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1H-Pyrrole, 1-methyl-

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Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101110.731.Golovnya, Kuz'menko, et al., 2000He; Phase thickness: 0.4 «mu»m
CapillaryOV-101110.731.Zhuravleva, 200050. m/0.3 mm/0.4 «mu»m, He
PackedPMS-100130.710.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPMS-100150.702.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPMS-100180.695.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedSE-30110.739.Tibor and Anna, 1971N2, Chromosorb W-AW; Column length: 2. m
PackedSE-3090.725.Tibor and Anna, 1971N2, Chromosorb W-AW; Column length: 2. m
PackedDC-200120.710.Reymond, Mueggler-Chavan, et al., 1966Celite; Column length: 4. m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-1717.Takeoka, Perrino, et al., 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 30. C @ 4. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryDB-1719.Takeoka, Perrino, et al., 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 30. C @ 4. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryOV-101730.Ohnishi and Shibamoto, 19842. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedPEG-2000150.1171.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000152.1170.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000179.1180.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000180.1166.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000200.1160.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000200.1195.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-20M110.1154.Tibor and Anna, 1971N2, Chromosorb W-AW; Column length: 2. m
PackedPEG-20M90.1148.Tibor and Anna, 1971N2, Chromosorb W-AW; Column length: 2. m

Kovats' RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1140.Shimoda and Shibamoto, 1990He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 190. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySPB-5743.Pino, Marbot, et al., 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-5750.Dallüge, van Stee, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 2.5 K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB741.Oruna-Concha, Ames, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 8. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryBPX-5749.Ames, Guy, et al., 200150. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryBPX-5769.Ames, Guy, et al., 200150. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-1716.Kim, 200160. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 220. C
PackedSE-30722.Peng, Ding, et al., 1988He, Supelcoport and Chromosorb, 40. C @ 4. min, 10. K/min, 250. C @ 60. min; Column length: 3.05 m

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryZB-5760.Lu, Hao, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C(1min) => 3C/min => 209C => 20C/min => 280C
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB751.Duckham, Dodson, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 0C => rapidly => 40C(8min) => 4C/min => 250C(10min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1149.Lopez-Galilea I., Fournier N., et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min, 240. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1134.Kim, 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 30. min
CapillaryFFAP1155.Ott, Fay, et al., 199730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 20. C @ 1. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 1. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1137.Ott, Fay, et al., 199730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 20. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1142.Shimoda, Shiratsuchi, et al., 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 230. C @ 60. min; Tstart: 50. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-101153.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryZB-5737.Harrison and Priest, 200930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 40. C @ 1. min, 6. K/min, 280. C @ 9. min
CapillaryHP-5 MS750.Forero, Quijano, et al., 200830. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 4. min, 4. K/min, 230. C @ 10. min
CapillarySLB-5MS740.Risticevic, Carasek, et al., 200810. m/0.18 mm/0.18 «mu»m, Helium, 40. C @ 1.5 min, 10. K/min; Tend: 295. C
CapillarySPB-5741.Vasta, Ratel, et al., 200760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 5. min
CapillarySPB-5742.Vasta, Ratel, et al., 200760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 5. min
CapillaryMDN-5736.van Loon, Linssen, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 4. min, 4. K/min, 270. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5743.Pino, Marbot, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 60. C @ 10. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 40. min
CapillarySPB-5740.Poligné, Collignan, et al., 200160. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-5747.Lee, Macku, et al., 199160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryDB-5750.Macku and Shibamoto, 1991He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 160. C
CapillaryDB-5750.Macku and Shibamoto, 1991, 26. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySLB-5MS731.Risticevic, Carasek, et al., 200810. m/0.18 mm/0.18 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillarySE-30715.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-5735.Begnaud, Pérès, et al., 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl phenyl siloxane (not specified)740.Poligne, Collignan, et al., 2002Program: not specified
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB738.Duckham, Dodson, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-5 MS737.Luo and Agnew, 200130. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1722.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillaryDB-5743.Mateo and Zumalacárregui, 199650. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (10min) => 3C/min => 95C => 10C/min => 270C (10min)
CapillaryDB-5744.Mateo and Zumalacárregui, 199650. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (10min) => 3C/min => 95C => 10C/min => 270C (10min)
CapillarySPB-1722.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillarySPB-1715.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-1715.Kawai, Ishida, et al., 199160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-1717.Kawai, Ishida, et al., 199160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1715.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-Innowax1129.Puvipirom and Chaisei, 201215. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryFFAP1157.Budryn, Nebesny, et al., 201130. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen, 35. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 45. min
CapillaryHP-Innowax1145.Feng, Zhuang, et al., 201160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 60. C @ 1. min, 3. K/min, 220. C @ 5. min
CapillaryZB-Wax1168.Marin, Pozrl, et al., 200860. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 40. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 220. C @ 5. min
CapillaryFFAP1157.Nebesny, Budryn, et al., 200730. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, N2, 35. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 320. C @ 45. min
CapillaryHP-Wax1149.Sanz, Maeztu, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1149.Maeztu, Sanz, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1149.Sanz, Ansorena, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1127.Horiuchi, Umano, et al., 199860. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 40. min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1180.Vernin, Metzger, et al., 1992He, 3. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.33 mm; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1140.Wyllie, Brophy, et al., 199070. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-Innowax1147.Feng, Zhuang, et al., 201160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1139.Gonzalez-Rios, Suarez-Quiroz, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Hydrogen; Program: 44 0C 3 0C/min -> 170 0C 8 0C/min -> 250 0C
CapillaryDB-Wax1139.Gonzalez-Rios, Suarez-Quiroz, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Hydrogen; Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1139.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySupelcowax 101132.Castioni and Kapetanidis, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 60 0C (10 min) 2 0C/min -> 80 0C 3 0C/min -> 100 0C 4 0C/min -> 220 0C (30 min)
CapillarySupelcowax 101134.Castioni and Kapetanidis, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillarySupelcowax 101144.Castioni and Kapetanidis, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1139.Peng, Yang, et al., 1991Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1142.Peng, Yang, et al., 1991Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1139.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Golovnya, Kuz'menko, et al., 2000
Golovnya, R.V.; Kuz'menko, T.E.; Krikunova, N.I., The influence of alkyl substituents on the chromatographic indicator of self-association of N-containing heterocyclic compounds, Russ. Chem. Bull. (Engl. Transl.), 2000, 49, 2, 321-324, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02494681 . [all data]

Zhuravleva, 2000
Zhuravleva, I.L., Evaluation of the polarity and boiling points of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds by gas chromatography, Russ. Chem. Bull. (Engl. Transl.), 2000, 49, 2, 325-328, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02494682 . [all data]

Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973
Anderson, A.; Jurel, S.; Shymanska, M.; Golender, L., Gas-liquid chromatography of some aliphatic and heterocyclic mono- and pollyfunctional amines. VII. Retention indices of amines in some polar and unpolar stationary phases, Latv. PSR Zinat. Akad. Vestis Kim. Ser., 1973, 1, 51-63. [all data]

Tibor and Anna, 1971
Tibor, T.; Anna, B., Gázkromatográfiás retenció és a kémiai szerkezet, I., Magy. Kem. Foly., 1971, 77, 576-587. [all data]

Reymond, Mueggler-Chavan, et al., 1966
Reymond, D.; Mueggler-Chavan, F.; Viani, R.; Vuataz, L.; Egli, R.H., Gas chromatographic analysis of steam volatile aroma constituents: application to coffee, tea and cocoa aromas, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1966, 4, 1, 28-31, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/4.1.28 . [all data]

Takeoka, Perrino, et al., 1996
Takeoka, G.; Perrino, C., Jr.; Buttery, R., Volatile constituents of used frying oils, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44, 3, 654-660, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf950430m . [all data]

Ohnishi and Shibamoto, 1984
Ohnishi, S.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile compounds from heated beef fat and beef fat with glycine, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1984, 32, 5, 987-992, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00125a008 . [all data]

Shimoda and Shibamoto, 1990
Shimoda, M.; Shibamoto, T., Isolation and identification of headspace volatiles from brewed coffee with an on-column GC/MS method, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1990, 38, 3, 802-804, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00093a045 . [all data]

Pino, Marbot, et al., 2004
Pino, J.A.; Marbot, R.; Vazquez, C., Volatile components of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) grown in Cuba, J. Essent. Oil Res., 2004, 16, 4, 318-320, https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2004.9698731 . [all data]

Dallüge, van Stee, et al., 2002
Dallüge, J.; van Stee, L.L.P.; Xu, X.; Williams, J.; Beens, J.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th., Unravelling the composition of very complex samples by comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Cigarette smoke, J. Chromatogr. A, 2002, 974, 1-2, 169-184, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(02)01384-5 . [all data]

Oruna-Concha, Ames, et al., 2002
Oruna-Concha, M.J.; Ames, J.M.; Bakker, J., Comparison of the volatile components of eight cultivars of potato after microwave baking, Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., 2002, 35, 1, 80-86, https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.2001.0819 . [all data]

Ames, Guy, et al., 2001
Ames, J.M.; Guy, R.C.E.; Kipping, G.J., Effect of pH, temperature, and moisture on the formation of volatile compounds in glycine/glucose model systems, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 9, 4315-4323, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010198m . [all data]

Kim, 2001
Kim, J.S., Einfluss der Temperatur beim Rösten von Sesam auf Aroma und antioxidative Eigenschaften des Öls, PhD Thesis, Technischen Universität Berlin zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades, Berlin, 2001, 151. [all data]

Peng, Ding, et al., 1988
Peng, C.T.; Ding, S.F.; Hua, R.L.; Yang, Z.C., Prediction of Retention Indexes I. Structure-Retention Index Relationship on Apolar Columns, J. Chromatogr., 1988, 436, 137-172, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)94575-8 . [all data]

Lu, Hao, et al., 2005
Lu, C.-Y.; Hao, Z.; Payne, R.; Ho, C.-T., Effects of water content on volatile generation and peptide degradation in the Maillard reaction of glycine, diglycine, and triglycine, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 16, 6443-6447, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf050534p . [all data]

Duckham, Dodson, et al., 2001
Duckham, S.C.; Dodson, A.T.; Bakker, J.; Ames, J.M., Volatile flavour components of baked potato flesh. A comparison of eleven potato cultivars, Nahrung/Food, 2001, 45, 5, 317-323, https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20011001)45:5<317::AID-FOOD317>3.0.CO;2-4 . [all data]

Lopez-Galilea I., Fournier N., et al., 2006
Lopez-Galilea I.; Fournier N.; Cid C.; Guichard E., Changes in headspace volatile concentrations of coffee brews caused by the roasting process and the brewing procedure, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 22, 8560-8566, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061178t . [all data]

Ott, Fay, et al., 1997
Ott, A.; Fay, L.B.; Chaintreau, A., Determination and origin of the aroma impact compounds of yogurt flavor, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1997, 45, 3, 850-858, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960508e . [all data]

Shimoda, Shiratsuchi, et al., 1996
Shimoda, M.; Shiratsuchi, H.; Nakada, Y.; Wu, Y.; Osajima, Y., Identification and sensory characterization of volatile flavor compounds in sesame seed oil, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44, 12, 3909-3912, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960115f . [all data]

Bianchi, Careri, et al., 2007
Bianchi, F.; Careri, M.; Mangia, A.; Musci, M., Retention indices in the analysis of food aroma volatile compounds in temperature-programmed gas chromatography: Database creation and evaluation of precision and robustness, J. Sep. Sci., 2007, 39, 4, 563-572, https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200600393 . [all data]

Harrison and Priest, 2009
Harrison, B.M.; Priest, F.G., Composition of peaks used in the preparation of malt for Scotch Whisky production - influence of geographical source and extraction depth, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57, 6, 2385-2391, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf803556y . [all data]

Forero, Quijano, et al., 2008
Forero, M.D.; Quijano, C.E.; Pino, J.A., Volatile compounds of Chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum) at two ripening stages, Flavour Fragr. J., 2008, 24, 1, 25-30, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1913 . [all data]

Risticevic, Carasek, et al., 2008
Risticevic, S.; Carasek, E.; Pawliszyn, J., Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-time-of-flight mass spectrometric methodology for geographical origin verification of coffee, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2008, 617, 1-2, 72-84, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.04.009 . [all data]

Vasta, Ratel, et al., 2007
Vasta, V.; Ratel, J.; Engel, E., Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Raw Meat for the Authentication of the Feeding Background of Farm Animals, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 12, 4630-4639, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf063432n . [all data]

van Loon, Linssen, et al., 2005
van Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Posthumus, M.A.; Voragen, A.G.J., Identification and olfactometry of French fries flavour extracted at mouth conditions, Food Chem., 2005, 90, 3, 417-425, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.005 . [all data]

Pino, Marbot, et al., 2003
Pino, J.A.; Marbot, R.; Fuentes, V., Characterization of volatiles in Bullock's heart (Annona reticulata L.) fruit cultivars from Cuba, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 13, 3836-3839, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020733y . [all data]

Poligné, Collignan, et al., 2001
Poligné, I.; Collignan, A.; Trystram, G., Characterization of traditional processing of pork meat into boucané, Meat Sci., 2001, 59, 4, 377-389, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00090-0 . [all data]

Lee, Macku, et al., 1991
Lee, S.-R.; Macku, C.; Shibamoto, T., Isolation and identification of headspace volatiles formed in heated butter, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 11, 1972-1975, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00011a017 . [all data]

Macku and Shibamoto, 1991
Macku, C.; Shibamoto, T., Headspace volatile compounds formed from heated corn oil and corn oil with glycine, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 7, 1265-1269, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00007a014 . [all data]

Macku and Shibamoto, 1991, 2
Macku, C.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile antioxidants produced from heated corn oil/glycine model system, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 11, 1990-1993, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00011a022 . [all data]

Vinogradov, 2004
Vinogradov, B.A., Production, composition, properties and application of essential oils, 2004, retrieved from http://viness.narod.ru. [all data]

Begnaud, Pérès, et al., 2003
Begnaud, F.; Pérès, C.; Berdagué, J.-L., Characterization of volatile effluents of livestock buildings by solid-phase microextraction, Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 2003, 83, 10, 837-849, https://doi.org/10.1080/03067310310001603349 . [all data]

Poligne, Collignan, et al., 2002
Poligne, I.; Collignan, A.; Trystram, G., Effects of salting, drying, cooking, and smoking operations on volatile compound formation and collor patterns in pork, Food Eng. Physical Properties, 2002, 67, 8, 2976-2986. [all data]

Luo and Agnew, 2001
Luo, J.; Agnew, M.P., Gas characteristics before and after biofiltration treating odorous emissions from animal rendering processes, Environ. Technol., 2001, 22, 9, 1091-1103, https://doi.org/10.1080/09593332208618220 . [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Mateo and Zumalacárregui, 1996
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Notes

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