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Benzene, nitro-

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Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.94 ± 0.08eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)800.3kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity769.5kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
1.000 ± 0.010LPESDesfrancois, Periquet, et al., 1999B
1.01 ± 0.10TDEqChowdhury, Heinis, et al., 1986«DELTA»Gea(423 K) = -22.8 kcal/mol; «DELTA»Sea = -1.0 eu.; B
1.00 ± 0.060TDAsChen, Wiley, et al., 1994B
1.00 ± 0.020ECDChen, Chen, et al., 1992B
1.019 ± 0.048IMREFukuda and McIver, 1985«DELTA»Gea(355 K) = -23.1 kcal/mol; «DELTA»Sea =-1.0, est. from data in Chowdhury, Heinis, et al., 1986; B
<1.180 ± 0.050PDMock and Grimsrud, 1989B
<1.09997IMRBHenglein and Muccini, 1959EA: < SO2; B
>0.70 ± 0.20EndoLifshitz, Tiernan, et al., 1973B
>0.39999ESCompton, Christophorou, et al., 1966B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
~9.67PEKlasinc, Kovac, et al., 1983LBLHLM
9.8PEKatsumata, Shiromaru, et al., 1982LBLHLM
10.16 ± 0.08EIAllam, Migahed, et al., 1982LBLHLM
9.92PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981LLK
10.16 ± 0.08EIAllam, Migahed, et al., 1981LLK
9.87 ± 0.05PIMatyuk, Potapov, et al., 1979LLK
9.93PEBehan, Johnstone, et al., 1976LLK
9.6EIMcLafferty, Bente, et al., 1973LLK
9.99PEKhalil, Meeks, et al., 1973LLK
9.99 ± 0.01PERabalais, 1972LLK
9.85 ± 0.03PIKotov and Potapov, 1972LLK
9.94 ± 0.025PEJohnstone and Mellon, 1972LLK
9.90EIJohnstone, Mellon, et al., 1971LLK
9.86 ± 0.05PEJohnstone, Mellon, et al., 1970RDSH
9.90 ± 0.03EIJohnstone, Mellon, et al., 1970RDSH
10.16 ± 0.04EIBuchs, 1970RDSH
9.7 ± 0.1EIBrown, 1970RDSH
9.92PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
9.86PEKlasinc, Kovac, et al., 1983Vertical value; LBLHLM
9.9PEKatsumata, Shiromaru, et al., 1982Vertical value; LBLHLM
9.92PEPalmer, Moyes, et al., 1979Vertical value; LLK
9.93PEKobayashi, 1978Vertical value; LLK
10.8PERao, 1975Vertical value; LLK
9.93PEKobayashi and Nagakura, 1974Vertical value; LLK
10.1 ± 0.1SIGol'denfel'd, Korostyshevskii, et al., 1973Vertical value; LLK
9.88 ± 0.015PEKobayashi and Nagakura, 1972Vertical value; LLK
10.26PEBaker, May, et al., 1968Vertical value; RDSH

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C3H3+12.63 ± 0.15C2H2+CO+NOPIPECONishimura, Das, et al., 1986LBLHLM
C4H3+15.66 ± 0.15C2H2+NO2PIPECONishimura, Das, et al., 1986LBLHLM
C4H3+11.40 ± 0.05NO+C2H2OPIPECOPanczel and Baer, 1984T = 298K; LBLHLM
C4H3+11.54 ± 0.05NO+C2H2OPIPECOPanczel and Baer, 1984T = 0K; LBLHLM
C4H3+16.31 ± 0.08?EIAllam, Migahed, et al., 1982LBLHLM
C5H5+11.08 ± 0.16CO+NOPIPECONishimura, Das, et al., 1986LBLHLM
C5H5+11.30 ± 0.05CO+NOPIPECOPanczel and Baer, 1984T = 298K; LBLHLM
C5H5+11.44 ± 0.05CO+NOPIPECOPanczel and Baer, 1984T = 0K; LBLHLM
C6H5+11.51 ± 0.35NO2CADKatritzky, Watson, et al., 1990LL
C6H5+11.08 ± 0.16NO2PIPECONishimura, Das, et al., 1986LBLHLM
C6H5+11.14 ± 0.05NO2PIPECOPanczel and Baer, 1984T = 298K; LBLHLM
C6H5+11.28 ± 0.05NO2PIPECOPanczel and Baer, 1984T = 0K; LBLHLM
C6H5+12.14 ± 0.08NO2EIAllam, Migahed, et al., 1982LBLHLM
C6H5+9.46 ± 0.05NO2PIMatyuk, Potapov, et al., 1979LLK
C6H5+11.9 ± 0.1NO2EIBrown, 1970RDSH
C6H5+12.16?EIHowe and Williams, 1969RDSH
C6H5O+10.68 ± 0.35NOCADKatritzky, Watson, et al., 1990LL
C6H5O+10.89 ± 0.04NOPIPECONishimura, Das, et al., 1986LBLHLM
C6H5O+10.98 ± 0.05NOPIPECOPanczel and Baer, 1984T = 298K; LBLHLM
C6H5O+11.12 ± 0.05NOPIPECOPanczel and Baer, 1984T = 0K; LBLHLM
C6H5O+10.95 ± 0.05NOPIMatyuk, Potapov, et al., 1979LLK
C6H5O+10.4 ± 0.1NOEIBrown, 1970RDSH
NO+10.89 ± 0.04C6H5OPIPECONishimura, Das, et al., 1986LBLHLM
NO+11.18 ± 0.05C6H5OPIPECOPanczel and Baer, 1984T = 0K; LBLHLM
NO+11.04 ± 0.05C6H5OPIPECOPanczel and Baer, 1984T = 298K; LBLHLM

De-protonation reactions

C6H4NO2- + Hydrogen cation = Benzene, nitro-

By formula: C6H4NO2- + H+ = C6H5NO2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1577. ± 13.kJ/molG+TSCheng and Grabowski, 1989gas phase; between EtOH, iPrOH; B
Deltar1482. ± 13.kJ/molG+TSMeot-ner and Kafafi, 1988gas phase; acidity stronger than all levels of computation by 25 kcal/mol; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1545. ± 13.kJ/molIMRBCheng and Grabowski, 1989gas phase; between EtOH, iPrOH; B
Deltar1450. ± 13.kJ/molIMRBMeot-ner and Kafafi, 1988gas phase; acidity stronger than all levels of computation by 25 kcal/mol; B


Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Desfrancois, Periquet, et al., 1999
Desfrancois, C.; Periquet, V.; Lyapustina, S.A.; Lippa, T.P.; Robinson, D.W.; Bowen, K.H.; Nonaka, H.; Compton, Electron Binding to Valence and Multipole states of Molecules: Nitrobenzene, para- and meta-dinitrobenzenes, J. Chem. Phys., 1999, 111, 10, 4569, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.479218 . [all data]

Chowdhury, Heinis, et al., 1986
Chowdhury, S.; Heinis, T.; Grimsrud, E.P.; Kebarle, P., Entropy Changes and Electron Affinities from Gas-Phase Electron Transfer Equilibria: A- + B = A + B-, J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90, 12, 2747, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100403a037 . [all data]

Chen, Wiley, et al., 1994
Chen, E.C.M.; Wiley, J.R.; Batten, C.F.; Wentworth, W.E., Determination of the Electron Affinities of Molecules Using Negative Ion Mass Spectrometry, J. Phys. Chem., 1994, 98, 1, 88, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100052a016 . [all data]

Chen, Chen, et al., 1992
Chen, E.C.M.; Chen, E.S.; Milligan, M.S.; Wentworth, W.E.; Wiley, J.R., Experimental Determination of the Electron Affinities of Nitrobenzene, Nitrotoluenes, Pentafluoronitrobenzene, and Isotopic Nitrobenzenes an, J. Phys. Chem., 1992, 96, 5, 2385, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100184a069 . [all data]

Fukuda and McIver, 1985
Fukuda, E.K.; McIver, R.T., Jr., Relative electron affinities of substituted benzophenones, nitrobenzenes, and quinones. [Anchored to EA(SO2) from 74CEL/BEN], J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107, 2291. [all data]

Mock and Grimsrud, 1989
Mock, R.S.; Grimsrud, E.P., Gas-Phase Electron Photodetachment Spectroscopy of the Molecular Anions of Nitroaromatic Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric Pressure, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 8, 2861, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00190a020 . [all data]

Henglein and Muccini, 1959
Henglein, A.; Muccini, G.A., Negative Ion-Molecule Reactions, J. Chem. Phys., 1959, 31, 5, 1426, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1730618 . [all data]

Lifshitz, Tiernan, et al., 1973
Lifshitz, C.; Tiernan, T.O.; Hughes, B.M., Electron affinities from endothermic negative-ion charge transfer reactions. IV. SF6, selected fluorocarbons, and other polyatomic molecules, J. Chem. Phys., 1973, 59, 3182. [all data]

Compton, Christophorou, et al., 1966
Compton, R.N.; Christophorou, L.G.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W., Nondissociative Electron Capture in Complex Molecules and Negative Ion Lifetimes, J. Chem. Phys., 1966, 45, 12, 4634, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1727547 . [all data]

Klasinc, Kovac, et al., 1983
Klasinc, L.; Kovac, B.; Gusten, H., Photoelectron spectra of acenes. Electronic structure and substituent effects, Pure Appl. Chem., 1983, 55, 289. [all data]

Katsumata, Shiromaru, et al., 1982
Katsumata, S.; Shiromaru, H.; Mitani, K.; Iwata, S.; Kimura, K., Photoelectron angular distribution and assignments of photoelectron spectra of nitrogen dioxide, nitromethane and nitrobenzene, Chem. Phys., 1982, 69, 423. [all data]

Allam, Migahed, et al., 1982
Allam, S.H.; Migahed, M.D.; El-Khodary, A., Electron impact ionization and dissociation of deuterated and non-deuterated methanol, methyl cyanide, nitromethane and nitrobenzene, Egypt. J. Phys., 1982, 13, 167. [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Achiba, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Iwata, S., Ionization energies, Ab initio assignments, and valence electronic structure for 200 molecules in Handbook of HeI Photoelectron Spectra of Fundamental Organic Compounds, Japan Scientific Soc. Press, Tokyo, 1981. [all data]

Allam, Migahed, et al., 1981
Allam, S.H.; Migahed, M.D.; El Khodary, A., Electron impact study of nitrobenzene and nitromethane, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1981, 39, 117. [all data]

Matyuk, Potapov, et al., 1979
Matyuk, V.M.; Potapov, V.K.; Prokhoda, A.L., Photoexcitation and photoionisation of nitro- derivatives of benzene and toluene, Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 1979, 53, 538. [all data]

Behan, Johnstone, et al., 1976
Behan, J.M.; Johnstone, R.A.W.; Bentley, T.W., An evaluation of empirical methods for calculating the ionization potentials of substituted benzenes, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1976, 11, 207. [all data]

McLafferty, Bente, et al., 1973
McLafferty, F.W.; Bente, P.F., III; Kornfeld, R.; Tsai, S.-C.; Howe, I., Collisional activation spectra of organic ions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1973, 95, 2120. [all data]

Khalil, Meeks, et al., 1973
Khalil, O.S.; Meeks, J.L.; McGlynn, S.P., Electronic spectroscopy of highly polar aromatics. VII. Photoelectron spectra of nitroanilines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1973, 95, 5876. [all data]

Rabalais, 1972
Rabalais, J.W., Photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of the electronic structure of nitromethane and nitrobenzene, J. Chem. Phys., 1972, 57, 960. [all data]

Kotov and Potapov, 1972
Kotov, B.V.; Potapov, V.K., Ionization potentials of strong organic electron acceptors, Khim. Vys. Energ., 1972, 6, 375. [all data]

Johnstone and Mellon, 1972
Johnstone, R.A.W.; Mellon, F.A., Electron-impact ionization and appearance potentials, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2, 1972, 68, 1209. [all data]

Johnstone, Mellon, et al., 1971
Johnstone, R.A.W.; Mellon, F.A.; Ward, S.D., On-line computer methods used in conjunction with the measurement of ionization appearance potentials, Adv. Mass Spectrom., 1971, 5, 334. [all data]

Johnstone, Mellon, et al., 1970
Johnstone, R.A.W.; Mellon, F.A.; Ward, S.D., Online acquisition of ionization efficiency data, Intern. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1970, 5, 241. [all data]

Buchs, 1970
Buchs, A., Etude par spectrometrie de masse de l'ionisation de benzonitriles, de phenylacetonitriles et de N,N-dimethylanilines substitues, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1970, 53, 2026. [all data]

Brown, 1970
Brown, P., Kinetic studies in mass spectrometry. IX. Competing [M-NO2] and [M-NO] reactions in substituted nitrobenzenes. Approximate activation energies from ionization and appearance potentials, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1970, 4, 533. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Palmer, Moyes, et al., 1979
Palmer, M.H.; Moyes, W.; Spiers, M.; Ridyard, J.N.A., The electronic structure of substituted benzenes; ab initio calculations and photoelectron spectra for nitrobenzene, the nitrotoluenes, dinitrobenzenes and fluoronitrobenzenes, J. Mol. Struct., 1979, 55, 243. [all data]

Kobayashi, 1978
Kobayashi, T., A simple general tendency in photoelectron angular distributions of some monosubstituted benzenes, Phys. Lett., 1978, 69, 105. [all data]

Rao, 1975
Rao, C.N.R., Lone-pair ionization bands of chromophores in the photoelectron spectra of organic molecules, Indian J. Chem., 1975, 13, 950. [all data]

Kobayashi and Nagakura, 1974
Kobayashi, T.; Nagakura, S., Photoelectron spectra of substituted benzenes, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1974, 47, 2563. [all data]

Gol'denfel'd, Korostyshevskii, et al., 1973
Gol'denfel'd, I.V.; Korostyshevskii, I.Z.; Mischanchuk, B.G.; Pokrovskii, V.A., Determination of ionization potentials of atoms and molecules using a field mass spectrometer equipped with an energy analyzer, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1973, 213, 626. [all data]

Kobayashi and Nagakura, 1972
Kobayashi, T.; Nagakura, S., Photoelectron spectra of nitro-compounds, Chem. Lett., 1972, 903. [all data]

Baker, May, et al., 1968
Baker, A.D.; May, D.P.; Turner, D.W., Molecular photoelectron spectroscopy. Part VII. The vertical ionisation potentials of benzene and some of its monosubstituted and 1,4-disubstituted derivatives, J. Chem. Soc. B, 1968, 22. [all data]

Nishimura, Das, et al., 1986
Nishimura, T.; Das, P.R.; Meisels, G.G., On the dissociation dynamics of energy-selected nitrobenzene ion, J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 6190. [all data]

Panczel and Baer, 1984
Panczel, M.; Baer, T., A photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) study of fragmentation rates and linetic energy release distributions in nitrobenzene, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1984, 58, 43. [all data]

Katritzky, Watson, et al., 1990
Katritzky, A.R.; Watson, C.H.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Eyler, J.R., Collisionally activated dissociation of N-alkylpyridinium cations to pyridine and alkyl cations in the gas phase, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1990, 112, 2471. [all data]

Howe and Williams, 1969
Howe, I.; Williams, D.H., Calculation and qualitative predictions of mass spectra. Mono- and paradisubstituted benzenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1969, 91, 7137. [all data]

Cheng and Grabowski, 1989
Cheng, X.; Grabowski, J.J., Gas-phase Acidity of Nitrobenzene from Flowing Afterglow Bracketing Studies, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 1989, 3, 2, 34-36, https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.1290030207 . [all data]

Meot-ner and Kafafi, 1988
Meot-ner, M.; Kafafi, S.A., Carbon Acidities of Aromatic Compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 19, 6297, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00227a003 . [all data]


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