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Benzene, 1,3-dinitro-

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Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-36.kJ/molCcbSwarts, 1914See 14SWA2; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-2908.kJ/molCcbSwarts, 1914See 14SWA2; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid-27. ± 0.4kJ/molCcbLebedeva, Ryadnenko, et al., 1971See Lebedeva, Rjadnenko, et al., 1969; ALS
Deltafsolid-19.2kJ/molCcbRinkenbach, 1930Author hf298_condensed[kcal/mol]=-6.86; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-2905. ± 0.4kJ/molCcbLebedeva, Ryadnenko, et al., 1971See Lebedeva, Rjadnenko, et al., 1969; ALS
Deltacsolid-2896.2 ± 2.9kJ/molCcbBadoche, 1939Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -2900.2 kJ/mol; ALS
Deltacsolid-2911.6kJ/molCcbBurlot, 1939ALS
Deltacsolid-2913.49kJ/molCcbRinkenbach, 1930Author hf298_condensed[kcal/mol]=-6.86; ALS
Deltacsolid-2931.kJ/molCcbGarner and Abernethy, 1921ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of solid

Cp,solid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
197.5298.15Ueberreiter and Orthmann, 1950T = 293 to 368 K. Equation only.; DH
180.3298.Andrews, Lynn, et al., 1926T = 22 to 245°C.; DH
188.3297.9Andrews, 1926T = 110 to 332 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil570.2KN/AAldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990BS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus363. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub87.0 ± 0.8kJ/molTEFerro, Piacente, et al., 1976Based on data from 332. - 383. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
96.7351.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 336. - 379. K.; AC

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
76.1345.5N/AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 335. - 356. K.; AC
83. ± 2.323.VWolf and Weghofer, 1938ALS
81.1 ± 1.7323.N/ATrieschmann, 1935Based on data from 315. - 329. K. See also Wolf and Weghofer, 1938, 2 and Jones, 1960.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
19.68360.4Musuc, Razus, et al., 2002AC
17.36363.2Acree, 1991AC
17.350363.23Booss and Hauschildt, 1972DH
17.360363.2Andrews, Lynn, et al., 1926DH

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
47.8363.23Booss and Hauschildt, 1972DH
47.8363.2Andrews, Lynn, et al., 1926DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

Bromine anion + Benzene, 1,3-dinitro- = (Bromine anion bullet Benzene, 1,3-dinitro-)

By formula: Br- + C6H4N2O4 = (Br- bullet C6H4N2O4)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar84.9 ± 7.5kJ/molIMREPaul and Kebarle, 1991gas phase; «DELTA»Gaff at 423 K, «DELTA»Saff taken as that of mCF3-nitrobenzene..Br-; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.J/mol*KN/APaul and Kebarle, 1991gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar45.6 ± 4.2kJ/molIMREPaul and Kebarle, 1991gas phase; «DELTA»Gaff at 423 K, «DELTA»Saff taken as that of mCF3-nitrobenzene..Br-; B

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
45.6423.PHPMSPaul and Kebarle, 1991gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Nitrogen oxide anion + Benzene, 1,3-dinitro- = (Nitrogen oxide anion bullet Benzene, 1,3-dinitro-)

By formula: NO2- + C6H4N2O4 = (NO2- bullet C6H4N2O4)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar88.7 ± 8.4kJ/molTDAsGrimsrud, Chowdhury, et al., 1986gas phase; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar94.6J/mol*KPHPMSGrimsrud, Chowdhury, et al., 1986gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar60.2 ± 8.4kJ/molTDAsGrimsrud, Chowdhury, et al., 1986gas phase; B

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)10.4eVN/AN/AL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
1.66 ± 0.10IMREChowdhury, Heinis, et al., 1986«DELTA»Gea(423 K) = -36.9 kcal/mol; «DELTA»Sea (estimated) = -3.2 eu.; B
0.067996N/ADesfrancois, Periquet, et al., 1999dipole bound state; B
<1.650 ± 0.050PDMock and Grimsrud, 1989B
1.652 ± 0.048IMREFukuda and McIver, 1985«DELTA»Gea(355 K) = -37.0 kcal/mol; «DELTA»Sea =-3.2, est. from data in Chowdhury, Heinis, et al., 1986; B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
10.43 ± 0.02PIKotov and Potapov, 1972LLK
10.6 ± 0.1EIBrown, 1970RDSH
10.40PEPalmer, Moyes, et al., 1979Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C6H4NO2+12.3 ± 0.1NO2EIBrown, 1970RDSH

Ion clustering data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

Bromine anion + Benzene, 1,3-dinitro- = (Bromine anion bullet Benzene, 1,3-dinitro-)

By formula: Br- + C6H4N2O4 = (Br- bullet C6H4N2O4)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar84.9 ± 7.5kJ/molIMREPaul and Kebarle, 1991gas phase; «DELTA»Gaff at 423 K, «DELTA»Saff taken as that of mCF3-nitrobenzene..Br-; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.J/mol*KN/APaul and Kebarle, 1991gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar45.6 ± 4.2kJ/molIMREPaul and Kebarle, 1991gas phase; «DELTA»Gaff at 423 K, «DELTA»Saff taken as that of mCF3-nitrobenzene..Br-; B

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
45.6423.PHPMSPaul and Kebarle, 1991gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated; M

Nitrogen oxide anion + Benzene, 1,3-dinitro- = (Nitrogen oxide anion bullet Benzene, 1,3-dinitro-)

By formula: NO2- + C6H4N2O4 = (NO2- bullet C6H4N2O4)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar88.7 ± 8.4kJ/molTDAsGrimsrud, Chowdhury, et al., 1986gas phase; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar94.6J/mol*KPHPMSGrimsrud, Chowdhury, et al., 1986gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar60.2 ± 8.4kJ/molTDAsGrimsrud, Chowdhury, et al., 1986gas phase; B

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1990.
NIST MS number 118570

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
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Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

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Source Fielding and Le Fevre, 1950
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 11354
Instrument Beckman DU
Melting point 90
Boiling point 291; 167/ 14 mm

References

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Swarts, 1914
Swarts, F., Sur la chaleur de combustion de quelques derives nitres aromatlques, Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas, 1914, 33, 281-298. [all data]

Lebedeva, Ryadnenko, et al., 1971
Lebedeva, N.D.; Ryadnenko, V.L.; Kuznetsova, I.N., Heats of combustion and enthalpies of formation of certain aromatic nitro-derivatives, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 1971, 45, 549. [all data]

Lebedeva, Rjadnenko, et al., 1969
Lebedeva, N.D.; Rjadnenko, B.L.; Gutner, N.M., Heats of formation of some N-containing organic compounds, Int. Conf. Calorim. Therm. (Warsaw, Poland), 1969, 1-8. [all data]

Rinkenbach, 1930
Rinkenbach, W.H., The heats of combustion and formation of aromatic nitro compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1930, 52, 115-120. [all data]

Badoche, 1939
Badoche, M.M., Determinations des chaleurs de combustion de derives nitres de la serie benzenique, Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1939, 6, 570-579. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Burlot, 1939
Burlot, E., Etude relative a la calorimetrie des explosifs, Mem. Poudres, 1939, 29, 226-260. [all data]

Garner and Abernethy, 1921
Garner, W.E.; Abernethy, C.L., Heats of combustion and formation of nitro-compounds. Part I. - Benzene, toluene, phenol and methylaniline series, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A, 1921, 213-235. [all data]

Ueberreiter and Orthmann, 1950
Ueberreiter, K.; Orthmann, H.-J., Specifische Wärme, spezifisches Volumen, Temperatur- und Wärme-leittähigkeit einiger disubstituierter Benzole und polycyclischer Systeme, Z. Natursforsch. 5a, 1950, 101-108. [all data]

Andrews, Lynn, et al., 1926
Andrews, D.H.; Lynn, G.; Johnston, J., The heat capacities and heat of crystallization of some isomeric aromatic compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1926, 48, 1274-1287. [all data]

Andrews, 1926
Andrews, D.H., The specific heats of some isomers of the type ortho, meta and para C6H4XY from 110 to 340K, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1926, 48, 1287-1298. [all data]

Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990
Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., Catalog Handbook of Fine Chemicals, Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., Milwaukee WI, 1990, 1. [all data]

Ferro, Piacente, et al., 1976
Ferro, D.; Piacente, V.; Gigli, R.; D'Ascenzo, G., Determination of the vapour pressures of o-, m-, and p-dinitrobenzene by the torsion-effusion method, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1976, 8, 12, 1137-1143, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(76)90120-8 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Wolf and Weghofer, 1938
Wolf, K.L.; Weghofer, H., Uber sublimationswarmen, Z. Phys. Chem., 1938, 39, 194-208. [all data]

Trieschmann, 1935
Trieschmann, H.G., , Ph.D. Dissertation, Inst. Fur Phys. Chem. and Electrochem. der Universitat Kiel, Germany, 1935. [all data]

Wolf and Weghofer, 1938, 2
Wolf, K.L.; Weghofer, H.Z., Z. Phys. Chem. Abt. B, 1938, 39, 194. [all data]

Jones, 1960
Jones, A.H., Sublimation Pressure Data for Organic Compounds., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1960, 5, 2, 196-200, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60006a019 . [all data]

Musuc, Razus, et al., 2002
Musuc, A.M.; Razus, D.; Oancea, D., Analele Universitatii Bucuresti Chimie, 2002, 11, 2, 147. [all data]

Acree, 1991
Acree, William E., Thermodynamic properties of organic compounds: enthalpy of fusion and melting point temperature compilation, Thermochimica Acta, 1991, 189, 1, 37-56, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(91)87098-H . [all data]

Booss and Hauschildt, 1972
Booss, H.J.; Hauschildt, K.R., Die Schmelzenthalpie des Benzils und 4-Nitrophenols, Z. Anal. Chem., 1972, 261(1), 32. [all data]

Paul and Kebarle, 1991
Paul, G.J.C.; Kebarle, P., Stabilities of Complexes of Br- with Substituted Benzenes (SB) Based on Determinations of the Gas-Phase Equilibria Br- + SB = (BrSB)-, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 4, 1148, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00004a014 . [all data]

Grimsrud, Chowdhury, et al., 1986
Grimsrud, E.P.; Chowdhury, S.; Kebarle, P., Gas Phase Reactions of NO2- with Nitrobenzenes and Quinones. Electron Transfer, Clusters, and Formation of Phenoxide and Quinoxide Negative Ions. Use of NO2 as a NICI Reagent Gas., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc., 1986, 68, 1-2, 57, https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1176(86)87068-9 . [all data]

Chowdhury, Heinis, et al., 1986
Chowdhury, S.; Heinis, T.; Grimsrud, E.P.; Kebarle, P., Entropy Changes and Electron Affinities from Gas-Phase Electron Transfer Equilibria: A- + B = A + B-, J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90, 12, 2747, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100403a037 . [all data]

Desfrancois, Periquet, et al., 1999
Desfrancois, C.; Periquet, V.; Lyapustina, S.A.; Lippa, T.P.; Robinson, D.W.; Bowen, K.H.; Nonaka, H.; Compton, Electron Binding to Valence and Multipole states of Molecules: Nitrobenzene, para- and meta-dinitrobenzenes, J. Chem. Phys., 1999, 111, 10, 4569, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.479218 . [all data]

Mock and Grimsrud, 1989
Mock, R.S.; Grimsrud, E.P., Gas-Phase Electron Photodetachment Spectroscopy of the Molecular Anions of Nitroaromatic Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric Pressure, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 8, 2861, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00190a020 . [all data]

Fukuda and McIver, 1985
Fukuda, E.K.; McIver, R.T., Jr., Relative electron affinities of substituted benzophenones, nitrobenzenes, and quinones. [Anchored to EA(SO2) from 74CEL/BEN], J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107, 2291. [all data]

Kotov and Potapov, 1972
Kotov, B.V.; Potapov, V.K., Ionization potentials of strong organic electron acceptors, Khim. Vys. Energ., 1972, 6, 375. [all data]

Brown, 1970
Brown, P., Kinetic studies in mass spectrometry. IX. Competing [M-NO2] and [M-NO] reactions in substituted nitrobenzenes. Approximate activation energies from ionization and appearance potentials, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1970, 4, 533. [all data]

Palmer, Moyes, et al., 1979
Palmer, M.H.; Moyes, W.; Spiers, M.; Ridyard, J.N.A., The electronic structure of substituted benzenes; ab initio calculations and photoelectron spectra for nitrobenzene, the nitrotoluenes, dinitrobenzenes and fluoronitrobenzenes, J. Mol. Struct., 1979, 55, 243. [all data]

Fielding and Le Fevre, 1950
Fielding, P.; Le Fevre, R.J.W., J. Chem. Soc., 1950, 2812. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References