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Butane, 2,2-dimethyl-

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Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
CAL - James S. Chickos, William E. Acree, Jr., Joel F. Liebman, Students of Chem 202 (Introduction to the Literature of Chemistry), University of Missouri -- St. Louis
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil322.9 ± 0.1KAVGN/AAverage of 46 out of 54 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus173. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 24 out of 28 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple174. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc489.0 ± 0.5KAVGN/AAverage of 7 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc31.0 ± 0.2barN/ADaubert, 1996 
Pc31.0236barN/AGenco, Teja, et al., 1980Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 bar; TRC
Pc31.02barN/AKay and Young, 1975Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.03 bar; TRC
Pc31.0764barN/AKay, 1946Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1013 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Vc0.358l/molN/ADaubert, 1996 
Vc0.358l/molN/AGenco, Teja, et al., 1980Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.001 l/mol; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc2.80 ± 0.02mol/lN/ADaubert, 1996 
rhoc2.79mol/lN/AKay, 1946Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 mol/l; by extrapolation of rectilinear diameter to Tc; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap27.93kJ/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap27.7kJ/molN/AReid, 1972AC
Deltavap27.68kJ/molCOsborne and Ginnings, 1947ALS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
26.31322.9N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
28.7288.N/ANicolini and Laffitte, 1949Based on data from 273. - 318. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC
27.8 ± 0.1296.CWaddington and Douslin, 1947AC
26.3 ± 0.1323.CWaddington and Douslin, 1947AC
29.2274.N/AKilpatrick and Pitzer, 1946Based on data from 211. - 289. K.; AC
28.3303.MMWillingham, Taylor, et al., 1945Based on data from 288. - 323. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-βTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kJ/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

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Temperature (K) A (kJ/mol) beta Tc (K) Reference Comment
296. - 323.41.920.2675488.7Majer and Svoboda, 1985 

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
210.99 - 289.383.73821022.204-49.529Kilpatrick and Pitzer, 1946Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.
288.53 - 323.683.879731081.176-43.807Williamham, Taylor, et al., 1945 

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
0.58174.3Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
42.57126.8Domalski and Hearing, 1996CAL
2.02140.8
3.31174.3

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
5.410126.81crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIDouslin and Huffman, 1946DH
0.2853140.79crystaline, IIcrystaline, IDouslin and Huffman, 1946DH
0.5791174.28crystaline, IliquidDouslin and Huffman, 1946DH
5.394126.81crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIKilpatrick and Pitzer, 1946DH
0.283140.88crystaline, IIcrystaline, IKilpatrick and Pitzer, 1946DH
0.579174.66crystaline, IliquidKilpatrick and Pitzer, 1946DH
4.581127.11crystaline, IIcrystaline, IStull, 1937DH
0.464172.13crystaline, IliquidStull, 1937DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
42.66126.81crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIDouslin and Huffman, 1946DH
2.03140.79crystaline, IIcrystaline, IDouslin and Huffman, 1946DH
3.32174.28crystaline, IliquidDouslin and Huffman, 1946DH
42.5126.81crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIKilpatrick and Pitzer, 1946DH
2.01140.88crystaline, IIcrystaline, IKilpatrick and Pitzer, 1946DH
3.33174.66crystaline, IliquidKilpatrick and Pitzer, 1946DH
36.04127.11crystaline, IIcrystaline, IStull, 1937DH
2.70172.13crystaline, IliquidStull, 1937DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


References

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Daubert, 1996
Daubert, T.E., Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties of Elements and Compounds. 5. Branched Alkanes and Cycloalkanes, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1996, 41, 365-372. [all data]

Genco, Teja, et al., 1980
Genco, J.M.; Teja, A.S.; Kay, W.B., Study of the critical and azeotropic behavior of binary mixtures I critical states of perfluoromethylcyclohexane + isomeric hexane systems, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1980, 25, 350. [all data]

Kay and Young, 1975
Kay, W.B.; Young, C.L., Gas-liquid critical properties. Tetradecafluoromethylcyclohexane( perfluoromethylcyclohexane)-2,2-dimethylbutane, Int. DATA Ser., Sel. Data Mixtures, Ser. A, 1975, No. 1, 58. [all data]

Kay, 1946
Kay, W.B., The Vapor Pressures and Saturated Liquid and Vapor Densities of the Isomeric Hexanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1946, 68, 1336. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Osborne and Ginnings, 1947
Osborne, N.S.; Ginnings, D.C., Measurements of heat of vaporization and heat capacity of a number of hydrocarbons, J. Res. NBS, 1947, 39, 453-477. [all data]

Nicolini and Laffitte, 1949
Nicolini, E.; Laffitte, P., Compt. Rend., 1949, 229, 757. [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

Waddington and Douslin, 1947
Waddington, Guy; Douslin, Donald R., Experimental Vapor Heat Capacities and Heats of Vaporization of n-Hexane and 2,2-Dimethylbutane 1, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1947, 69, 10, 2275-2279, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01202a011 . [all data]

Kilpatrick and Pitzer, 1946
Kilpatrick, J.E.; Pitzer, K.S., The thermodynamics of 2,2-dimethylbutane, including the heat capacity, heats of transitions, fusion and vaporization and the entropy, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1946, 68, 1066-1072. [all data]

Willingham, Taylor, et al., 1945
Willingham, C.B.; Taylor, W.J.; Pignocco, J.M.; Rossini, F.D., Vapor pressures and boiling points of some paraffin, alkylcyclopentane, alkylcyclohexane, and alkylbenzene hydrocarbons, J. RES. NATL. BUR. STAN., 1945, 35, 3, 219-17, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.035.009 . [all data]

Williamham, Taylor, et al., 1945
Williamham, C.B.; Taylor, W.J.; Pignocco, J.M.; Rossini, F.D., Vapor Pressures and Boiling Points of Some Paraffin, Alkylcyclopentane, Alkylcyclohexane, and Alkylbenzene Hydrocarbons, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), 1945, 35, 3, 219-244, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.035.009 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Douslin and Huffman, 1946
Douslin, D.R.; Huffman, H.M., Low-temperature thermal data on the five isometric hexanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1946, 68, 1704-1708. [all data]

Stull, 1937
Stull, D.R., A semi-micro calorimeter for measuring heat capacities at low temperatures, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1937, 59, 2726-2733. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Phase change data, References