Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Trichloroethylene

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-18. ± 2.kJ/molReviewManion, 2002derived from recommended «DELTA»fHliquid° and «DELTA»vapH°; DRB
Deltafgas-19.1 ± 3.0kJ/molCcrPapina and Kolesov, 1985ALS
Deltafgas-5.9kJ/molCmKirkbride, 1956ALS

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-52. ± 3.kJ/molReviewManion, 2002weighted average of several measurements; DRB
Deltafliquid-53.1 ± 3.0kJ/molCcrPapina and Kolesov, 1985ALS
Deltafliquid-41.kJ/molCmKirkbride, 1956ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-947.7 ± 2.9kJ/molCcrPapina and Kolesov, 1985ALS
Deltacliquid-956.5 ± 8.4kJ/molCcbSmith, Bjellerup, et al., 1953Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -962. ± 8. kJ/mol; ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
120.1298.Kurbatov, 1948T = 12 to 80°C, mean Cp, three temperatures.; DH
124.7298.Trew and Watkins, 1933DH

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil360.2 ± 0.3KAVGN/AAverage of 13 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus188.5KN/AGolovanova and Kolesov, 1984Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Tfus188.35KN/ATimmermans and Hennaut-Roland, 1955Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc571.KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap34.62kJ/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap34.57 ± 0.09kJ/molReviewManion, 2002employed 1980MMS calorimetry data plus a correction for non-ideality; DRB
Deltavap33.97 ± 0.13kJ/molEPapina and Kolesov, 1985ALS
Deltavap34.5 ± 0.1kJ/molCMajer, Sváb, et al., 1980AC
Deltavap34.7 ± 0.42kJ/molVMathews, 1926Reanalyzed by Pedley, Naylor, et al., 1986, Original value = 31.5 ± 0.1 kJ/mol; ALS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
31.4360.4N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
34.2313.N/AAucejo, Gonzalez-Alfaro, et al., 1995Based on data from 297. - 360. K.; AC
34.6295.N/AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 280. - 428. K. See also Dykyj, 1970.; AC
32.13360.19VMcDonald, 1944ALS
36.2305.N/AMcDonald, 1944Based on data from 290. - 359. K.; AC
35.6313.N/AHerz and Rathmann, 1912Based on data from 298. - 360. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

View plot Requires a JavaScript / HTML 5 canvas capable browser.

Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
290.9 - 359.623.55346974.538-85.811McDonald, 1944Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
8.450188.5Golovanova and Kolesov, 1984, 2DH
8.45188.5Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
44.8188.5Golovanova and Kolesov, 1984, 2DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

Ethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloro- = Hydrogen chloride + Trichloroethylene

By formula: C2H2Cl4 = HCl + C2HCl3

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.9kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase
Deltar45.40kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1976liquid phase; At 333 K

Ethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro- = Hydrogen chloride + Trichloroethylene

By formula: C2H2Cl4 = HCl + C2HCl3

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar55.2kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979liquid phase
Deltar44.8kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase

H2CaO2 + 2Ethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro- = CaCl2 + 2Water + 2Trichloroethylene

By formula: H2CaO2 + 2C2H2Cl4 = CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2C2HCl3

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-150.kJ/molCmKirkbride, 1956liquid phase

Chlorine + Trichloroethylene = Ethane, pentachloro-

By formula: Cl2 + C2HCl3 = C2HCl5

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-151.kJ/molCmKirkbride, 1956liquid phase

Henry's Law data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference Comment
0.104600.LN/A 
0.123600.MN/A 
0.13 MN/A 
0.11 MN/A 
0.0973500.MN/A 
0.114400.XN/A 
0.123900.XN/A 
0.114200.MN/A 
0.104100.XN/A 
0.085 QN/A missing citation give several references for the Henry's law constants but don't assign them to specific species.
0.105200.XN/A 
0.135200.MN/A 
0.0982100.XN/A 
0.0963700.XN/A 
0.114800.MGossett, 1987 
0.0964700.XN/A 
0.114300.XN/A 
0.0984900.XN/A 
0.0994900.MN/A 
0.0881600.XN/A 
0.104700.XLeighton and Calo, 1981 
0.082 LN/A 
0.0744800.XN/A 
0.0814000.XN/A 
0.083 VN/A 
0.10 VN/AValue at T = 293. K.
0.24 VN/AValue at T = 275. K.
0.085 VN/A 
0.11 MPearson and McConnell, 1975The same data was also published in missing citation. Value at T = 293. K.

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.46 ± 0.02eVN/AN/AL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
0.40 ± 0.22TDAsChen, Wiley, et al., 1994B
0.29999ECDWiley, Chen, et al., 1991B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.68PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981LLK
9.48PELake and Thompson, 1970RDSH
9.45 ± 0.01PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
9.45PIBralsford, Harris, et al., 1960RDSH
9.47 ± 0.01PIWatanabe, 1957RDSH
9.6PEVon Niessen, Asbrink, et al., 1982Vertical value; LBLHLM

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: Tanya L. Myers, Russell G. Tonkyn, Ashley M. Oeck, Tyler O. Danby, John S. Loring, Matthew S. Taubman, Stephen W. Sharpe, Jerome C. Birnbaum, and Timothy J. Johnson

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Data compiled by: Pamela M. Chu, Franklin R. Guenther, George C. Rhoderick, and Walter J. Lafferty


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

Mass spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
NIST MS number 341475

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

UVVis spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Source Perkampus and Braunsweig, 1966
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 19916
Instrument Zeiss PMQ II
Boiling point 87

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Manion, 2002
Manion, J.A., Evaluated Enthalpies of Formation of the Stable Closed Shell C1 and C2 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2002, 31, 1, 123-172, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1420703 . [all data]

Papina and Kolesov, 1985
Papina, T.S.; Kolesov, V.P., Standard enthalpy of formation of trichloroethylene, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 1985, 59, 1289-1291. [all data]

Kirkbride, 1956
Kirkbride, F.W., The heats of chlorination of some hydrocarbons and their chloro-derivatives, J. Appl. Chem., 1956, 6, 11-21. [all data]

Smith, Bjellerup, et al., 1953
Smith, L.; Bjellerup, L.; Krook, S.; Westermark, H., Heats of combustion of organic chloro compounds determined by the "quartz wool" method, Acta Chem. Scand., 1953, 7, 65. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Kurbatov, 1948
Kurbatov, V.Ya., Heat capacity of liquids. 2. Heat capacity and the temperature dependence of heat capacity from halogen derivatives of acylic hydrocarbons, Zh. Obshch. Kim., 1948, 18, 372-389. [all data]

Trew and Watkins, 1933
Trew, V.C.G.; Watkins, G.M.C., Some physical properties of mixtures of certain organic liquids, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1933, 29, 1310-1318. [all data]

Golovanova and Kolesov, 1984
Golovanova, Y.G.; Kolesov, V.P., Enthalpies of melting, melting temperatures, and cryoscopic constants of some haloorganic compounds, Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 2: Khim., 1984, 25, 244. [all data]

Timmermans and Hennaut-Roland, 1955
Timmermans, J.; Hennaut-Roland, M., Work of the International Bureau of Physical-Chemical Standards. IX. The Physical Constants of Twenty Organic Compounds, J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol., 1955, 52, 223. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Majer, Sváb, et al., 1980
Majer, V.; Sváb, L.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of vaporization and cohesive energies for a group of chlorinated hydrocarbons, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1980, 12, 9, 843-847, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(80)90028-2 . [all data]

Mathews, 1926
Mathews, J.H., The accurate measurement of heats of vaporization of liquids, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1926, 48, 562-576. [all data]

Pedley, Naylor, et al., 1986
Pedley, J.B.; Naylor, R.D.; Kirby, S.P., Thermochemical Data of Organic Compounds, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1986, 1-792. [all data]

Aucejo, Gonzalez-Alfaro, et al., 1995
Aucejo, Antonio; Gonzalez-Alfaro, Vicenta; Monton, Juan B.; Vazquez, M. Isabel, Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Trichloroethylene with 1-Propanol and 2-Propanol at 20 and 100 kPa, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1995, 40, 1, 332-335, https://doi.org/10.1021/je00017a073 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Dykyj, 1970
Dykyj, J., Petrochemica, 1970, 10, 2, 51. [all data]

McDonald, 1944
McDonald, H.J., The vapor pressure and heat of vaporization of trichloroethylene, J. Phys. Chem., 1944, 48, 47-50. [all data]

Herz and Rathmann, 1912
Herz, W.; Rathmann, W., Chem. Ztg., 1912, 36, 1417. [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

Golovanova and Kolesov, 1984, 2
Golovanova, Yu.G.; Kolesov, V.P., Enthalpies of melting, melting temperatures, and cryoscopic constants of some haloorganic compounds, Vestn. Mosk Univ., Ser. 2: Khim., 1984, 25(3), 244-248. [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Levanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979
Levanova, s.V.; Bushneva, I.I.; Rodova, R.M.; Rozhnov, A.M.; Treger, Yu.A.; Aprelkin, A.S., Thermodynamic stability of chloroethanes in dehydrochlorination reactions, J. Appl. Chem. USSR, 1979, 52, 1439-1442. [all data]

Levanova, Bushneva, et al., 1976
Levanova, S.V.; Bushneva, L.I.; Rodova, R.M.; Rozhnov, A.M.; Treger, Yu.A., Liquid-phase dehydrochlorination of asymmetric tetrachloroethane, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1976, 50, 2701-2702. [all data]

Gossett, 1987
Gossett, J.M., Measurement of Henry's Law Constants for C1 and C2 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Environ. Sci. Technol., 1987, 21, 202-208. [all data]

Leighton and Calo, 1981
Leighton, D.T.; Calo, J.M., Distribution Coefficients of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Dilute Air-Water Systems for Groundwater Contamination Applications, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1981, 26, 382-385. [all data]

Pearson and McConnell, 1975
Pearson, C.R.; McConnell, G., Chlorinated C1 and C2 Hydrocarbons in the Marine Environment, Proc. R. Soc. London, B, 1975, 189, 305-332. [all data]

Chen, Wiley, et al., 1994
Chen, E.C.M.; Wiley, J.R.; Batten, C.F.; Wentworth, W.E., Determination of the Electron Affinities of Molecules Using Negative Ion Mass Spectrometry, J. Phys. Chem., 1994, 98, 1, 88, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100052a016 . [all data]

Wiley, Chen, et al., 1991
Wiley, J.R.; Chen, E.C.M.; Chen, E.S.D.; Richardson, P.; Reed, W.R.; Wentworth, W.E., The Determination of Absolute Electron Affinities of Chlorobenzenes, Chloronaphthalenes and Chlorinated Biphenyls from Reduction Potentials, J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfac., 1991, 307, 1-2, 169, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0728(91)85546-2 . [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Achiba, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Iwata, S., Ionization energies, Ab initio assignments, and valence electronic structure for 200 molecules in Handbook of HeI Photoelectron Spectra of Fundamental Organic Compounds, Japan Scientific Soc. Press, Tokyo, 1981. [all data]

Lake and Thompson, 1970
Lake, R.F.; Thompson, H., Photoelectron spectra of halogenated ethylenes, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 1970, A315, 323. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Bralsford, Harris, et al., 1960
Bralsford, R.; Harris, P.V.; Price, W.C., The effect of fluorine on the electronic spectra and ionization potentials of molecules, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 1960, A258, 459. [all data]

Watanabe, 1957
Watanabe, K., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Chem. Phys., 1957, 26, 542. [all data]

Von Niessen, Asbrink, et al., 1982
Von Niessen, W.; Asbrink, L.; Bieri, G., 30.4 nm He(II) Photoelectron spectra of organic molecules. Part VI. Halogeno-compounds (C,H,X: X = Cl, Br, I), J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1982, 26, 173. [all data]

Perkampus and Braunsweig, 1966
Perkampus, H.-H.; Braunsweig, T.H., UV atlas of organic compounds, 1966, 1, A1/6. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References