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Fluorene

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Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
MM - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner)
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C13H10+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)7.91 ± 0.02eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)831.5kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity803.8kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
<0.278 ± 0.026ECDWojnarovits and Foldiak, 1981EA is an upper limit: Chen and Wentworth, 1989. G3MP2B3 calculations indicate an EA of ca. -0.1 eV, anion unbound.; B

Proton affinity at 298K

Proton affinity (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
828.0Aue, Guidoni, et al., 2000Experimental literature data re-evaluated by the authors using ab initio protonation entropies; MM

Gas basicity at 298K

Gas basicity (review) (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
800.8Aue, Guidoni, et al., 2000Experimental literature data re-evaluated by the authors using ab initio protonation entropies; MM

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
7.88 ± 0.05EQMautner(Meot-Ner), 1980LLK
8.52EITerlouw, Heerma, et al., 1974LLK
7.89 ± 0.03PIPotapov, Kardash, et al., 1972LLK
7.93 ± 0.01PEDewar, Haselbach, et al., 1970RDSH
8.42CTSMukherjee, 1969RDSH
7.78CTSSlifkin and Allison, 1967RDSH
7.91PERuscic, Kovac, et al., 1978Vertical value; LLK
7.93 ± 0.02PEMaier and Turner, 1972Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C13H9+12.5 ± 0.1HEIRapp, Staab, et al., 1970RDSH

De-protonation reactions

C13H9- + Hydrogen cation = Fluorene

By formula: C13H9- + H+ = C13H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1466. ± 8.4kJ/molD-EARömer, Janaway, et al., 1997gas phase; B
Deltar1472. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSTaft and Bordwell, 1988gas phase; B
Deltar1478. ± 11.kJ/molG+TSCumming and Kebarle, 1978gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1434. ± 8.8kJ/molH-TSRömer, Janaway, et al., 1997gas phase; B
Deltar1439. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRETaft and Bordwell, 1988gas phase; B
Deltar1446. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRECumming and Kebarle, 1978gas phase; B

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Wojnarovits and Foldiak, 1981
Wojnarovits, L.; Foldiak, G., Electron capture detection of aromatic hydrocarbons, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1981, 206, 511. [all data]

Chen and Wentworth, 1989
Chen, E.C.M.; Wentworth, W.E., Experimental Determination of Electron Affinities of Organic Molecules, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1989, 171, 271. [all data]

Aue, Guidoni, et al., 2000
Aue, D.H.; Guidoni, M.; Betowski, L.D., Ab initio calculated gas-phase basicities of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 2000, 201, 283. [all data]

Mautner(Meot-Ner), 1980
Mautner(Meot-Ner), M., Ion thermochemistry of low volatility compounds in the gas phase. 3. Polycyclic aromatics: Ionization energies, proton, and hydrogen affinities. Extrapolations to graphite, J. Phys. Chem., 1980, 84, 2716. [all data]

Terlouw, Heerma, et al., 1974
Terlouw, J.K.; Heerma, W.; Frintrop, P.C.M.; Dijkstra, G.; Meinema, H.A., Electron-impact induced fragmentation of some heterocyclic-tin compounds, J. Organomet. Chem., 1974, 64, 205. [all data]

Potapov, Kardash, et al., 1972
Potapov, V.K.; Kardash, I.E.; Sorokin, V.V.; Sokolov, S.A.; Evlasheva, T.I., Photoionization of heteroaromatic compounds, Khim. Vys. Energ., 1972, 6, 392. [all data]

Dewar, Haselbach, et al., 1970
Dewar, M.J.S.; Haselbach, E.; Worley, S.D., Calculated and observed ionization potentials of unsaturated polycyclic hydrocarbons; calculated heats of formation by several semiempirical s.c.f. m.o. methods, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 1970, A315, 431. [all data]

Mukherjee, 1969
Mukherjee, T.K., Charge-transfer donor abilities of o,o'bridged biphenyls, J. Phys. Chem., 1969, 73, 3442. [all data]

Slifkin and Allison, 1967
Slifkin, M.A.; Allison, A.C., Measurement of ionization potentials from contact charge transfer spectra, Nature, 1967, 215, 949. [all data]

Ruscic, Kovac, et al., 1978
Ruscic, B.; Kovac, B.; Klasinc, L.; Gusten, H., Photoelectron spectroscopy of J. Heterocycl. Chem.. Fluorene analogues, Z. Naturforsch. A:, 1978, 33, 1006. [all data]

Maier and Turner, 1972
Maier, J.P.; Turner, D.W., Steric inhibition of resonance studied by molecular photoelectron spectroscopy. Part I. Biphenyls, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc., 1972, 54, 149. [all data]

Rapp, Staab, et al., 1970
Rapp, U.; Staab, H.A.; Wunsche, C., Skelettumlagerungen unter Elektronenbeschuss-IV: zur Struktur der C13H9- und C12H9N-Ionen bei Benzylidenaminobenztriazolen, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1970, 3, 45. [all data]

Römer, Janaway, et al., 1997
Römer, B.; Janaway, G.; Brauman, J.I., Cyclopentadienyl, Indenyl, and Fluorenyl Anions: Gas-Phase and Solvation Energy Contributions to Electron Detachment Energies, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1997, 119, 9, 2249, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja961947x . [all data]

Taft and Bordwell, 1988
Taft, R.W.; Bordwell, F.G., Structural and Solvent Effects Evaluated from Acidities Measured in Dimethyl Sulfoxide and in the Gas Phase, Acc. Chem. Res., 1988, 21, 12, 463, https://doi.org/10.1021/ar00156a005 . [all data]

Cumming and Kebarle, 1978
Cumming, J.B.; Kebarle, P., Summary of gas phase measurements involving acids AH. Entropy changes in proton transfer reactions involving negative ions. Bond dissociation energies D(A-H) and electron affinities EA(A), Can. J. Chem., 1978, 56, 1. [all data]


Notes

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