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Hydrogen chloride

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Constants of diatomic molecules, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-92.31 ± 0.10kJ/molReviewCox, Wagman, et al., 1984CODATA Review value
Deltafgas-92.31kJ/molReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in September, 1964
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas,1 bar186.902 ± 0.005J/mol*KReviewCox, Wagman, et al., 1984CODATA Review value
gas,1 bar186.90J/mol*KReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in September, 1964

Gas Phase Heat Capacity (Shomate Equation)

Cp° = A + B*t + C*t2 + D*t3 + E/t2
H° − H°298.15= A*t + B*t2/2 + C*t3/3 + D*t4/4 − E/t + F − H
S° = A*ln(t) + B*t + C*t2/2 + D*t3/3 − E/(2*t2) + G
    Cp = heat capacity (J/mol*K)
    H° = standard enthalpy (kJ/mol)
    S° = standard entropy (J/mol*K)
    t = temperature (K) / 1000.

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View table.

Temperature (K) 298. - 1200.1200. - 6000.
A 32.1239231.91923
B -13.458053.203184
C 19.86852-0.541539
D -6.8539360.035925
E -0.049672-3.438525
F -101.6206-108.0150
G 228.6866218.2768
H -92.31201-92.31201
ReferenceChase, 1998Chase, 1998
Comment Data last reviewed in September, 1964 Data last reviewed in September, 1964

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Constants of diatomic molecules, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus161.15KN/ABeckmann and Waentig, 1910Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ptriple0.13800barN/AHenderson, Lewis, et al., 1986Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.00006 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc324.68KN/AHenderson, Lewis, et al., 1986Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.03 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc82.56barN/AHenderson, Lewis, et al., 1986Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.0824 bar; VP measured up to 219 K and Pc determined from fitted Wagner equation; TRC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
16.2188.CGiauque and Wiebe, 1928AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
122.3 - 188.33.60765535.172-39.847Stull, 1947Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.
188.3 - 309.44.57389868.3581.754Stull, 1947Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
19.7127.Ser and Larher, 1990Based on data from 121. - 133. K.; AC
19.6142.Ser and Larher, 1990Based on data from 134. - 150. K.; AC

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Constants of diatomic molecules, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
MS - José A. Martinho Simões

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Reactions 1 to 50

Chlorine anion + Hydrogen chloride = (Chlorine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: Cl- + HCl = (Cl- bullet HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar124. ± 4.2kJ/molN/AMetz, Kitsopoulos, et al., 1988gas phase; Affinity: shift in apparent EA from lesser-solvated ion. Ignores any neutral-neutral bond.; B
Deltar99.6 ± 8.4kJ/molTDEqCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; B,M
Deltar96.7 ± 8.4kJ/molIMRELarson and McMahon, 1984gas phase; B,M
Deltar99.16 ± 0.84kJ/molTDAsYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; B,M
Deltar85.4kJ/molHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; From thermochemical cycle(Cl-)H2O/HCl, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Keesee and Castleman, 1980; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar93.3J/mol*KPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; switching reaction(Cl-)SO2; M
Deltar98.3J/mol*KPHPMSYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; M
Deltar98.3J/mol*KN/ALarson and McMahon, 1984, 2gas phase; switching reaction(Cl-)t-C4H9OH, Entropy change calculated or estimated; French, Ikuta, et al., 1982; M
Deltar95.4J/mol*KN/AUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; From thermochemical cycle(Cl-)H2O/HCl, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Keesee and Castleman, 1980; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar68.2 ± 8.4kJ/molIMRELarson and McMahon, 1987gas phase; K = 0.60 for HCl..Cl- + DCL <=> DCl..Cl- + HCl, anchored to Larson and McMahon, 1984, 32; B
Deltar72. ± 11.kJ/molTDEqCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; B
Deltar66.9 ± 8.4kJ/molIMRELarson and McMahon, 1984gas phase; B,M
Deltar69.9 ± 1.3kJ/molTDAsYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; B
Deltar56.9kJ/molHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; From thermochemical cycle(Cl-)H2O/HCl, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Keesee and Castleman, 1980; M

Chlorine anion + Hydrogen cation = Hydrogen chloride

By formula: Cl- + H+ = HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1394.9kJ/molN/AMartin and Hepburn, 1998gas phase; Given: «DELTA»Hacid(0K)=116288.7±0.6 cm-1, or 332.486±0.002 kcal/mol; B
Deltar1396. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSFujio, McIver, et al., 1981gas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Deltar1377.0kJ/molN/ACheck, Faust, et al., 2001gas phase; FeCC-(q); ; «DELTA»S(EA)=5.0; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1372.8 ± 0.42kJ/molH-TSMartin and Hepburn, 1998gas phase; Given: «DELTA»Hacid(0K)=116288.7±0.6 cm-1, or 332.486±0.002 kcal/mol; B
Deltar1374. ± 8.4kJ/molIMREFujio, McIver, et al., 1981gas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Deltar1354.4kJ/molN/ACheck, Faust, et al., 2001gas phase; FeCC-(q); ; «DELTA»S(EA)=5.0; B

(Chlorine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride) + Hydrogen chloride = (Chlorine anion bullet 2Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: (Cl- bullet HCl) + HCl = (Cl- bullet 2HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar63.60 ± 0.84kJ/molTDAsYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; B,M
Deltar58.6kJ/molPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; switching reaction(Cl- HCl)SO2; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar85.4J/mol*KPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; switching reaction(Cl- HCl)SO2; M
Deltar102.J/mol*KPHPMSYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar33.1 ± 0.84kJ/molTDAsYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; B

Iodide + Hydrogen chloride = (Iodide bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: I- + HCl = (I- bullet HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar61.9 ± 8.4kJ/molTDAsCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; B,M
Deltar59.4kJ/molHPMSKeesee, Lee, et al., 1980gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar83.7J/mol*KPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; M
Deltar95.0J/mol*KHPMSKeesee, Lee, et al., 1980gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar37. ± 11.kJ/molTDAsCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; B

HO4S- + Hydrogen chloride = (HO4S- bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: HO4S- + HCl = (HO4S- bullet HCl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar65.7 ± 4.2kJ/molTDEqBohringer, Fahey, et al., 1984gas phase; Relative to HOH..HSO4-, Bohringer, Fahey, et al., 1984; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar63.2J/mol*KN/ABohringer, Fahey, et al., 1984gas phase; switching reaction(HSO4-)H2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar46.9 ± 4.2kJ/molTDEqBohringer, Fahey, et al., 1984gas phase; Relative to HOH..HSO4-, Bohringer, Fahey, et al., 1984; B,M

(Chlorine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride bullet Water) + Hydrogen chloride = (Chlorine anion bullet 2Hydrogen chloride bullet Water)

By formula: (Cl- bullet HCl bullet H2O) + HCl = (Cl- bullet 2HCl bullet H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar51.5kJ/molHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; From thermochemical cycle,switching reaction(Cl- H2O) HCl, deuterated; Yamdagni and Kebarle, 1974; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar87.4J/mol*KHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; From thermochemical cycle,switching reaction(Cl- H2O) HCl, deuterated; Yamdagni and Kebarle, 1974; M

(Chlorine anion bullet 2Water) + Hydrogen chloride = (Chlorine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride bullet 2Water)

By formula: (Cl- bullet 2H2O) + HCl = (Cl- bullet HCl bullet 2H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar54.4kJ/molHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; From thermochemical cycle(Cl- 2H2O)H2O, deuterated; Keesee and Castleman, 1980; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar90.8J/mol*KHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; From thermochemical cycle(Cl- 2H2O)H2O, deuterated; Keesee and Castleman, 1980; M

(Bromine anion bullet Sulfur dioxide) + Hydrogen chloride = (Bromine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride bullet Sulfur dioxide)

By formula: (Br- bullet O2S) + HCl = (Br- bullet HCl bullet O2S)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar93.7kJ/molPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; From thermochemical cycle,switching reaction(Br-)SO2; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar77.8J/mol*KPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; From thermochemical cycle,switching reaction(Br-)SO2; M

Bromine anion + Hydrogen chloride = (Bromine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: Br- + HCl = (Br- bullet HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar82.0 ± 8.4kJ/molTDEqCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.0J/mol*KPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; switching reaction(Br-)SO2; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar54. ± 11.kJ/molTDEqCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; B

(Chlorine anion bullet 2Hydrogen chloride) + Hydrogen chloride = (Chlorine anion bullet 3Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: (Cl- bullet 2HCl) + HCl = (Cl- bullet 3HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar49.0 ± 1.3kJ/molTDAsYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar97.9J/mol*KPHPMSYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar19.7 ± 1.3kJ/molTDAsYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; B

(Chlorine anion bullet 3Hydrogen chloride) + Hydrogen chloride = (Chlorine anion bullet 4Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: (Cl- bullet 3HCl) + HCl = (Cl- bullet 4HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.1 ± 2.9kJ/molTDAsYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar112.J/mol*KPHPMSYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar9.6 ± 4.2kJ/molTDAsYamdagni and Kebarle, 1974gas phase; B

(Chlorine anion bullet 2Hydrogen chloride) + Water = (Chlorine anion bullet Water bullet 2Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: (Cl- bullet 2HCl) + H2O = (Cl- bullet H2O bullet 2HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar32.kJ/molHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; deuterated, quoted in Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar63.6J/mol*KHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; deuterated, quoted in Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M

(Chlorine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride) + Water = (Chlorine anion bullet Water bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: (Cl- bullet HCl) + H2O = (Cl- bullet H2O bullet HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.9kJ/molHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; deuterated, quoted in Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar78.2J/mol*KHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; deuterated, quoted in Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M

Acetyl chloride + Water = Acetic acid + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C2H3ClO + H2O = C2H4O2 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-94.47kJ/molCmDevore and O'Neal, 1969liquid phase; Heat of hydrolysis; ALS
Deltar-92.30kJ/molCmPritchard and Skinner, 1950liquid phase; Heat of hydrolysis at 298 K, see Carson and Skinner, 1949; ALS
Deltar-92.42kJ/molCmCarson and Skinner, 1949liquid phase; ALS

(Chlorine anion bullet Water bullet Hydrogen chloride) + Water = (Chlorine anion bullet 2Water bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: (Cl- bullet H2O bullet HCl) + H2O = (Cl- bullet 2H2O bullet HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar40.kJ/molHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; deuterated, quoted in 86 KEE/CAS; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar85.4J/mol*KHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; deuterated, quoted in 86 KEE/CAS; M

(Chlorine anion bullet Sulfur dioxide) + Hydrogen chloride = (Chlorine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride bullet Sulfur dioxide)

By formula: (Cl- bullet O2S) + HCl = (Cl- bullet HCl bullet O2S)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar58.2kJ/molPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; From thermochemical cycle; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar80.3J/mol*KPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; From thermochemical cycle; M

Ethane, 1,2-dichloro- = Ethene, chloro- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C2H4Cl2 = C2H3Cl + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50.6 ± 4.2kJ/molCmBuravtsev, Grigor'ev, et al., 1992gas phase; ALS
Deltar82.0kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979liquid phase; ALS
Deltar68.2kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase; ALS
Deltar67.95kJ/molEqkGhosh and Guha, 1951liquid phase; ALS

(Bromine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride) + Hydrogen chloride = (Bromine anion bullet 2Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: (Br- bullet HCl) + HCl = (Br- bullet 2HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar52.3kJ/molPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; switching reaction(Br-)SO2; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar77.0J/mol*KPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; switching reaction(Br-)SO2; M

Ethyl Chloride = Ethylene + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C2H5Cl = C2H4 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.0kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979liquid phase; ALS
Deltar71.5kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase; ALS
Deltar72.6 ± 2.1kJ/molEqkHowlett, 1955gas phase; ALS
Deltar71.5kJ/molEqkLane, Linnett, et al., 1953gas phase; ALS

Ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro- = Ethene, 1,1-dichloro- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C2H3Cl3 = C2H2Cl2 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar56.9kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979liquid phase; ALS
Deltar49.0kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase; ALS
Deltar56.9 ± 2.1kJ/molEqkLevanova, Treger, et al., 1975liquid phase; solvent: Nitrobenzene; Flow reactor at 50°C; ALS

Water + Benzoyl chloride = Benzoic acid + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: H2O + C7H5ClO = C7H6O2 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-34.04 ± 0.21kJ/molCmMoselhy and Pritchard, 1975liquid phase; solvent: Diphenyl-ether; see Carson, Pritchard, et al., 1950 and Davies, Dunning, et al., 1972; ALS
Deltar-101.9kJ/molCmCarson, Pritchard, et al., 1950liquid phase; Heat of hydrolysis; ALS

Propane, 2-chloro- = Propene + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C3H7Cl = C3H6 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar72.4 ± 0.8kJ/molEqkNoren and Sunner, 1970gas phase; ALS
Deltar73.72 ± 0.63kJ/molEqkKabo and Andreevskii, 1963gas phase; At 415.5 K; ALS
Deltar73.0 ± 2.1kJ/molEqkHowlett, 1955gas phase; ALS

Propane, 2-chloro-2-methyl- = 1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C4H9Cl = C4H8 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar74. ± 2.kJ/molEqkHowlett, 1955gas phase; ALS
Deltar74.06kJ/molEqkHowlett, 1951gas phase; Hf-gas-(390) -44.4 kcal/mol; ALS
Deltar72. ± 2.kJ/molEqkKistiakowsky and Stauffer, 1937gas phase; ALS

Hydrogen chloride + α-Methylstyrene = Benzene, (1-chloro-1-methylethyl)-

By formula: HCl + C9H10 = C9H11Cl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-36.8 ± 1.9kJ/molCmArnett and Pienta, 1980liquid phase; solvent: Methylene chloride; Hydrochlorination; ALS
Deltar-51.9 ± 4.6kJ/molCmNesterova, Kovzel, et al., 1977liquid phase; Hydrochlorination; ALS

(Chlorine anion bullet Water) + Hydrogen chloride = (Chlorine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride bullet Water)

By formula: (Cl- bullet H2O) + HCl = (Cl- bullet HCl bullet H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar66.9kJ/molHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar91.2J/mol*KHPMSUpschulte, Evans, et al., 1986gas phase; M

Methyl cation + Hydrogen chloride = (Methyl cation bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: CH3+ + HCl = (CH3+ bullet HCl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar216.kJ/molPHPMSMcMahon, Heinis, et al., 1988gas phase; switching reaction(CH3+)N2, Entropy change calculated or estimated, uses MCA(N2) = 202. kJ/mol; Foster, Williamson, et al., 1974; M

Propane, 2,2-dichloro- = 1-Propene, 2-chloro- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C3H6Cl2 = C3H5Cl + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar65.1kJ/molEqkLevanova, Rodova, et al., 1983liquid phase; Flow reactor; ALS
Deltar59.8 ± 0.8kJ/molEqkShevtsova, Rozhnov, et al., 1970gas phase; Heat of Dehydrochlorination at 392 K; ALS

Ethane, 1,2-dichloro- + 2Hydrogen = Ethane + 2Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C2H4Cl2 + 2H2 = C2H6 + 2HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-143.0 ± 0.96kJ/molChydLacher, Amador, et al., 1967gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -147.77 ± 0.50 kJ/mol; At 250 C; ALS

2Hydrogen + Propane, 1,2-dichloro- = Propane + 2Hydrogen chloride

By formula: 2H2 + C3H6Cl2 = C3H8 + 2HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-126.5 ± 1.1kJ/molChydLacher, Amador, et al., 1967gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -130.60 ± 0.54 kJ/mol; At 250 C; ALS

2Hydrogen + Methylene chloride = Methane + 2Hydrogen chloride

By formula: 2H2 + CH2Cl2 = CH4 + 2HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-163.4 ± 1.3kJ/molChydLacher, Amador, et al., 1967gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -167.7 ± 1.3 kJ/mol; At 250 C; ALS

2Hydrogen + Ethane, 1,1-dichloro- = Ethane + 2Hydrogen chloride

By formula: 2H2 + C2H4Cl2 = C2H6 + 2HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-140.8 ± 1.0kJ/molChydLacher, Amador, et al., 1967gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -145.0 ± 0.50 kJ/mol; At 250C; ALS

Butane, 2,2-dichloro- = 2-Butene, 2-chloro-, (Z)- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C4H8Cl2 = C4H7Cl + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-8.79 ± 0.08kJ/molEqkLevanova, Rozhnov, et al., 1972gas phase; At 568 K; ALS
Deltar55.2 ± 0.3kJ/molEqkLevanova, Rozhnov, et al., 1972gas phase; At 404.5 K; ALS

Butane, 2,2-dichloro- = 2-Butene, 2-chloro-, (E)- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C4H8Cl2 = C4H7Cl + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-14. ± 0.08kJ/molEqkLevanova, Rozhnov, et al., 1972gas phase; At 568 K; ALS
Deltar5.0 ± 0.3kJ/molEqkLevanova, Rozhnov, et al., 1972gas phase; At 404.5 K; ALS

2Hydrogen + Ethene, chlorotrifluoro- = 1,1,2-Trifluoroethane + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: 2H2 + C2ClF3 = C2H3F3 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-267.7 ± 2.1kJ/molChydLacher, Kianpour, et al., 1956gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -271.6 kJ/mol; At 410 K; ALS

(Chlorine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride) + Sulfur dioxide = (Chlorine anion bullet Sulfur dioxide bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: (Cl- bullet HCl) + O2S = (Cl- bullet O2S bullet HCl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar51.5kJ/molPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar77.4J/mol*KPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; M

(Bromine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride) + Sulfur dioxide = (Bromine anion bullet Sulfur dioxide bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: (Br- bullet HCl) + O2S = (Br- bullet O2S bullet HCl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50.6kJ/molPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar77.8J/mol*KPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1985gas phase; M

Butane, 2,3-dichloro- = 2-Butene, 2-chloro-, (Z)- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C4H8Cl2 = C4H7Cl + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar69.0kJ/molEqkLevanova, Rodova, et al., 1974gas phase; ALS
Deltar66.53 ± 0.92kJ/molEqkRodova, Levanova, et al., 1973gas phase; At 454 K; ALS

1-Chloro-2-ethoxyethane = Ethene, ethoxy- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C4H9ClO = C4H8O + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar68.2 ± 2.1kJ/molEqkFailes and Stimson, 1967gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = 69.0 kJ/mol; At 450 K; ALS

Ethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloro- = Hydrogen chloride + Trichloroethylene

By formula: C2H2Cl4 = HCl + C2HCl3

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.9kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase; ALS
Deltar45.40kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1976liquid phase; At 333 K; ALS

Ethane, pentachloro- = Tetrachloroethylene + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C2HCl5 = C2Cl4 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar45.1 ± 4.5kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979liquid phase; GC; ALS
Deltar39.kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase; ALS

2Hydrogen chloride (g) + Aluminum, chlorodiethyl- (l) = AlCl3 (cr) + 2Ethane (g)

By formula: 2HCl (g) + C4H10AlCl (l) = AlCl3 (cr) + 2C2H6 (g)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-265.0 ± 3.3kJ/molRSCShaulov and Shmyreva, 1968The reaction enthalpy was derived from data in Shaulov and Shmyreva, 1968.; MS

Butane, 2,3-dichloro-2-methyl- = 2-Butene, 2-chloro-3-methyl- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C5H10Cl2 = C5H9Cl + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar68. ± 1.kJ/molEqkMeged, Levanova, et al., 1980gas phase; ALS
Deltar68.2 ± 4.2kJ/molEqkMeged, Levanova, et al., 1980gas phase; ALS

Fluorine anion + Hydrogen chloride = (Fluorine anion bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: F- + HCl = (F- bullet HCl)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (negative ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar250. ± 8.kJ/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1985gas phase; bracketing; M

Butane, 1,1-dichloro- = 1-Butene, 1-chloro-, (Z)- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C4H8Cl2 = C4H7Cl + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar61.1kJ/molEqkLevanova, Rodova, et al., 1974gas phase; ALS
Deltar61.1 ± 0.4kJ/molEqkRodova, Shevtsova, et al., 1974gas phase; ALS

Sodium ion (1+) + Hydrogen chloride = (Sodium ion (1+) bullet Hydrogen chloride)

By formula: Na+ + HCl = (Na+ bullet HCl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar51.0kJ/molFAPerry, Rowe, et al., 1980gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar85.4J/mol*KFAPerry, Rowe, et al., 1980gas phase; M

Ethane, 1,1-dichloro- = Ethene, chloro- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C2H4Cl2 = C2H3Cl + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar74.5kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979liquid phase; ALS
Deltar61.9kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase; ALS

Ethane, 1,1,2-trichloro- = Ethene, 1,1-dichloro- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C2H3Cl3 = C2H2Cl2 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar51.5kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase; ALS
Deltar65.3kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979liquid phase; ALS

Ethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro- = Hydrogen chloride + Trichloroethylene

By formula: C2H2Cl4 = HCl + C2HCl3

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar55.2kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979liquid phase; ALS
Deltar44.8kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase; ALS

C30H28Fe2Ti (cr) + 2(Hydrogen chloride bullet 4.40Water) (solution) = 2Ferrocene (cr) + Titanocene dichloride (cr)

By formula: C30H28Fe2Ti (cr) + 2(HCl bullet 4.40H2O) (solution) = 2C10H10Fe (cr) + C10H10Cl2Ti (cr)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-253.5 ± 4.5kJ/molRSCDias, Salema, et al., 1982Please also see Calhorda, Dias, et al., 1987.; MS

Benzoyl chloride, 2-chloro- + Water = Benzoic acid, 2-chloro- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C7H4Cl2O + H2O = C7H5ClO2 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-39.8 ± 0.3kJ/molCmMoselhy and Pritchard, 1975liquid phase; solvent: Diphenyl-ether; Heat of hydrolysis; ALS

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Constants of diatomic molecules, References, Notes

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Constants of diatomic molecules, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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NIST MS number 18847

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Constants of diatomic molecules

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Klaus P. Huber and Gerhard H. Herzberg

Symbols used in the table of constants
SymbolMeaning
State electronic state and / or symmetry symbol
Te minimum electronic energy (cm-1)
ωe vibrational constant – first term (cm-1)
ωexe vibrational constant – second term (cm-1)
ωeye vibrational constant – third term (cm-1)
Be rotational constant in equilibrium position (cm-1)
αe rotational constant – first term (cm-1)
γe rotation-vibration interaction constant (cm-1)
De centrifugal distortion constant (cm-1)
βe rotational constant – first term, centrifugal force (cm-1)
re internuclear distance (Å)
Trans. observed transition(s) corresponding to electronic state
ν00 position of 0-0 band (units noted in table)
Diatomic constants for H35Cl
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
Rydberg 1            200-210 eV
Hayes and Brown, 1972; Schwarz, 1975
Numerous absorption bands above 123000 cm-1, tentatively assigned to higher members of the Rydberg series starting with L and M and converging to A 2Sigma+ of HCl+.
Terwilliger and Smith, 1973
M (1Sigma+) (117811) [1529] 2         M larrow X 117093
missing citation
L (1Sigma+,1Pi) 111280 1531 52 3        L larrow X 110555
missing citation
4           
Douglas and Greening, 1979
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
K 1Pi (89861) [2604.6] Z   [9.230] 5   [-12.6E-4] 5  [1.3654] K larrow X R 89680.5 Z
Douglas and Greening, 1979
H 1Sigma+ (89120) [2093.8] Z   [8.4410]   [8.93E-4]  [1.4278] H larrow X R 88684.5 Z
Douglas and Greening, 1979
E 1Sigma+ (84193) [2138.6] Z   [6.6423]   [36.2]  [1.6096] E larrow X R 83780.2 Z
Douglas and Greening, 1979
g (3Sigma-)1 [84329.7] 6    [10.36] 7   [17E-4] 7  [1.289] g larrow X 82847.4 Z
missing citation
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
f1 3Delta1 [84006.1] 6    [10.270] 8   [-13E-4] 8  [1.294] f1 larrow X 82523.8 Z
missing citation
D 1Pi [83972.0] 9    [9.794] 10   [20.5E-4] 10  [1.326] D larrow X R 82489.7 Z
missing citation
d0 3Pi0 [83753.6] 9    [9.404] 11   [-2.2E-4] 11  [1.353] d0 larrow X R 82271.3 Z
missing citation
f2 3Delta2 [83497.7] 6    [10.851] 12   [29.5E-4] 12  [1.259] f2 larrow X V 82015.4 Z
missing citation
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
f3 3Delta3 [83308.2] 6    [9.45] 8   [-1.3E-4] 8  [1.349] f3 larrow X R 81825.9 Z
missing citation
d1 3Pi1 [83255.6] 9    [9.768] 13   [8E-4] 13  [1.327] d1 larrow X R 81773.3 Z
missing citation
d2 3Pi2 [83083] 9    [8.632] 14   [-14E-4] 14  [1.412] d2 larrow X R 81600.7 Z
missing citation
C 1Pi 77575 15 [2684.0] Z 16  [9.333] 16    [1.358] C larrow X 17 R 77485.3 Z
missing citation; Tilford, Ginter, et al., 1970
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
V 1Sigma+ 77293.0 18 877.16 Z 16.04 19  2.727 -0.026  1.02E-4 19 0.20E-4 2.512 V lrarrow X 20 R 76245.3 Z
Jacques, 1959; Jacques and Barrow, 1959; missing citation
V 1Sigma+ 21           V rarrow A 
Jacques and Barrow, 1959
b0 3Pi0 (75617) 15 [2712]   [10.36] 22     [1.289] b0 larrow X 23 75490.4 Z
Price, 1938; missing citation
b1 3Pi1 (75195) 15 (2900) (79)  [9.87] 22     [1.320] b1 larrow X R 75142.6 Z
Price, 1938; missing citation
StateTeomegaeomegaexeomegaeyeBealphaegammaeDebetaereTrans.nu00
b2 3Pi2 [76322.2] 15    [9.18] 22     [1.369] b2 larrow X 23 R 74839.9 Z
Price, 1938; missing citation
A (1Pi) 24 25           A larrow X 
Datta and Banerjee, 1941; Romand, 1949
X 1Sigma+ 0 2990.9463 26 52.8186 27 0.22437 10.593416 26 28 0.307181 29  5.3194E-4 28 30  1.274552 31 32  
Rank, Eastman, et al., 1962; Rank, Rao, et al., 1965
Rotation spectrum 33 34
Hansler and Oetjen, 1953; Jones and Gordy, 1964; Rosenberg, Lightman, et al., 1972
Raman cross sections
Kaiser, 1970; de Leeuw and Dymanus, 1973
Mol. beam electric reson. 35
Kaiser, 1970; de Leeuw and Dymanus, 1973
Mol. beam magnetic reson. 36
Code, Khosla, et al., 1968

Notes

1Rydberg series corresponding to excitation of a 2p electron.
2v=0...5 observed. Assigned as 3psigma3ppi4 5ssigma. 39
3Assigned as 3psigma3ppi4 4psigma/pi. 39
4Many other absorption bands in the region 83000 - 93000 cm-1 corresponding to Rydberg states strongly perturbed by the V 1Sigma+ state which itself gives rise to many perturbed bands.
5Average B, D values; B(R,P)-B(Q) = +0.385.
6Configuration ...sigma2pi3 4ppi.
7Average B, D values; B(1+)-B(1-) = - 0.060.
8Refers to Delta+; Q branch not resolved.
9Configuration ...sigma2pi3 4psigma.
10Average B, D values; B(Pi+)-B(Pi-) = +0.063.
11Average B, D values; B(Pi+)-B(Pi-) = -0.040.
12Average B, D values; B(Delta+)-B(Delta-) = -0.030.
13Average B, D values; B(Pi+)-B(Pi-) = -0.160.
14Average B, D values; B(Pi+)-B(Pi-) = -0.667.
15Configuration sigma2pi3 4ssigma.
16v=1,2,3 are increasingly diffuse; B1 = 9.296. Tilford, Ginter, et al., 1970 give omegae = 2817.5, omegaexe = 66.0, Be = 9.44, alphae = 0.15.
17A1so observed in inert matrices Boursey, 1975.
18Typica1 "V" state with configuration ... sigmapi4 sigma*.
19missing note
20Very extended progression in absorption, not yet analyzed in detail. The higher vibrational levels are strongly perturbed by Rydberg states Tilford and Ginter, 1971, Douglas and Greening, 1979. The vibrational and rotational constants given were obtained from the emission spectrum with vleq3 Jacques, 1959, Jacques and Barrow, 1959 but because of the perturbations have only very limited meaning.
21Continuous absorption starting at 44000 cm-1, maximum 40 at 65500 cm-1.
22Diffuse rotational structure; 1-0 and 2-0 are increasingly diffuse.
23The b2larrowX and b0larrowX components have only 1/50 of the intensity of b1larrowX.
24Configuration ...sigma2pi3 sigma*.
25Continuous aabsorption starting at 44000 cm-1, maximum at 65500 cm-1.
26Applying the Dunham corrections Rank, Rao, et al., 1965 obtain omegae = 2991.0904 and Be = 10.593553. Additional corrections (adiabatic, non- adiabatic) discussed by Bunker, 1972. Vibrational levels up to v=5 have been observed in infrared absorption Rank, Birtley, et al., 1960, Rank, Eastman, et al., 1962, Rank, Rao, et al., 1965 and emission Mould, Price, et al., 1960, higher levels in the VrarrowX bands Jacques, 1959, Jacques and Barrow, 1959. Dunham potential coefficients Ogilvie and Koo, 1976. Most recent ab initio values of the ground state molecular constants Meyer and Rosmus, 1975; charge distribution Cade, Bader, et al., 1969.
27omegaeze = -0.01218 Rank, Rao, et al., 1965.
28Slightly different constants in Plyler and Tidwell, 1960, Levy, Rossi, et al., 1965, Levy, Rossi, et al., 1966. These papers and Webb and Rao, 1968 give also constants for H37Cl.
29+0.0017724(v+1/2)2 - 0.0001201(v+1/2)3.
30-7.510E-6(v+1/2) + 4.00E-7(v+1/2)2; higher order terms in Rank, Rao, et al., 1965. See also Herman and Asgharian, 1966.
31Uncorrected value from the Be(=Y01) given in the table. The internuclear distance at the minimum of the Born-Oppenheimer curve is re = 1.2746149 Bunker, 1972, Watson, 1973.
32Rot.-vibr. Bands 41 34
33Absolute intensity measurements Chamberlain and Gebbie, 1965, Sanderson, 1967.
34Pressure-induced shifts (by foreign gases) of rotation-vibration and rotation lines Rank, Eastman, et al., 1960, Ben-Reuven, Kimel, et al., 1961, Gebbie and Stone, 1963, Jaffe, Friedmann, et al., 1963, Jaffe, Hirshfeld, et al., 1964. For discussions of pressure-induced bands and pure rotation lines (DeltaJ=2) see Atwood, Vu, et al., 1967, Weiss and Cole, 1967. Self and foreign-gas line broadening Benedict, Herman, et al., 1956, Babrov, Ameer, et al., 1959, Goldring and Benesch, 1962, Jaffe, Kimel, et al., 1962, Plyler and Thibault, 1962, Alamichel and Legay, 1966, Levy, Mariel-Piollet, et al., 1970, Toth, Hunt, et al., 1970, Rich and Welsh, 1971, Rosenberg, Lightman, et al., 1972. Infrared absorption in liquid and solid phases Katz and Ron, 1970, Khatibi and Vu, 1972.
35muel(v=0,1,2)= 1.1085, 1.1390, 1.1685 D, respectively Kaiser, 1970. Dipole moment function Kaiser, 1970, Smith, 1973; see also Bunker, 1973, Kaiser, 1974. gJ = 0.4594, also quadrupole and other hyperfine coupling constants Kaiser, 1970, de Leeuw and Dymanus, 1973; see also Tokuhiro, 1967, Bunker, 1973.
36Proton spin - rotation interaction constant Leavitt, Baker, et al., 1961, Code, Khosla, et al., 1968.
37From D00(H2), D00(Cl2), and DeltaHof0(HCl)
38From the photoelectron spectrum Frost, McDowell, et al., 1967, Lempka, Passmore, et al., 1968, Weiss, Lawrence, et al., 1970; photoionization measurements give similar results Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962, Nicholson, 1965. A somewhat smaller I.P.(12.730 eV) may be derived from the second band system in the photoelectron spectrum at 16.254 eV corresponding to A 2Sigma+ of HCl+. Higher ionization potentials at 207.1 and 208.7 eV correspond to the removal of a 2p electron Hayes and Brown, 1972.
39Strongly broadened by preionization (lifetime tau= 1.1E-14 s) Terwilliger and Smith, 1973.
40Absorption coefficient k=40.
41Absolute intensities (cm-2atm-1) of the 1-0 band: 130 Benedict, Herman, et al., 1956 2-0 band: 2.9 Benedict, Herman, et al., 1956 3.70 Jaffe, Kimel, et al., 1962, Toth, Hunt, et al., 1970 3-0 band: 0.023 Benedict, Herman, et al., 1956

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Constants of diatomic molecules, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Cox, Wagman, et al., 1984
Cox, J.D.; Wagman, D.D.; Medvedev, V.A., CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York, 1984, 1. [all data]

Chase, 1998
Chase, M.W., Jr., NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, Fourth Edition, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 9, 1998, 1-1951. [all data]

Beckmann and Waentig, 1910
Beckmann, E.; Waentig, P., Cryoscopic Measurements at Low Temperatures, Z. Anorg. Chem., 1910, 67, 17. [all data]

Henderson, Lewis, et al., 1986
Henderson, C.; Lewis, D.G.; Prichard, P.C.; Staveley, L.A.K.; Fonseca, I.M.A.; Lobo, L.Q., Some thermodynamic properties of hydrogen chloride and deuterium chloride, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1986, 18, 1077. [all data]

Giauque and Wiebe, 1928
Giauque, W.F.; Wiebe, R., THE ENTROPY OF HYDROGEN CHLORIDE. HEAT CAPACITY FROM 16°K. TO BOILING POINT. HEAT OF VAPORIZATION. VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLID AND LIQUID, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1928, 50, 1, 101-122, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01388a013 . [all data]

Stull, 1947
Stull, Daniel R., Vapor Pressure of Pure Substances. Organic and Inorganic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1947, 39, 4, 517-540, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50448a022 . [all data]

Ser and Larher, 1990
Ser, Frederic; Larher, Yves, Sublimation pressures of hydrogen chloride, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1990, 22, 4, 407-412, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(90)90129-E . [all data]

Metz, Kitsopoulos, et al., 1988
Metz, R.B.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Weaver, A.; Neumark, D.M., Study of the Transition State Region in the Cl+HCl Reaction by Photoelectron Spectroscopy of ClHCl-, J. Chem. Phys., 1988, 88, 2, 1463, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.454218 . [all data]

Caldwell and Kebarle, 1985
Caldwell, G.; Kebarle, P., The hydrogen bond energies of the bihalide ions XHX- and YHX-, Can. J. Chem., 1985, 63, 1399. [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1984
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Hydrogen bonding in gas phase anions. An experimental investigation of the interaction between chloride ion and bronsted acids from ICR chloride exchange equilibria, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1984, 106, 517. [all data]

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Yamdagni, R.; Kebarle, P., The hydrogen bond energies in ClHCl- and Cl-(HCl)n, Can. J. Chem., 1974, 52, 2449. [all data]

Upschulte, Evans, et al., 1986
Upschulte, B.L.; Evans, D.H.; Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W., Unpublished results, referred to in Keesee and Castleman, 1986, 1986. [all data]

Keesee and Castleman, 1980
Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W., Jr., Gas phase studies of hydration complexes of Cl- and I- and comparison to electrostatic calculations in the gas phase, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1980, 74, 139. [all data]

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Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Gas phase negative ion chemistry of alkylchloroformates, Can. J. Chem., 1984, 62, 675. [all data]

French, Ikuta, et al., 1982
French, M.A.; Ikuta, S.; Kebarle, P., Hydrogen bonding of O-H and C-H hydrogen donors to Cl-. Results from mass spectrometric measurement of the ion-molecule equilibria RH + Cl- = RHCl-, Can. J. Chem., 1982, 60, 1907. [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1987
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Isotope Effects in Proton Transfer Reactions. An Ion Cyclotron Resonance Determination of the Equilibrium Deuterium Isotope Effect in the Bichloride Ion, J. Phys. Chem., 1987, 91, 3, 554, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100287a013 . [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1984, 3
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Fluoride and chloride affinities of main group oxides, fluorides, oxofluorides, and alkyls. Quantitative scales of lewis acidities from ion cyclotron resonance halide-exchange equilibria, J. Phys. Chem., 1984, 88, 1083. [all data]

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Martin, J.D.D.; Hepburn, J.W., Determination of bond dissociation energies by threshold ion-pair production spectroscopy: An improved D-0(HCl), J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 109, 19, 8139-8142, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.477476 . [all data]

Fujio, McIver, et al., 1981
Fujio, M.; McIver, R.T., Jr.; Taft, R.W., Effects on the acidities of phenols from specific substituent-solvent interactions. Inherent substituent parameters from gas phase acidities, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 4017. [all data]

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Check, C.E.; Faust, T.O.; Bailey, J.M.; Wright, B.J.; Gilbert, T.M.; Sunderlin, L.S., Addition of Polarization and Diffuse Functions to the LANL2DZ Basis Set for P-Block Elements, J. Phys. Chem. A,, 2001, 105, 34, 8111, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp011945l . [all data]

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Bohringer, H.; Fahey, D.W.; Fehsenfeld, F.C.; Ferguson, E.E., Bond energies of the molecules H2O, SO2, H2O2, and HCl to various atmospheric negative ions, J. Chem. Phys., 1984, 81, 2805. [all data]

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Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W., Jr., Thermochemical data on Ggs-phase ion-molecule association and clustering reactions, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1986, 15, 1011. [all data]

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Pritchard and Skinner, 1950
Pritchard, H.O.; Skinner, H.A., The heats of hydrolysis of the chloro-substituted acetyl chlorides, J. Chem. Soc., 1950, 272-276. [all data]

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Buravtsev, N.N.; Grigor'ev, A.S.; Zaidman, O.A.; Kolbanovskii, Yu.A.; Markelov, M.YU.; Sadogurskii, M.N.; Treger, Yu.A., Dehydrochlorination of chloroalkanes under rigid homogeneous conditions. II. Effect of small additions of oxygen to the kinetics of high-temperature decomposition of 1,2-dichloroethane under adiabatic compression, Khim. Fiz., 1992, 11, 218-226. [all data]

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Levanova, s.V.; Bushneva, I.I.; Rodova, R.M.; Rozhnov, A.M.; Treger, Yu.A.; Aprelkin, A.S., Thermodynamic stability of chloroethanes in dehydrochlorination reactions, J. Appl. Chem. USSR, 1979, 52, 1439-1442. [all data]

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Lane, M.R.; Linnett, J.W.; Oswin, H.G., A study of the C2H4+HCl=C2H5Cl and C2H4+Hbr=C2H5Br equilibria, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A, 1953, 216, 361-374. [all data]

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Notes

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