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Biphenyl

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Phase change data

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing
CAL - James S. Chickos, William E. Acree, Jr., Joel F. Liebman, Students of Chem 202 (Introduction to the Literature of Chemistry), University of Missouri -- St. Louis

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil527. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 40 out of 42 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus343. ± 1.KAVGN/AAverage of 285 out of 294 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple342.090KN/AChirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1989Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.01 K; TRC
Ttriple341.8KN/AParks and Huffman, 1931Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc780. ± 20.KAVGN/AAverage of 7 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc34. ± 6.atmAVGN/AAverage of 8 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Vc0.497l/molN/ATsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1995 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc2.0 ± 0.1mol/lN/ATsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1995 
rhoc2.01mol/lN/AEllard and Yanko, 1963Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.065 mol/l; TRC
rhoc2.09mol/lN/AReiter, 1963Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.065 mol/l; TRC
rhoc1.99mol/lN/AMandel and Ewbank, 1960Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.097 mol/l; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap15. ± 3.kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 7 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub19.5 ± 0.7kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 10 values; Individual data points

Reduced pressure boiling point

Tboil (K) Pressure (atm) Reference Comment
418.20.029Weast and Grasselli, 1989BS
418.0.029Buckingham and Donaghy, 1982BS
343. - 351.0.0003Buckingham and Donaghy, 1982BS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
12.2510.DSCBack, Grzyll, et al., 1996Based on data from 495. - 688. K.; AC
13.7400.EBChirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1989, 2Based on data from 350. - 578. K.; AC
14.4360.EBChirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1989, 2Based on data from 350. - 578. K.; AC
12.0500.EBChirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1989, 2Based on data from 350. - 578. K.; AC
14.2363.GSSakoguchi, Iwai, et al., 1989Based on data from 348. - 453. K.; AC
14.4363.N/ASasse, N'guimbi, et al., 1989Based on data from 333. - 393. K.; AC
13.7405.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 390. - 563. K.; AC
13.1417.GSNasir, Hwang, et al., 1980Based on data from 396. - 437. K.; AC
11.5647.N/AGlaser and Rüland, 1957Based on data from 528. - 766. K.; AC
14.2357.N/ACunningham, 1930Based on data from 342. - 544. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (atm)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
342.3 - 544.34.351141987.623-71.556Cunningham, 1930, 2Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
19.484298.15N/AChirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1989, 2DH
19.6383.GSNass, Lenoir, et al., 1995Based on data from 313. - 453. K.; AC
19.9311.EMSasse, N'guimbi, et al., 1989Based on data from 283. - 338. K.; AC
18.2 ± 0.96273. - 313.HSAChickos, 1975AC
19.2 ± 0.38319.TSGCClark, Knox, et al., 1975Based on data from 306. - 332. K.; AC
18.0298. - 318.MEPribilová and Pouchlý, 1974AC
19.98 ± 0.59283.VRadchenko and Kitaigorodskii, 1974ALS
18.12 ± 0.14342.5VAihara, 1959ALS
18.1 ± 0.1289.N/AAihara, 1955Based on data from 279. - 299. K.; AC
19.5 ± 0.41301.N/ABradley and Cleasby, 1953Based on data from 288. - 314. K.; AC
19.500288.05VBradley and Cleasby, 1953, 2ALS
17.9 ± 0.41297.N/ASeki and Suzuki, 1953Based on data from 287. - 307. K.; AC
16.4 ± 0.2292.QFWolf and Weghofer, 1938AC
16.4 ± 0.2295.VWolf and Weghofer, 1938, 2ALS

Entropy of sublimation

DeltasubS (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
65.349298.15Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1989, 2DH

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
4.43977342.098N/AChirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1989, 2DH
4.4407342.2N/AO'Rourke and Mraw, 1983DH
4.4933344.1N/ASmith, 1979DH
4.4570341.5N/ASpaght, Thomas, et al., 1932DH
4.71342.3DSCKhimeche and Dahmani, 2006AC
4.606344.34DSCBenkhennouf, Kamel, et al., 2004AC
4.460341.5N/ADomalski and Hearing, 1996AC
4.4395343.N/AUeberreiter and Orthmann, 1950DH
4.4441342.N/ASchmidt, 1941DH
4.5280314.3N/AEykman, 1889DH

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
12.978342.098Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1989, 2DH
13.0342.2O'Rourke and Mraw, 1983DH
13.0344.1Smith, 1979DH
13.0341.5Spaght, Thomas, et al., 1932DH
13.10341.5Domalski and Hearing, 1996CAL
13.0343.Ueberreiter and Orthmann, 1950DH
13.0342.Schmidt, 1941DH
14.4314.3Eykman, 1889DH

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
0.00003616.8crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IISaito, Atake, et al., 1988DH
0.0012040.4crystaline, IIcrystaline, ISaito, Atake, et al., 1988Twist transition.; DH
0.00003616.8crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIAtake, Saito, et al., 1983Anomalous region: 15.3 to 18.3 K.; DH
0.0012040.4crystaline, IIcrystaline, IAtake, Saito, et al., 1983Anomalous region: 30 to 47 K.; DH
0.00007011.0crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIAtaki and Chihara, 1980DH
0.0012040.4crystaline, IIcrystaline, IAtaki and Chihara, 1980DH
4.7562343.3crystaline, IliquidWasicki, Radomska, et al., 1982DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
0.00216.8crystaline, III, Lockcrystaline, II, in transitionSaito, Atake, et al., 1988DH
0.030840.4crystaline, IIcrystaline, ISaito, Atake, et al., 1988Twist; DH
0.00216.8crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIAtake, Saito, et al., 1983Anomalous; DH
0.030840.4crystaline, IIcrystaline, IAtake, Saito, et al., 1983Anomalous; DH
0.006011.0crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIAtaki and Chihara, 1980DH
0.030840.4crystaline, IIcrystaline, IAtaki and Chihara, 1980DH
13.9343.3crystaline, IliquidWasicki, Radomska, et al., 1982DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


References

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1989
Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V., The thermodynamic properties of biphenyl, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1989, 21, 1307-31. [all data]

Parks and Huffman, 1931
Parks, G.S.; Huffman, H.M., Some fusion and transition data for hydrocarbons, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1931, 23, 1138-9. [all data]

Tsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1995
Tsonopoulos, C.; Ambrose, D., Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties of Elements and Compounds. 3. Aromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1995, 40, 547-558. [all data]

Ellard and Yanko, 1963
Ellard, J.A.; Yanko, W.H., , U. S. A. E. C. Rep. IDO-11008, 1963. [all data]

Reiter, 1963
Reiter, R.W., , NASA Doc. N63-19495 1963 1963, 1963. [all data]

Mandel and Ewbank, 1960
Mandel, H.; Ewbank, N., , Atomics International NAA-S-R-5129 1960, 1960. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Buckingham and Donaghy, 1982
Buckingham, J.; Donaghy, S.M., Dictionary of Organic Compounds: Fifth Edition, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1982, 1. [all data]

Back, Grzyll, et al., 1996
Back, Dwight D.; Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Corrigan, Mary, DSC enthalpy of vaporization measurements of high temperature two-phase working fluids, Thermochimica Acta, 1996, 272, 53-63, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(95)02615-0 . [all data]

Chirico, Knipmeyer, et al., 1989, 2
Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V., The thermodynamic properties of biphenyl, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1989, 21, 1307-1331. [all data]

Sakoguchi, Iwai, et al., 1989
Sakoguchi, Akihiro; Iwai, Yoshio; Takenaka, Jun; Arai, Yasuhiko, Measurement of vapor pressures of tetralin, 1-naphthol and biphenyl using flow-type apparatus., KAGAKU KOGAKU RONBUNSHU, 1989, 15, 1, 166-169, https://doi.org/10.1252/kakoronbunshu.15.166 . [all data]

Sasse, N'guimbi, et al., 1989
Sasse, K.; N'guimbi, J.; Jose, J.; Merlin, J.C., Tension de vapeur d'hydrocarbures polyaromatiques dans le domaine 10-3--10 Torr, Thermochimica Acta, 1989, 146, 53-61, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(89)87075-3 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Nasir, Hwang, et al., 1980
Nasir, P.; Hwang, S.C.; Kobayashi, R., Development of an apparatus to measurement vapor pressures at high temperatures and its application to three higher-boiling compounds, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1980, 25, 4, 298-301, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60087a009 . [all data]

Glaser and Rüland, 1957
Glaser, Fritz; Rüland, Heinz, Untersuchungen über Dampfdruckkurven und kritische Daten einiger technisch wichtiger organischer Substanzen, Chemie Ing. Techn., 1957, 29, 12, 772-775, https://doi.org/10.1002/cite.330291204 . [all data]

Cunningham, 1930
Cunningham, G.V., Power, 1930, 72, 374. [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

Cunningham, 1930, 2
Cunningham, G.B., Diphenyl (C6H5-C6H5). May Solve Reheating Problem, Power, 1930, 72, 374-377. [all data]

Nass, Lenoir, et al., 1995
Nass, Karen; Lenoir, Dieter; Kettrup, Antonius, Calculation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by an Incremental Procedure, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1995, 34, 16, 1735-1736, https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.199517351 . [all data]

Chickos, 1975
Chickos, James Speros, A simple equilibrium method for determining heats of sublimation, J. Chem. Educ., 1975, 52, 2, 134-39, https://doi.org/10.1021/ed052p134 . [all data]

Clark, Knox, et al., 1975
Clark, Timothy; Knox, Trevor; Mackle, Henry; McKervey, M. Anthony; Rooney, John J., Heats of sublimation of some cage hydrocarbons by a temperature scanning technique, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1, 1975, 71, 0, 2107, https://doi.org/10.1039/f19757102107 . [all data]

Pribilová and Pouchlý, 1974
Pribilová, J.; Pouchlý, J., Vapour pressure of some low-volatile hydrocarbons determined by the effusion method, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun., 1974, 39, 5, 1118-1124, https://doi.org/10.1135/cccc19741118 . [all data]

Radchenko and Kitaigorodskii, 1974
Radchenko, L.G.; Kitaigorodskii, A.I., The vapour pressures and heats of sublimation of naphthalene, biphenyl, octafluoronaphthalene, decafluorobiphenyl, acenaphthene and «alpha»-nitronaphthalene, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 1974, 48, 1595. [all data]

Aihara, 1959
Aihara, A., Estimation of the energy of hydrogen bonds formed in crystals. I. Sublimation pressures of some organic molecular crystals and the additivity of lattice energy, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1959, 32, 1242. [all data]

Aihara, 1955
Aihara, A., J. Chem. Soc. Jpn. Pure Chem. Sect., 1955, 76, 492. [all data]

Bradley and Cleasby, 1953
Bradley, R.S.; Cleasby, T.G., 349. The vapour pressure and lattice energy of some aromatic ring compounds, J. Chem. Soc., 1953, 1690, https://doi.org/10.1039/jr9530001690 . [all data]

Bradley and Cleasby, 1953, 2
Bradley, R.S.; Cleasby, T.G., The vapour pressure and lattice energy of some aromatic ring compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1953, 1690-16. [all data]

Seki and Suzuki, 1953
Seki, Syûzô; Suzuki, Keisuke, Physico-Chemical Studies on Molecular Compounds. III. Vapor Pressures of Diphenyl, 4, 4'-Dinitrodiphenyl, and Molecular Compound between Them, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1953, 26, 5, 209-213, https://doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.26.209 . [all data]

Wolf and Weghofer, 1938
Wolf, K.L.; Weghofer, H.Z., Z. Phys. Chem. Abt. B, 1938, 39, 194. [all data]

Wolf and Weghofer, 1938, 2
Wolf, K.L.; Weghofer, H., Uber sublimationswarmen, Z. Phys. Chem., 1938, 39, 194-208. [all data]

O'Rourke and Mraw, 1983
O'Rourke, D.F.; Mraw, S.C., Heat capacities and enthalpies of fusion of dibenzothiophene (220 to 560 K) and of biphenyl, cyclohexylbenzene, and cyclohexylcyclohexane (220 to 475 K). Enthalpies and temperatures of three transitions in solid cyclohexylcyclohexane, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1983, 15, 489-502. [all data]

Smith, 1979
Smith, G.W., Phase behavior of some linear polyphenyls, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1979, 49, 207-209. [all data]

Spaght, Thomas, et al., 1932
Spaght, M.E.; Thomas, S.B.; Parks, G.S., Some heat capacity data on organic compounds obtained with a radiation calorimeter, J. Phys. Chem., 1932, 36, 882-888. [all data]

Khimeche and Dahmani, 2006
Khimeche, K.; Dahmani, A., Determination by DSC of solid--liquid diagrams for polyaromatic -- 4,4'diaminodiphenylmethane binary systems, J Therm Anal Calorim, 2006, 84, 1, 47-52, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-005-7167-9 . [all data]

Benkhennouf, Kamel, et al., 2004
Benkhennouf, M.; Kamel, K.; Dahmani, A., Solid-liquid phase equilibria for aromatic compounds, J. Phys. IV France, 2004, 113, 7-9, https://doi.org/10.1051/jp4:20040002 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Ueberreiter and Orthmann, 1950
Ueberreiter, K.; Orthmann, H.-J., Specifische Wärme, spezifisches Volumen, Temperatur- und Wärme-leittähigkeit einiger disubstituierter Benzole und polycyclischer Systeme, Z. Natursforsch. 5a, 1950, 101-108. [all data]

Schmidt, 1941
Schmidt, W.R., Thesis Washington University (St. Louis), 1941. [all data]

Eykman, 1889
Eykman, J.F., Zur kryoskopischen Molekulargewichtsbestimmung, Z. Physik. Chem., 1889, 4, 497-519. [all data]

Saito, Atake, et al., 1988
Saito, K.; Atake, T.; Chihara, H., Incommensurate phase transitions and anomalous lattice heat capacities of biphenyl, Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 1988, 61, 679-688. [all data]

Atake, Saito, et al., 1983
Atake, T.; Saito, K.; Chihara, H., Low temperature heat capacities of 1,1'-biphenyl and 1,1'-biphenyl-d10, Chem. Lett., 1983, (4), 493-496. [all data]

Ataki and Chihara, 1980
Ataki, T.; Chihara, H., Heat capacity anomalies due to successive phase transitions in 1,1'-biphenyl, Solid State Commun., 1980, 35, 131-134. [all data]

Wasicki, Radomska, et al., 1982
Wasicki, J.; Radomska, M.; Radomski, R., Heat capacities of diphenyl, p-terphenyl and p-quaterphenyl from 180 K to their melting points, J. Therm. Anal., 1982, 25, 509-514. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Phase change data, References