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Fluorene

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Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil571.2KN/AAldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990BS
Tboil567.2KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil569.55KN/ALecat, 1943Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus388. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 13 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple355.51KN/ASabbah, 1991Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.03 K; TRC
Ttriple387.94KN/AFinke, Messerly, et al., 1977Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; C2 - C1 is a second order transition; TRC
Ttriple387.94KN/AOsborn and Douslin, 1975Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap72.4 ± 1.7kJ/molCGCHanshaw, Nutt, et al., 2008AC
Deltavap74.4 ± 1.2kJ/molGCHaftka, Parsons, et al., 2006Based on data from 373. - 423. K.; AC
Deltavap72.3kJ/molCGCChickos, Hesse, et al., 1998AC
Deltavap72.2kJ/molCGCChickos, Hosseini, et al., 1995Based on data from 403. - 453. K.; AC
Deltavap65.7kJ/molBRakus, Verevkin, et al., 1994Based on data from 323. - 363. K.; AC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub84. ± 5.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 9 values; Individual data points

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
66.9398.GCLei, Chankalal, et al., 2002Based on data from 323. - 473. K.; AC
63.3398.N/ASasse, Jose, et al., 1988Based on data from 383. - 427. K.; AC
54.2417.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 402. - 568. K.; AC
56.6498.IMortimer and Murphy, 1923Based on data from 423. - 573. K.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
434. - 573.65.251033011.0763.857Mortimer and Murphy, 1923Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
84.9383.GSNass, Lenoir, et al., 1995Based on data from 313. - 453. K.; AC
84.9 ± 0.4343.GSRakus, Verevkin, et al., 1994Based on data from 323. - 363. K.; AC
87.0 ± 1.0318.PGSasse, Jose, et al., 1988Based on data from 318. - 333. K.; AC
78.9363.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 348. - 388. K.; AC
92.2320.THansen and Eckert, 1986Based on data from 298. - 343. K.; AC
83.2328.GSSATO, INOMATA, et al., 1986Based on data from 308. - 347. K.; AC
88.4 ± 0.6303.GSSonnefeld, Zoller, et al., 1983Based on data from 283. - 323. K.; AC
83.1 ± 1.3350. - 388.N/AFinke, Messerly, et al., 1977, 2See also Osborn and Douslin, 1975, 2.; AC
81.8388.BOsborn and Douslin, 1975, 2AC
80.3 ± 0.8293.TEBudurov, 1960Based on data from 286. - 300. K.; AC
82.8306. - 322.N/ABradley and Cleasby, 1953See also Jones, 1960.; AC
82.8315.N/ABradley and Cleasby, 1953, 2Based on data from 306. - 323. K. See also Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987.; AC
82.843306.30VBradley and Cleasby, 1953, 3ALS

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
19.1387.7DSCLisicki and Jamróz, 2000AC
19.58387.9N/ADomalski and Hearing, 1996AC
19.870387.0N/AEibert, 1944DH

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
51.3387.0Eibert, 1944DH

Temperature of phase transition

Ttrs (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
288.crystaline, IIcrystaline, IFinke, Messerly, et al., 1977, 2Second order transition.; DH

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
19.5782387.94crystaline, IliquidFinke, Messerly, et al., 1977, 2DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
50.47387.94crystaline, IliquidFinke, Messerly, et al., 1977, 2DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


References

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990
Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., Catalog Handbook of Fine Chemicals, Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., Milwaukee WI, 1990, 1. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Lecat, 1943
Lecat, M., Azeotropes of Ethyl Urethane and other Azeotropes, C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci., 1943, 217, 273. [all data]

Sabbah, 1991
Sabbah, R., Thermodynamic study of fluorene and dibenzofuran, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1991, 128, 350. [all data]

Finke, Messerly, et al., 1977
Finke, H.L.; Messerly, J.F.; Lee, S.H.; Osborn, A.G.; Douslin, D.R., Comprehensive thermodynamic studies of seven aromatic hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1977, 9, 937. [all data]

Osborn and Douslin, 1975
Osborn, A.G.; Douslin, D.R., Vapor Pressure and Derived Enthalpies of Vaporization for Some Condensed Ring Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1975, 20, 229-31. [all data]

Hanshaw, Nutt, et al., 2008
Hanshaw, William; Nutt, Marjorie; Chickos, James S., Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2008, 53, 8, 1903-1913, https://doi.org/10.1021/je800300x . [all data]

Haftka, Parsons, et al., 2006
Haftka, Joris J.H.; Parsons, John R.; Govers, Harrie A.J., Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography, Journal of Chromatography A, 2006, 1135, 1, 91-100, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2006.09.050 . [all data]

Chickos, Hesse, et al., 1998
Chickos, James; Hesse, Donald; Hosseini, Sarah; Nichols, Gary; Webb, Paul, Sublimation enthalpies at 298.15K using correlation gas chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry measurements, Thermochimica Acta, 1998, 313, 2, 101-110, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6031(97)00432-2 . [all data]

Chickos, Hosseini, et al., 1995
Chickos, James S.; Hosseini, Sarah; Hesse, Donald G., Determination of vaporization enthalpies of simple organic molecules by correlations of changes in gas chromatographic net retention times, Thermochimica Acta, 1995, 249, 41-62, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(95)90670-3 . [all data]

Rakus, Verevkin, et al., 1994
Rakus, K.; Verevkin, S.P.; Schatzer, J.; Beckhaus, H.-D.; Ruchardt, C., Thermochemistry and thermal decomposition of 9,9'-bifluorenyl and 9,9'-dimethyl-9,9'-bifluorenyl - the stabilization energy of 9-fluorenyl radicals, Chem. Ber., 1994, 127, 1095-1103. [all data]

Lei, Chankalal, et al., 2002
Lei, Ying Duan; Chankalal, Raymond; Chan, Anita; Wania, Frank, Supercooled Liquid Vapor Pressures of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2002, 47, 4, 801-806, https://doi.org/10.1021/je0155148 . [all data]

Sasse, Jose, et al., 1988
Sasse, Karim; Jose, Jacques; Merlin, Jean-Claude, A static apparatus for measurement of low vapor pressures. Experimental results on high molecular-weight hydrocarbons, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1988, 42, 287-304, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(88)80065-7 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Mortimer and Murphy, 1923
Mortimer, F. Spencer.; Murphy, Ray v., The Vapor Pressures of Some Substances Found in Coal Tar., Ind. Eng. Chem., 1923, 15, 11, 1140-1142, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50167a012 . [all data]

Nass, Lenoir, et al., 1995
Nass, Karen; Lenoir, Dieter; Kettrup, Antonius, Calculation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by an Incremental Procedure, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1995, 34, 16, 1735-1736, https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.199517351 . [all data]

Hansen and Eckert, 1986
Hansen, Philip C.; Eckert, Charles A., An improved transpiration method for the measurement of very low vapor pressures, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1986, 31, 1, 1-3, https://doi.org/10.1021/je00043a001 . [all data]

SATO, INOMATA, et al., 1986
SATO, NOBUYUKI; INOMATA, HIROSHI; ARAI, KUNIO; SAITO, SHOZABURO, Measurement of vapor pressures for coal-related aromatic compounds by gas saturation method., J. Chem. Eng. Japan / JCEJ, 1986, 19, 2, 145-147, https://doi.org/10.1252/jcej.19.145 . [all data]

Sonnefeld, Zoller, et al., 1983
Sonnefeld, W.J.; Zoller, W.H.; May, W.E., Dynamic coupled-column liquid-chromatographic determination of ambient-temperature vapor pressures of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 1983, 55, 2, 275-280, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00253a022 . [all data]

Finke, Messerly, et al., 1977, 2
Finke, H.L.; Messerly, J.F.; Lee, S.H.; Osborn, A.G.; Douslin, D.R., Comprehensive thermodynamic studies of seven aromatic hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1977, 9, 937-956. [all data]

Osborn and Douslin, 1975, 2
Osborn, Ann G.; Douslin, Donald R., Vapor pressures and derived enthalpies of vaporization for some condensed-ring hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1975, 20, 3, 229-231, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60066a022 . [all data]

Budurov, 1960
Budurov, S., Izv. Khim. Inst. Bulg. Akad. Nauk, 1960, 7, 281. [all data]

Bradley and Cleasby, 1953
Bradley, R.S.; Cleasby, T.G., 346. The vapour pressure and lattice energy of hydrogen-bonded crystals. Part I. Oxamide, oxamic acid, and rubeanic acid, J. Chem. Soc., 1953, 1681, https://doi.org/10.1039/jr9530001681 . [all data]

Jones, 1960
Jones, A.H., Sublimation Pressure Data for Organic Compounds., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1960, 5, 2, 196-200, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60006a019 . [all data]

Bradley and Cleasby, 1953, 2
Bradley, R.S.; Cleasby, T.G., 349. The vapour pressure and lattice energy of some aromatic ring compounds, J. Chem. Soc., 1953, 1690, https://doi.org/10.1039/jr9530001690 . [all data]

Bradley and Cleasby, 1953, 3
Bradley, R.S.; Cleasby, T.G., The vapour pressure and lattice energy of some aromatic ring compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1953, 1690-16. [all data]

Lisicki and Jamróz, 2000
Lisicki, Zygmunt; Jamróz, Malgorzata E., (Solid + liquid) equilibria in (polynuclear aromatic+ tertiary amide) systems, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 2000, 32, 10, 1335-1353, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.2000.0685 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Eibert, 1944
Eibert, J., Thesis Washington University (St. Louis), 1944. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Phase change data, References