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Carbazole

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas205.0 ± 3.0kJ/molCcbJimenez, Roux, et al., 1990ALS
Deltafgas209.6 ± 3.5kJ/molCcrSabbah and Antipine, 1987ALS
Deltafgas222.9kJ/molN/ATavernier and Lamouroux, 1957Value computed using «DELTA»fHsolid° value of 125.1±3.6 kj/mol from Tavernier and Lamouroux, 1957 and «DELTA»subH° value of 97.8 kj/mol from Tavernier and Lamouroux, 1957.; DRB

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid101.7 ± 2.8kJ/molCcbJimenez, Roux, et al., 1990ALS
Deltafsolid111.8 ± 3.5kJ/molCcrSabbah and Antipine, 1987ALS
Deltafsolid125.1 ± 3.6kJ/molCcbTavernier and Lamouroux, 1957Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = 136.3 kJ/mol; Author's hf298_condensed=26.844 kcal/mol; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-6110.1 ± 2.3kJ/molCcbJimenez, Roux, et al., 1990ALS
Deltacsolid-6120.1 ± 3.4kJ/molCcrSabbah and Antipine, 1987ALS
Deltacsolid-6116.2kJ/molCcbZimmerman and Geisenfelder, 1961ALS
Deltacsolid-6133.5 ± 3.6kJ/molCcbTavernier and Lamouroux, 1957Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -6144.744 kJ/mol; Author's hf298_condensed=26.844 kcal/mol; ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of solid

Cp,solid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
194.0298.15Jimenez, Roux, et al., 1990DH
190.8298.15Radomska and Radomski, 1980T = 180 to 410 K. Cp = 54.87 + 0.2328T + 7.477x10-4T2.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil628.2KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub102. ± 8.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 7 values; Individual data points

Reduced pressure boiling point

Tboil (K) Pressure (bar) Reference Comment
473.20.196Weast and Grasselli, 1989BS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
65.7540.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 525. - 631. K. See also Senseman and Nelson, 1923 and Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC
63.3525.N/ASivaraman, Martin, et al., 1983AC
61.8565.N/ASivaraman, Martin, et al., 1983AC
60.8605.N/ASivaraman, Martin, et al., 1983AC
66.532.N/AMortimer and Murphy, 1923Based on data from 517. - 624. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
525.76 - 630.864.150372122.231-115.853Senseman and Nelson, 1923Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
101.2 ± 1.1355.MEJimenez, Roux, et al., 1990Based on data from 346. - 364. K.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
27.080518.33N/ASabbah and El Watik, 1992DH
27.200521.1N/ARadomska and Radomski, 1980DH
26.9518.7DSCLisicki and Jamróz, 2000AC
27.2516.N/ADomalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
52.19521.1Radomska and Radomski, 1980DH

Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: John E. Bartmess

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C12H8N- + Hydrogen cation = Carbazole

By formula: C12H8N- + H+ = C12H9N

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1444. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSTaft and Bordwell, 1988gas phase
Deltar1404. ± 21.kJ/molEIAEMuftakhov, Vasil'ev, et al., 1999gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1412. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRETaft and Bordwell, 1988gas phase

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C12H9N+ (ion structure unspecified)

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
7.57 ± 0.03PIPotapov, Kardash, et al., 1972LLK
7.6 ± 0.1EIRapp, Staab, et al., 1970RDSH
7.2 ± 0.1EIRiepe and Zander, 1969RDSH
7.50PERuscic, Kovac, et al., 1978Vertical value; LLK
7.68PEHaink, Adams, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK

De-protonation reactions

C12H8N- + Hydrogen cation = Carbazole

By formula: C12H8N- + H+ = C12H9N

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1444. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSTaft and Bordwell, 1988gas phase; B
Deltar1404. ± 21.kJ/molEIAEMuftakhov, Vasil'ev, et al., 1999gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1412. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRETaft and Bordwell, 1988gas phase; B

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Sadtler Research Labs Under US-EPA Contract
State gas

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1990.
NIST MS number 113349

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Eugeny B. Stern, Antonina A. Goncharova, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Walba and Branch, 1951
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 595
Instrument Beckman spectrophotometer
Melting point 246.2
Boiling point 354.7

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-1160.1781.Zhang, Chen, et al., 199725. m/0.2 mm/0.33 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryOV-101140.1761.1Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
PackedSE-301784.Ramsey, Lee, et al., 1980He, Chromosorb G HP (80-100 mesh); Column length: 1.5 m; Program: not specified

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-11801.1Zhang, Shen, et al., 200025. m/0.2 mm/0.33 «mu»m, 5. K/min; Tstart: 100. C; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryOV-11820.5Zhang, Shen, et al., 200025. m/0.2 mm/0.33 «mu»m, 5. K/min; Tstart: 100. C; Tend: 180. C
PackedSE-301810.Peng, Ding, et al., 1988He, Supelcoport and Chromosorb, 40. C @ 4. min, 10. K/min, 250. C @ 60. min; Column length: 3.05 m
CapillaryDB-51851.Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min
CapillarySE-541806.Weber, 198625. m/0.31 mm/0.17 «mu»m, H2, 2. K/min; Tstart: 35. C
CapillarySE-541836.Weber, 198625. m/0.31 mm/0.17 «mu»m, H2, 2. K/min; Tstart: 35. C
CapillarySE-521766.Beernaert, 1979He, 50. C @ 5. min, 6. K/min; Column length: 33.3 m; Column diameter: 0.50 mm; Tend: 320. C
CapillarySE-521838.Cantuti, Cartoni, et al., 1965N2, 2.5 K/min; Column length: 50. m; Tstart: 100. C; Tend: 300. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
Capillary5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane1823.Yasuhara, Shiraishi, et al., 199725. m/0.31 mm/0.52 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C(2min) => (20C/min) => 120C => (7C/min) => 310C(10min)
CapillaryMethyl Silicone1789.Oda, Ichikawa, et al., 1996Program: 50C (2min) => 20C/min => 160C => 5C/min => 210C => 10C/min => 300C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51841.Grung, Lichtenthaler, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 5. K/min, 280. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryUltra-11790.Elizalde-González, Hutfliess, et al., 199650. m/0.2 mm/0.33 «mu»m, H2, 3. K/min, 300. C @ 35. min; Tstart: 60. C
CapillaryUltra-11768.Okumura, 199125. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 260. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane, unknown content of Ph-groups1849.Geldon, 1989Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane, unknown content of Ph-groups1852.Geldon, 1989Program: not specified
OtherMethyl Silicone1784.Ardrey and Moffat, 1981Program: not specified

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5MS308.63Chen, Keeran, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 40. C @ 1. min, 10. K/min; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-5MS309.24Chen, Keeran, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 40. C @ 1. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 310. C
CapillarySE-54310.15Chen, 19964. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryOV-101309.63Blanco, Blanco, et al., 1989H2, 4. K/min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-5310.35Wise, Benner, et al., 198830. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5309.22Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min
CapillarySE-52311.71Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 198220. m/0.30 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 265. C
CapillarySE-52312.13Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 197912. m/0.3 mm/0.34 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C

Lee's RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5MS309.8Wang, Li, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(2min) => 6C/min => 258C => 2C/min => 300C(4min)
CapillaryHP-5MS309.80Wang, Li, et al., 2007, 230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS310.35Wang, Li, et al., 2007, 230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS311.71Wang, Li, et al., 2007, 230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-5307.9Lundstedt, Haglund, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillarySE-54312.13Chen, 1996Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillarySE-54309.02Guillen, Iglesias, et al., 1992Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-101311.0Tucminen, Wickstrom, et al., 1986Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-101314.3Tucminen, Wickstrom, et al., 1986Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Jimenez, Roux, et al., 1990
Jimenez, P.; Roux, M.V.; Turrion, C., Thermochemical properties of N-heterocyclic compounds. III. Enthalpies of combustion, vapour pressures and enthalpies of sublimation, and enthalpies of formation of 9H-carbazole, 9-methylcarbazole, and 9-ethylcarbazole, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1990, 22, 721-726. [all data]

Sabbah and Antipine, 1987
Sabbah, R.; Antipine, I., Thermodynamic study on four polycycles. Relationship between their energy values and their structure, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1987, 392-400. [all data]

Tavernier and Lamouroux, 1957
Tavernier, P.; Lamouroux, M., Determinations calorimetriques relatives a vingt et une substances organiques, Mem. Poudres, 1957, 39, 335-356. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Zimmerman and Geisenfelder, 1961
Zimmerman, H.; Geisenfelder, H., Uber die Mesomerieenergie von Azolen, Z. Electrochem., 1961, 65, 368-371. [all data]

Radomska and Radomski, 1980
Radomska, M.; Radomski, R., Calorimetric studies of binary systems of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene with naphthalene, anthracene, and carbazole. I. Phase transitions and heat capacities of the pure components and charge-transfer complexes, Thermochim. Acta, 1980, 40, 405-414. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Senseman and Nelson, 1923
Senseman, C.E.; Nelson, O.A., Vapor Pressures of Carbazol, Observed and Calculated., Ind. Eng. Chem., 1923, 15, 4, 382-383, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50160a026 . [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

Sivaraman, Martin, et al., 1983
Sivaraman, A.; Martin, R.J.; Kobayashi, Riki, A versatile apparatus to study the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of carbazole, 9-fluorenone and 9-hydroxyfluorene at elevated temperatures, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1983, 12, 1-2, 175-188, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(83)85019-5 . [all data]

Mortimer and Murphy, 1923
Mortimer, F. Spencer.; Murphy, Ray v., The Vapor Pressures of Some Substances Found in Coal Tar., Ind. Eng. Chem., 1923, 15, 11, 1140-1142, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50167a012 . [all data]

Sabbah and El Watik, 1992
Sabbah, R.; El Watik, L., New reference materials for the calibration (temperature and energy) of differential thermal analysers and scanning calorimeters, J. Therm. Anal., 1992, 38(4), 855-863. [all data]

Lisicki and Jamróz, 2000
Lisicki, Zygmunt; Jamróz, Malgorzata E., (Solid + liquid) equilibria in (polynuclear aromatic+ tertiary amide) systems, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 2000, 32, 10, 1335-1353, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.2000.0685 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Taft and Bordwell, 1988
Taft, R.W.; Bordwell, F.G., Structural and Solvent Effects Evaluated from Acidities Measured in Dimethyl Sulfoxide and in the Gas Phase, Acc. Chem. Res., 1988, 21, 12, 463, https://doi.org/10.1021/ar00156a005 . [all data]

Muftakhov, Vasil'ev, et al., 1999
Muftakhov, M.V.; Vasil'ev, Y.V.; Khatymov, R.V.; Mazunov, V.A.; Takhistov, V.V.; Travkin, O.V.; Yakovleva, E.V., Thermochemistry of negatively charged ions. II. Energetics of formation of negative ions from acridanone and some of its derivatives, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 1999, 13, 10, 912-923, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0231(19990530)13:10<912::AID-RCM585>3.0.CO;2-W . [all data]

Potapov, Kardash, et al., 1972
Potapov, V.K.; Kardash, I.E.; Sorokin, V.V.; Sokolov, S.A.; Evlasheva, T.I., Photoionization of heteroaromatic compounds, Khim. Vys. Energ., 1972, 6, 392. [all data]

Rapp, Staab, et al., 1970
Rapp, U.; Staab, H.A.; Wunsche, C., Skelettumlagerungen unter Elektronenbeschuss-IV: zur Struktur der C13H9- und C12H9N-Ionen bei Benzylidenaminobenztriazolen, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1970, 3, 45. [all data]

Riepe and Zander, 1969
Riepe, W.; Zander, M., Massenspektroskopische Untersuchungen an Carbazolen, Z. Naturforsch., 1969, 24a, 2017. [all data]

Ruscic, Kovac, et al., 1978
Ruscic, B.; Kovac, B.; Klasinc, L.; Gusten, H., Photoelectron spectroscopy of J. Heterocycl. Chem.. Fluorene analogues, Z. Naturforsch. A:, 1978, 33, 1006. [all data]

Haink, Adams, et al., 1974
Haink, H.J.; Adams, J.E.; Huber, J.R., The electronic structure of aromatic amines: photoelectron spectroscopy of diphenylamine, iminobibenzyl, acridan and carbazole, Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem., 1974, 78, 436. [all data]

Walba and Branch, 1951
Walba, H.; Branch, G.E.K., The absorption spectra of some N-substituted p-aminotriphenylmethyl ions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1951, 73, 3341-3348. [all data]

Zhang, Chen, et al., 1997
Zhang, M.; Chen, B.; Shen, S.; Chen, S., Compositional studies of high-temperature coal tar by g.c.-FT-i.r. analysis of middle oil fractions, Fuel, 1997, 76, 5, 415-423, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(97)85518-4 . [all data]

Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981
Gerasimenko, V.A.; Kirilenko, A.V.; Nabivach, V.M., Capillary gas chromatography of aromatic compounds found in coal tar fractions, J. Chromatogr., 1981, 208, 1, 9-16, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)87953-4 . [all data]

Ramsey, Lee, et al., 1980
Ramsey, J.D.; Lee, T.D.; Osselton, M.D.; Moffat, A.C., Gas-liquid chromatographic retention indices of 296 non-drug substances on SE-30 or OV-1 likely to be encountered in toxicological analyses, J. Chromatogr., 1980, 184, 2, 185-206, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)85641-1 . [all data]

Zhang, Shen, et al., 2000
Zhang, M.-J.; Shen, S.-D.; Chen, S.-Y.; Sun, Y.-H., Analysis of heavy oil fractions in high-temperature coal tar by capillary gas chromatography/fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 2000, 18, 3, 241-246. [all data]

Peng, Ding, et al., 1988
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Notes

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