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2-Thiophenecarboxaldehyde

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Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySPB-1100.974.Misharina, Beletsky, et al., 199460. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillarySE-30100.971.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 199260. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He
CapillaryOV-101100.973.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 199260. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He
PackedApiezon M130.995.Garbuzov, Misharina, et al., 1985He or N2, Chromosorb W, AW-DMCS; Column length: 2.1 m
PackedApiezon M130.995.Golovnya, Garbuzov, et al., 1978Chromosorb W, AW/DMS; Column length: 2.1 m

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 40M100.1663.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 199250. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51010.Methven L., Tsoukka M., et al., 200760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 260. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-1962.Rochat S., de Saint Laumer J.Y., et al., 200720. m/0.18 mm/0.18 «mu»m, 60. C @ 3. min, 8. K/min, 220. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-1962.Rochat S., de Saint Laumer J.Y., et al., 200720. m/0.18 mm/0.18 «mu»m, 60. C @ 3. min, 8. K/min, 220. C @ 5. min
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB1011.Elmore, Campo, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB1011.Elmore, Campo, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryBPX-51001.Ames, Guy, et al., 200150. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryBPX-51001.Ames, Guy, et al., 200150. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB1012.Elmore, Mottram, et al., 200060. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryDB-51004.Madruga and Mottram, 199830. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 20. min
CapillarySPB-1963.Misharina, Beletsky, et al., 199460. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 8. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillarySE-30968.Misharina, Golovnya, et al., 199450. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 8. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryOV-101973.Misharina, Golovnya, et al., 199350. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-101968.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 199260. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-1961.Zhang and Ho, 199160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 220. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryOV-101995.Misharina, Vitt, et al., 1986He, 40. C @ 4. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tend: 250. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5MS1012.Varlet V., Knockaert C., et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: 70C(1min) => 3C/min => 80C(1min) => 5C/min => 150C => 10C/min => 280C (4min)
CapillaryCP-Sil 8CB-MS1012.Elmore, Mottram, et al., 2000, 260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 0C(5min) => 40C/min => 40C (2min) => 4C/min => 280C
CapillaryDB-51026.Parker, Hassell, et al., 200050. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: oC(5min) => 60C/min => 60C (5min) => 4C/min => 250C
CapillaryBPX-51021.Elmore, Mottram, et al., 199950. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: 0C(5min) => 40C/min => 40C(2min) => 4C/min => 280C
CapillaryBPX-51024.Bredie, Mottram, et al., 199850. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: OC (5min) => 60C/min => 60C(5min) => 4C/min => 250C
CapillarySE-541000.Hofmann and Schieberle, 199830. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 35C(2min) => 40C/min => 50C(5min) => 6C/min => 230C(15min)
CapillarySE-541000.Hofmann and Schieberle, 199730. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (2min) => 40C/min => 50C (5min) => 6C/min => 230C (15min)
CapillarySE-541000.Hofmann and Schieberle, 199530. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (2min) => 40C/min => 50C (5min) => 6C/min => 230C (15min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryZB-Wax1684.Ledauphin, Basset, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.15 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 220. C @ 10. min
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1678.Mahadevan and Farmer, 200660. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryFFAP1714.Calvo-Gómez, Morales-López, et al., 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 3. min, 5. K/min; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryZB-Wax1684.Ledauphin, Saint-Clair, et al., 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.15 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 220. C @ 10. min
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1655.Liu, Yang, et al., 2001H2, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101702.Chung, 199960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min
CapillarySupelcowax-101702.Chung, 1999, 260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min
CapillaryCarbowax 40M1668.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 199250. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCP-WAX 57CB1688.Whitfield, Mottram, et al., 1988He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryCP-WAX 57CB1689.Whitfield, Mottram, et al., 1988He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1678.Ferrari, Lablanquie, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(0.7min) => 20C/min => 70C => 4C/min => 240C
CapillaryDB-Wax1722.Sérot, Regost, et al., 200230. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C => 5C/min => 180C => 10C/min => 250C
CapillaryFFAP1659.Hofmann and Schieberle, 199830. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 35C(2min) => 40C/min => 60C(5min) => 6C/min => 230C(15min)
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1687.Madruga and Mottram, 199850. m/0.32 mm/0.21 «mu»m; Program: 0C(5min) => fast => 60C(5min) => 4C/min => 220C(20min)
CapillaryDB-Wax1718.Prost, Serot, et al., 199830. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m; Program: 50C => 3C/min => 180C => 5C/min => 250C (15min)
CapillaryFFAP1669.Hofmann and Schieberle, 199730. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (2min) => 40C/min => 60C (5min) => 6C/min => 230C (15min)
CapillarySupelcowax-101699.Baek and Cadwallader, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 40C => (6C/min) => 80C(6min) => (15C/min) => 200C(10min)
CapillaryFFAP1669.Hofmann and Schieberle, 199530. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (2min) => 40C/min => 60C (5min) => 6C/min => 230C (15min)

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51005.Shedid, 201030. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryDB-1960.Tai and Ho, 199860. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryDB-1987.Yu and Ho, 199560. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryDB-1963.Yu, Wu, et al., 199460. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryDB-1965.Yu, Wu, et al., 199460. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryDB-1962.Yu, Wu, et al., 1994, 260. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryDB-1966.Yu, Wu, et al., 1994, 260. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groups1010.Robinson, Adams, et al., 2012Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groups1013.Robinson, Adams, et al., 2012Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane1006.Xu, He, et al., 2010Program: 40 0C 20 0C/min -> 60 0C (5 min) 4 0C/min -> 250 0C
CapillaryHP-51008.Garcia-Estaban, Ansorena, et al., 200450. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m; Program: 40C(10min) => 5C/min => 200C => 20C/min => 250C(5min)
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes966.Zenkevich, 2001Program: not specified
PackedApiezon M990.Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 1983N2, Chromosorb W AW/DMCS; Column length: 5.6 m; Program: 60C(7min), 100C(7min), 150C isothermal

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryAT-Wax1701.Kiss, Csoka, et al., 201160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 4. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1680.Zhao, Xu, et al., 200930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 40. C @ 2. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 5. min
CapillaryTC-Wax1718.Ishikawa, Ito, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 8. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1734.Sanz, Maeztu, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1734.Sanz, Ansorena, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1689.Welke, Manfroi, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1702.Welke, Manfroi, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1678.Zhao, Xu, et al., 200930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1684.Tao, Wenlai, et al., 200830. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 50 0C 20 0C/min -> 80 0C 3 0C/min -> 230 0C
CapillaryDB-Wax1679.Gonzalez-Rios, Suarez-Quiroz, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Hydrogen; Program: 44 0C 3 0C/min -> 170 0C 8 0C/min -> 250 0C

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Misharina, Beletsky, et al., 1994
Misharina, T.A.; Beletsky, I.V.; Golovnya, R.V., Chromatographic and IR characteristics of methyl-, formyl-, and acetyl-substituted furans and thiophenes, Russ. Chem. Bull. (Engl. Transl.), 1994, 43, 1, 64-69, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00699137 . [all data]

Golovnya, Misharina, et al., 1992
Golovnya, R.V.; Misharina, T.A.; Beletskiy, I.V., Influence of methyl, formyl and acetyl groups on retention of substituted furans and thiophenes in capillary GC, Chromatographia, 1992, 34, 9/10, 497-501, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02290243 . [all data]

Garbuzov, Misharina, et al., 1985
Garbuzov, V.G.; Misharina, T.A.; Aerov, A.F.; Golovnya, R.V., Gas chromatographic retention indices for sulphur(II)-containing organic substances, J. Anal. Chem. USSR (Engl. Transl.), 1985, 40, 4, 576-586. [all data]

Golovnya, Garbuzov, et al., 1978
Golovnya, R.V.; Garbuzov, V.G.; Aerov, A.F., Gas chromatographic characterization of sulfur-containing compounds. 5. Thiophene, furan, and benzene derivatives, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Khim., 1978, 11, 2271-2274. [all data]

Methven L., Tsoukka M., et al., 2007
Methven L.; Tsoukka M.; Oruna-Concha M.J.; Parker J.K.; Mottram D.S., Influence of sulfur amino acids on the volatile and nonvolatile components of cooked salmon (Salmo salar), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 4, 1427-1436, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0625611 . [all data]

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Rochat S.; de Saint Laumer J.Y.; Chaintreau A., Analysis of sulfur compounds from the in-oven roast beef aroma by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A, 2007, 1147, 1, 85-94, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.02.039 . [all data]

Elmore, Campo, et al., 2002
Elmore, J.S.; Campo, M.M.; Enser, M.; Mottram, D.S., Effect of lipid composition on meat-like model systems containing cysteine, ribose, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 5, 1126-1132, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0108718 . [all data]

Ames, Guy, et al., 2001
Ames, J.M.; Guy, R.C.E.; Kipping, G.J., Effect of pH and temperature on the formation of volatile compounds in cysteine/reducing sugar/starch mixtures during extrusion cooking, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 4, 1885-1894, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0012547 . [all data]

Elmore, Mottram, et al., 2000
Elmore, J.S.; Mottram, D.S.; Hierro, E., Two-fibre solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile aroma compounds in cooked pork, J. Chromatogr. A, 2000, 905, 1-2, 233-240, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00990-0 . [all data]

Madruga and Mottram, 1998
Madruga, M.S.; Mottram, D.S., The effect of pH on the formation of volatile compounds produced by heating a model system containing 5'-imp and cysteine, J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 1998, 9, 3, 261-271, https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50531998000300010 . [all data]

Misharina, Golovnya, et al., 1994
Misharina, T.A.; Golovnya, R.V.; Strashnenko, E.S.; Medvedeva, I.B., Sorbtion-structural mass-spectrometric characteristics of volatile components of model systems and flavor compounds with meat odor, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1994, 49, 7, 722-728. [all data]

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Misharina, T.A.; Golovnya, R.V.; Beletsky, I.V., Sorption properties of heterocyclic compounds differing by heteroatom in capillary gas chromatography, Russ. Chem. Bull. (Engl. Transl.), 1993, 42, 7, 1167-1170, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00701998 . [all data]

Zhang and Ho, 1991
Zhang, Y.; Ho, C.-T., Comparison of the volatile compounds formed from the thermal reaction of glucose with cysteine and glutathione, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 4, 760-763, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00004a029 . [all data]

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Misharina, T.A.; Vitt, S.V.; Golovnya, R.V.; Belikov, V.M., The use of chemical modification for combined chromatographic-mass spectrometric identification of isomeric thiophene and furan substances, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1986, 61, 10, 1876-1881. [all data]

Varlet V., Knockaert C., et al., 2006
Varlet V.; Knockaert C.; Prost C.; Serot T., Comparison of odor-active volatile compounds of fresh and smoked salmon, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 9, 3391-3401, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf053001p . [all data]

Elmore, Mottram, et al., 2000, 2
Elmore, J.S.; Mottram, D.S.; Enser, M.; Wood, J.D., The effects of diet and breed on the volatile compounds of cooked lamb, Meat Sci., 2000, 55, 2, 149-159, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00137-0 . [all data]

Parker, Hassell, et al., 2000
Parker, J.K.; Hassell, G.M.E.; Mottram, D.S.; Guy, R.C.E., Sensory and instrumental analyses of volatiles generated during the extrusion cooking of oat flours, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 8, 3497-3506, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf991302r . [all data]

Elmore, Mottram, et al., 1999
Elmore, J.S.; Mottram, D.S.; Enser, M.; Wood, J.D., Effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of beef muscle on the profile of aroma volatiles, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, 4, 1619-1625, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980718m . [all data]

Bredie, Mottram, et al., 1998
Bredie, W.L.P.; Mottram, D.S.; Guy, R.C.E., Aroma volatiles generated during extrusion cooking of maize flour, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 4, 1479-1487, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9708857 . [all data]

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Hofmann and Schieberle, 1997
Hofmann, T.; Schieberle, P., Identification of potent aroma compounds in thermally treated mixtures of glucose/cysteine and rhamnose/cysteine using aroma extract dilution techniques, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1997, 45, 3, 898-906, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960456t . [all data]

Hofmann and Schieberle, 1995
Hofmann, T.; Schieberle, P., Evaluation of the key odorants in a thermally treated solution of ribose and cysteine by aroma extract dilution techniques, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1995, 43, 8, 2187-2194, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00056a042 . [all data]

Ledauphin, Basset, et al., 2006
Ledauphin, J.; Basset, B.; Cohen, S.; Payot, T.; Barillier, D., Identification of trace volatile compounds in freshly distilled Calvados and Cognac: Carbonyl and sulphur compounds, J. Food Comp. Anal., 2006, 19, 1, 28-40, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.03.001 . [all data]

Mahadevan and Farmer, 2006
Mahadevan, K.; Farmer, L., Key Odor Impact Compounds in Three Yeast Extract Pastes, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 19, 7242-7250, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061102x . [all data]

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Calvo-Gómez, O.; Morales-López, J.; López, M.G., Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of garlic oil obtained by hydrodistillation, J. Chromatogr. A, 2004, 1036, 1, 91-93, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.02.072 . [all data]

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Ledauphin, J.; Saint-Clair, J.-F.; Lablanquie, O.; Guichard, H.; Founier, N.; Guichard, E.; Barillier, D., Identification of trace volatile compounds in freshly distilled calvados and cognac using preparative separations coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 16, 5124-5134, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040052y . [all data]

Liu, Yang, et al., 2001
Liu, T.-T.; Yang, T.-S.; Wu, C.-M., Changes of volatiles in soy sauce-stewed pork during cold storage and reheating, J. Sci. Food Agric., 2001, 81, 15, 1547-1552, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.978 . [all data]

Chung, 1999
Chung, H.Y., Volatile components in crabmeats of Charybdis feriatus, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, 6, 2280-2287, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981027t . [all data]

Chung, 1999, 2
Chung, H.Y., Volatile components in fermented soybean (Glycine max) curds, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, 7, 2690-2696, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981166a . [all data]

Whitfield, Mottram, et al., 1988
Whitfield, F.B.; Mottram, D.S.; Brock, S.; Puckey, D.J.; Salter, L.J., Effect of Phospholipid on the Formation of Volatile Heterocyclic Compounds in Heated Aqueous Solutions of Amino Acids and Ribose, J. Sci. Food Agric., 1988, 42, 3, 261-272, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740420309 . [all data]

Ferrari, Lablanquie, et al., 2004
Ferrari, G.; Lablanquie, O.; Cantagrel, R.; Ledauphin, J.; Payot, T.; Fournier, N.; Guichard, E., Determination of key odorant compounds in freshly distilled cognac using GC-O, GC-MS, and sensory evaluation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 18, 5670-5676, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf049512d . [all data]

Sérot, Regost, et al., 2002
Sérot, T.; Regost, C.; Arzel, J., Identification of odour-active compounds in muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) as affected by dietary lipid sources, J. Sci. Food Agric., 2002, 82, 6, 636-643, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1096 . [all data]

Prost, Serot, et al., 1998
Prost, C.; Serot, T.; Demaimay, M., Identification of the most potent odorants in wild and farmed cooked turbot (Scophtalamus maximus L.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 8, 3214-3219, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980128o . [all data]

Baek and Cadwallader, 1996
Baek, H.H.; Cadwallader, K.R., Volatile compounds in flavor concentrates produced from crayfish-processing byproducts with and without protease treatment, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44, 10, 3262-3267, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960023q . [all data]

Shedid, 2010
Shedid, S., Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Mallard reaction products generated from glutathione or Cysteine/glucose, World Appl. Sci. J., 2010, 9, 10, 1148-1154. [all data]

Tai and Ho, 1998
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Notes

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