol to phenol, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, 101, 6047. [all data]

Murray, Miller, et al., 1986
Murray, K.K.; Miller, T.M.; Leopold, D.G.; Lineberger, W.C., Laser photoelectron spectroscopy of the Formylf anion, J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 2520. [all data]

Karpas and Klein, 1975
Karpas, Z.; Klein, F.S., Negative ion-molecule reactions in a mixture of ammonia-formaldehyde - an ICR mass spectrometry study, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1975, 18, 65. [all data]

Tanaka, Mackay, et al., 1978
Tanaka, K.; Mackay, G.I.; Bohme, D.K., Rate and Equilibrium Constant Measurements for Gas-Phase Proton-Transfer Reactions Involving H2O, H2S, HCN, and H2CO, Can. J. Chem., 1978, 56, 2, 193, https://doi.org/10.1139/v78-031 . [all data]

Meot-Ner (Mautner), 1978
Meot-Ner (Mautner), M., Solvation of the Proton by HCN and CH3CN. Condensation of HCN with Ions in the Gas Phase., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 15, 4694, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00483a012 . [all data]

Rogers and Rapiejko, 1974
Rogers, F.E.; Rapiejko, R.J., Thermochemistry of carbonyl addition reactions. II. Enthalpy of addition of dimethylamine to formaldehyde, J. Phys. Chem., 1974, 78, 599-603. [all data]

Birley and Skinner, 1970
Birley, G.I.; Skinner, H.A., Enthalpies of hydrolysis of dimethoxymethane and 1,1-dimethoxyethane, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1970, 66, 791-793. [all data]

Perepelkova, Igranova, et al., 1981
Perepelkova, T.I.; Igranova, E.G.; Moiseev, V.D.; Demchenko, L.Ya.; Zhuravleva, I.I., Calorimetric study of the methylolation of 1,1-dimethylurea, Khim. Promst. Ser. Proizvod. Pererab. Plastmass Sint. Smol, 1981, 15-18. [all data]

Rodgers and Armentrout, 2000
Rodgers, M.T.; Armentrout, P.B., Noncovalent Metal-Ligand Bond Energies as Studied by Threshold Collision-Induced Dissociation, Mass Spectrom. Rev., 2000, 19, 4, 215, https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-2787(200007)19:4<215::AID-MAS2>3.0.CO;2-X . [all data]

Newton and Dodge, 1933
Newton, R.H.; Dodge, B.F., The equilibrium between carbon monoxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and methanol. I. The reactions CO + H2 = HCOH and H2 + HCOH = CH3OH, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1933, 55, 4747-4759. [all data]

Bouchard, Brenner, et al., 1997
Bouchard, F.; Brenner, V.; Carra, C.; Hepburn, J.W.; Koyanagi, G.K.; McMahon, T.B.; Ohanessian, G.; Peschke, M., Energetics and Structure of Complexes of Al+ with Small Organic Molecules in the Gas Phase, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1997, 101, 33, 5885, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp9703465 . [all data]

Busfield and Merigold, 1969
Busfield, W.K.; Merigold, D., The gas-phase equilibrium between trioxan and formaldehyde: The standard enthalpy and entropy of the trimerisation of formaldehyde, J. Chem. Soc. A, 1969, 19, 2975-2977. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, References