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Benzene, 1-ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-

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Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-84.1 ± 1.3kJ/molCcbGood, 1975 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-5851.8 ± 1.1kJ/molCcbGood, 1975Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -84.10 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil461.5 ± 0.2KAVGN/AAverage of 11 out of 12 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus210.270KN/AStreiff, Schultz, et al., 1960Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Tfus210.14KN/ABirch, Dean, et al., 1949Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap53.3kJ/molN/AReid, 1972AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
48.5354.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 339. - 492. K.; AC

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW-3637
NIST MS number 229748

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Kusakov, et al., 1963
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 20040
Instrument unknown
Boiling point 188.4

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-1100.1070.8Zhu, Zhang, et al., 1999Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryCP Sil 280.1074.2Estel, Mohnke, et al., 1995100. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-1100.1068.Zhang, Li, et al., 1992N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryHP-1100.1069.Zhang, Li, et al., 1992N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-1100.1069.0Matisová and Kurán, 199052. m/0.25 mm/0.38 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryOV-1100.1068.7Matisová and Kurán, 199052. m/0.25 mm/0.38 «mu»m, H2
CapillaryPONA100.1069.6Matisová and Kurán, 199050. m/0.2 mm/0.5 «mu»m, H2
CapillaryOV-101100.1069.Matisová, Kovacicová, et al., 1989He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101120.1075.Matisová, Moravcová, et al., 1988N2; Column length: 278. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryApolane120.1096.Matisová, Moravcová, et al., 1988N2; Column length: 200. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1069.Matisová, Rukríglová, et al., 1988H2; Column length: 278. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1069.Matisová, Rukríglová, et al., 1988H2; Column length: 278. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1070.Matisová, Rukríglová, et al., 1988H2; Column length: 278. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1071.Matisová, Rukríglová, et al., 1988H2; Column length: 278. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySE-3070.1061.7Tóth, 1983N2; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane86.1061.8Nabivach and Kirilenko, 1979N2; Column length: 50. m
CapillarySqualane100.1066.Engewald and Wennrich, 1976N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm
CapillarySqualane80.1060.40Soják and Rijks, 1976H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSE-30120.1085.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974N2, Chrom W; Column length: 6.1 m
PackedSE-30130.1089.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974N2, Chrom W; Column length: 6.1 m
PackedSE-30140.1093.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974N2, Chrom W; Column length: 6.1 m
CapillarySqualane100.1065.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974, 2H2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm
CapillarySqualane100.1080.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974, 2H2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm
CapillarySE-3065.1060.5Svob and Deur-Siftar, 1974He; Column length: 25.5 m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm
CapillarySqualane100.1066.6Svob and Deur-Siftar, 1974He; Column length: 10.5 m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane115.1070.8Soják and Bucinská, 1970N2; Column length: 200. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51077.8Wang, Fingas, et al., 199430. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 2. min, 6. K/min; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryOV-1011062.Hayes and Pitzer, 1982110. m/0.25 mm/0.20 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryApiezon L1097.Louis, 1971N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 60. C

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-1001069.6Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)
CapillaryDB-11069.Hoekman, 199360. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He; Program: -40 C for 12 min; -40 - 125 C at 3 deg.min; 125-185 C at 6 deg/min; 185 - 220 C at 20 deg/min; hold 220 C for 2 min
CapillarySqualane1070.Papazova and Pankova, 1975N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillarySqualane1073.Papazova and Pankova, 1975N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M150.1316.Egazaryants and Maximov, 1998He; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm
CapillaryPEG-20M70.1350.0Tóth, 1983N2; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryCarbowax 20M100.1342.8Engewald and Wennrich, 1976N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH1070.8Censullo, Jones, et al., 200350. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-51086.6Xu, van Stee, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 2.5 K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryHP-51075.Isidorov, Krajewska, et al., 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryUltra-11063.Olson, Sinkevitch, et al., 19924. K/min; Tstart: -40. C; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH1063.94White, Douglas, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH1064.79White, Douglas, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH1065.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryOV-1011062.Hayes and Pitzer, 1981108. m/0.25 mm/0.2 «mu»m, 1. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone1076.67Hassoun, Pilling, et al., 199950. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: -50C(2min) => 49.9C/min => 35C(10min) => 3C/min => 200C(2min) => 40C/min => 240C(30min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1347.Alasalvar, Taylor, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 35. C @ 4. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 203. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101373.Chung, 199960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-30100.1071.Vodenkova, Leol'ko, et al., 2005He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1068.Tian, 1993Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101120.1075.Tian, 1993Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillarySqualane95.41056.Sojak and Vigdergauz, 1978H2
CapillarySqualane110.1069.Papazova and Pankova, 1975N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane130.1075.Papazova and Pankova, 1975N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB1073.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryHP-5 MS1075.Kotowska, Zalikowski, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 35. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 300. C @ 15. min
CapillaryPetrocol DH1071.Supelco, 2012100. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 20. C @ 15. min, 15. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillaryVF-5 MS1075.Leffingwell and Alford, 201160. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 28. min; Tstart: 30. C
CapillaryVF-5 MS1078.Leffingwell and Alford, 201160. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 28. min; Tstart: 30. C
CapillaryBP-11075.Health Safety Executive, 200050. m/0.22 mm/0.75 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-11064.Orav, Kailas, et al., 19992. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 160. C
CapillaryOV-1011063.Orav, Kailas, et al., 1999, 250. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 30. C @ 6. min, 1. K/min; Tend: 100. C
CapillaryHP-51083.5Wang and Fingas, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 2. min, 10. K/min, 300. C @ 10. min
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB1061.Hartgers, Damste, et al., 199225. m/0.32 mm/0.45 «mu»m, He, 0. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 320. C @ 10. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5 MS1075.Kotowska, Zalikowski, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5 MS1034.Sharififar, Mozaffarian, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS1078.Vichi, Pizzale, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 40C(3min) => 4C/min => 75C => 8C/min => 250C
CapillaryPolymethylsiloxane, (PMS-20000)1062.Cornwell and Cordano, 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone1070.Spieksma, 1999Program: not specified
CapillarySE-301062.Xiuhua, Zhang, et al., 1996Program: not specified
CapillarySE-301067.Xiuhua, Zhang, et al., 1996Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1011069.Matisová, Juranyiová, et al., 199152. m/0.25 mm/0.38 «mu»m, H2; Program: 70 - 160 C at 1.5 deg/min; 160 - 280 C at 15 deg/min 15 min at 280 C
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.1064.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M90.1326.Sutter, Peterson, et al., 1997 

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1348.Umano, Hagi, et al., 200060. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-101348.Vichi, Pizzale, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 40C(3min) => 4C/min => 75C => 8C/min => 250C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1350.Cornwell and Cordano, 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1330.Ivanciuc, Ivanciuc, et al., 2001Program: not specified
CapillaryPEG-20M1346.Xiuhua, Zhang, et al., 1996Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Good, 1975
Good, W.D., The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of n-butylbenzene, the dimethylethylbenzenes, and the tetramethylbenzenes in the condensed state, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1975, 7, 49-59. [all data]

Streiff, Schultz, et al., 1960
Streiff, A.J.; Schultz, L.H.; Krouskop, N.C.; Moore, J.W.; Rossini, F.D., Purification, Purity, and Freezing Points of 16 API Standard and API Research Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1960, 5, 193-5. [all data]

Birch, Dean, et al., 1949
Birch, S.F.; Dean, R.A.; Fidler, F.A.; Lowry, R.A., The preparation of the c(10) monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1949, 71, 1362. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Kusakov, et al., 1963
Kusakov, M.M., et al., Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Aromatic Hydrocarbons, 1963, 79. [all data]

Zhu, Zhang, et al., 1999
Zhu, X.; Zhang, L.; Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Che, X., The application quantitative structure-retention relationship of GC to aid MS qualitative analysis, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 1999, 17, 4, 351-353. [all data]

Estel, Mohnke, et al., 1995
Estel, D.; Mohnke; Biermans; Rotzsche, The analysis of C4-C11 hydrocarbons in naphtha and reformate with a new apolar fused silica column, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1995, 18, 7, 403-412, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240180703 . [all data]

Zhang, Li, et al., 1992
Zhang, M.J.; Li, S.D.; Chen, B.J., Compositional studies of high-temperature coal tar by GC/FTIR analysis of light oil fractions, Chromatographia, 1992, 33, 3/4, 138-146, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02275894 . [all data]

Matisová and Kurán, 1990
Matisová, E.; Kurán, P., Reproducibility of retention indices measurement of alkylbenzenes on crosslinked methyl silicone phase fused silica capillaries, Chromatographia, 1990, 30, 5/6, 328-332, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02319717 . [all data]

Matisová, Kovacicová, et al., 1989
Matisová, E.; Kovacicová, E.; Ha, P.T.; Kolek, E.; Engewald, W., Identification of alkylbenzenes up to C12 by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. II. Retention indices on OV-101 columns and retention-molecular structure correlations, J. Chromatogr., 1989, 475, 2, 113-123, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89667-9 . [all data]

Matisová, Moravcová, et al., 1988
Matisová, E.; Moravcová, A.; Krupcík; Cellár, P.; Leclercq, P.A., Problems with the reproducibility of retention data on capillary columns with hydrocarbon C87 as the stationary phase, J. Chromatogr., 1988, 454, 65-71, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)88602-1 . [all data]

Matisová, Rukríglová, et al., 1988
Matisová, E.; Rukríglová, M.; Krupcík, J.; Kovacicová, E.; Holotík, S., Identification of alkylbenzenes up to C12 by capillary gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. I. OV-101 as stationary phase, J. Chromatogr., 1988, 455, 301-309, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)82129-4 . [all data]

Tóth, 1983
Tóth, T., Use of capillary gas chromatography in collecting retention and chemical information for the analysis of complex petrochemical mixtures, J. Chromatogr., 1983, 279, 157-165, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)93614-3 . [all data]

Nabivach and Kirilenko, 1979
Nabivach, V.M.; Kirilenko, A.V., The use of retention indices for identifying the components of crude benzene, Solid Fuel Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 1979, 13, 3, 82-87. [all data]

Engewald and Wennrich, 1976
Engewald, W.; Wennrich, L., Molekülstruktur und Retentionsverhalten. VIII. Zum Retentionsverhalten höherer Alkylbenzole bei der Gas-Verteilungs-Chromatographie, Chromatographia, 1976, 9, 11, 540-547, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02275960 . [all data]

Soják and Rijks, 1976
Soják, L.; Rijks, J.A., Capillary gas chromatography of alkylbenzenes. I. Some problems encountered with the precision of the retention indcies of alkylbenzenes, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 119, 505-521, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)86812-0 . [all data]

Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974
Mitra, G.D.; Mohan, G.; Sinha, A., Advances in the utilization of the retention index system for characterizing hydrocarbons in complex mixtures by gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1974, 99, 215-230, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)90857-4 . [all data]

Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974, 2
Mitra, G.D.; Mohan, G.; Sinha, A., Gas chromatographic analysis of complex hydrocarbon mixtures, J. Chromatogr. A, 1974, 91, 633-648, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)97944-0 . [all data]

Svob and Deur-Siftar, 1974
Svob, V.; Deur-Siftar, D., Kovats Retention Indices in the Identification of Alkylbenzene Degradation Products, J. Chromatogr., 1974, 91, 677-689, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)97947-6 . [all data]

Soják and Bucinská, 1970
Soják, L.; Bucinská, A., Open tubular column gas chromatography of dehydrogenation products of C6-C10 n-alkanes. Separation and identification of mixtures of C6-C10 straight-chain alkanes, alkenes and aromatics, J. Chromatogr., 1970, 51, 75-82, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)96841-4 . [all data]

Wang, Fingas, et al., 1994
Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Li, K., Fractionation of a light crude oil and identification and quantitation of aliphatic, aromatic, and biomarker comopunds by GC-FID and GC-MS, Part II, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1994, 32, 9, 367-382, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/32.9.367 . [all data]

Hayes and Pitzer, 1982
Hayes, P.C., Jr.; Pitzer, E.W., Characterizing petroleum- and shale-derived jet fuel distillates via temperature-programmed Kováts indices, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 253, 179-198, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)88376-X . [all data]

Louis, 1971
Louis, R., Kovats-index-tafeln zur gaschromatographischen analyse von kohlenwasserstoffgemischen, Erdoel Kohle Erdgas Petrochem., 1971, 24, 2, 88-94. [all data]

Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997
Haagen-Smit Laboratory, Procedure for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasolines by single column high efficiency (capillary) column gas chromatography, SOP NO. MLD 118, Revision No. 1.1, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, El Monte, California, 1997, 22. [all data]

Hoekman, 1993
Hoekman, S.K., Improved gas chromatography procedure for speciated hydrocarbon measurements of vehicle emissions, J. Chromatogr., 1993, 639, 2, 239-253, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(93)80260-F . [all data]

Papazova and Pankova, 1975
Papazova, D.I.; Pankova, M.C., Identification of individual aromatic hydrocarbons in kerosene fraction (b.p. 150-250 °), J. Chromatogr., 1975, 105, 2, 411-414, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)82276-7 . [all data]

Egazaryants and Maximov, 1998
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Notes

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