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Dichlorodifluoromethane

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-491.62kJ/molReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in June, 1970
Deltafgas-477.6 ± 5.6kJ/molCmKolesov, Zenkov, et al., 1963Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -469.0 ± 5.0 kJ/mol; Reaction with Na; ALS
Deltafgas-477. ± 13.kJ/molCcbWartenberg and Schiefer, 1955Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -473. kJ/mol; ALS
Deltafgas-469. ± 8.kJ/molCmKirkbride and Davidson, 1954Von Wartenberg method; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas,1 bar300.89J/mol*KReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in June, 1970

Gas Phase Heat Capacity (Shomate Equation)

Cp° = A + B*t + C*t2 + D*t3 + E/t2
H° − H°298.15= A*t + B*t2/2 + C*t3/3 + D*t4/4 − E/t + F − H
S° = A*ln(t) + B*t + C*t2/2 + D*t3/3 − E/(2*t2) + G
    Cp = heat capacity (J/mol*K)
    H° = standard enthalpy (kJ/mol)
    S° = standard entropy (J/mol*K)
    t = temperature (K) / 1000.

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Temperature (K) 298. - 1100.1100. - 6000.
A 48.01014107.3635
B 139.18080.404844
C -124.3326-0.082033
D 39.751470.005689
E -0.633834-5.707394
F -513.2304-539.7486
G 319.1028406.4660
H -491.6200-491.6200
ReferenceChase, 1998Chase, 1998
Comment Data last reviewed in June, 1970 Data last reviewed in June, 1970

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
126.8290.Buffington and Fleischer, 1931Heat capacity measured at 230 K and 290 K using two different methods. Cp at 230 K is 106.3 J/mol*K.

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil243. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus115.2KN/AStreng, 1971Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Tfus115.37KN/AAnonymous, 1968TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple116.100KN/ABlanke and Weiss, 1991Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.01 K; on ITS-90; TRC
Ttriple115.15KN/AKrauss and Stephan, 1989Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Ttriple390.35KN/AAltunin, Geller, et al., 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ptriple0.00010barN/ABlanke and Weiss, 1991Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.00006 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc370. ± 60.KAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc41.31barN/AKrauss and Stephan, 1989Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 bar; TRC
Pc41.19barN/AAltunin, Geller, et al., 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.20 bar; TRC
Pc41.29barN/AHigashi, Okazaki, et al., 1984Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.15 bar; TRC
Pc41.1615barN/AAnonymous, 1968TRC
Pc39.1115barN/AMichels, Wassenaar, et al., 1966Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.0607 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc4.789mol/lN/AAltunin, Geller, et al., 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.004 mol/l; TRC
rhoc4.70mol/lN/AOkada, Uematsu, et al., 1986Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.0469 mol/l; Density measured with magnetic densimeter. Tc, Dc selected from literature to correlate density measurements. R12; TRC
rhoc4.70mol/lN/AHigashi, Okazaki, et al., 1984Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.04 mol/l; TRC
rhoc5.54mol/lN/AMichels, Wassenaar, et al., 1966Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.07 mol/l; TRC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
20.0297.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 282. - 345. K.; AC
21.4229.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 173. - 244. K.; AC
21.6225.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 173. - 240. K.; AC
20.4270.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 236. - 285. K.; AC
20.5356.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 341. - 385. K.; AC
22.9187.N/AKudchadker, Kudchadker, et al., 1979Based on data from 172. - 279. K.; AC
21.5228.N/AStull, 1947Based on data from 154. - 243. K.; AC
20.4243.N/ABuffington and Fleischer, 1931AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
154.7 - 243.43.81109782.072-37.773Stull, 1947Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference Comment
0.0025 QN/A missing citation give several references for the Henry's law constants but don't assign them to specific species.
0.00313500.XN/A 
0.00035-210.XN/A 
0.0023 LN/A 
0.00211800.LN/A 
0.0024 VN/A 
0.0025 MPearson and McConnell, 1975The same data was also published in missing citation. Value at T = 293. K.

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)12.0 ± 0.2eVN/AN/AL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
0.40 ± 0.20NBIEDispert and Lacmann, 1978B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
12.26 ± 0.02PIKischlat and Morgner, 1985LBLHLM
11.87 ± 0.02PIWang and Leroi, 1983LBLHLM
11.75PIJochims, Lohr, et al., 1976LLK
11.75 ± 0.04PIAjello, Huntress, et al., 1976LLK
12.31 ± 0.05PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
11.7 ± 0.5EIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
12.24 ± 0.01PEJadrny, Karlsson, et al., 1977Vertical value; LLK
12.3PEDoucet, Sauvageau, et al., 1973Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C+22.?EIZayats, Perov, et al., 1985LBLHLM
C+26.5 ± 1.0?EIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
CCl+14.8 ± 0.2FCl+F(-)PISchenk, Oertel, et al., 1979LLK
CCl+17.0 ± 0.5?EIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
CFCl+10.60 ± 0.02Cl(-)PISchenk, Oertel, et al., 1979LLK
CFCl+15.2 ± 0.3F(-)+ClPISchenk, Oertel, et al., 1979LLK
CFCl+11.99ClEIAjello, Huntress, et al., 1976LLK
CFCl+17.76F(-)+ClPIAjello, Huntress, et al., 1976LLK
CFCl+18.1 ± 0.2F(-)+ClEIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
CF2Cl+12.55ClEILeyland, Majer, et al., 1970RDSH
CF2Cl+12.8 ± 0.2ClEIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
CFCl2+12.07 ± 0.05F(-)PISchenk, Oertel, et al., 1979LLK
CFCl2+13.30 ± 0.05FPISchenk, Oertel, et al., 1979LLK
CFCl2+14.15FPIJochims, Lohr, et al., 1976LLK
CFCl2+13.81FPIAjello, Huntress, et al., 1976LLK
CFCl2+15.4 ± 0.2FEIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
CF+15.3 ± 0.3Cl2+F(-)PISchenk, Oertel, et al., 1979LLK
CF+17.65F+Cl2PIJochims, Lohr, et al., 1976LLK
CF+20.20F+2ClPIJochims, Lohr, et al., 1976LLK
CF+19.5 ± 0.5?EIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
CF2+14.9 ± 0.3Cl2PISchenk, Oertel, et al., 1979LLK
CF2+17.222ClPIJochims, Lohr, et al., 1976LLK
CF2+16.982ClPIAjello, Huntress, et al., 1976LLK
CF2+18.1 ± 0.2?N/ABaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
Cl+16.?EIZayats, Perov, et al., 1985LBLHLM
Cl+16.4 ± 0.2CFCl2(-)PISchenk, Oertel, et al., 1979LLK
Cl+21.0 ± 0.2?EIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
Cl2+15.4 ± 0.1CF2PISchenk, Oertel, et al., 1979LLK
Cl2+16.7 ± 1.0?EIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
F+21.?EIZayats, Perov, et al., 1985LBLHLM
F+25.6 ± 0.2CF(-)+2ClPISchenk, Oertel, et al., 1979LLK
F+31.5 ± 0.5?EIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH
F2+16.0 ± 1.0?EIBaker and Tate, 1938RDSH

IR Spectrum

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Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Data compiled by: Pamela M. Chu, Franklin R. Guenther, George C. Rhoderick, and Walter J. Lafferty


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin KONINKLIJKE/SHELL LAB., AMSTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS
NIST MS number 34556

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Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Takehiko Shimanouchi

Symmetry:   C2nu     Symmetry Number sigma = 2


 Sym.   No   Approximate   Selected Freq.  Infrared   Raman   Comments 
 Species   type of mode   Value   Rating   Value  Phase  Value  Phase

a1 1 CF2 s-str 1101  C 1101 S gas 1098 M
a1 2 CCl2 s-str 667  C 667 S gas 667.2 S p
a1 3 CF2 scis 458  D 457.5 S gas
a1 4 CCl2 scis 262  C 261.5 S dp gas
a2 5 CF2 twist 322  C  ia 322 W dp gas
b1 6 CF2 a-str 1159  C 1159 S 1167 W dp gas
b1 7 CF2 rock 446  C 446 W
b2 8 CCl2 a-str 902  E 922 VS 923 W dp gas
b2 8 CCl2 a-str 902  E 882 VS FR(«nu»3+«nu»9)
b2 9 CF2 wag 437  C 437 W 433 M gas

Source: Shimanouchi, 1972

Notes

VSVery strong
SStrong
MMedium
WWeak
iaInactive
pPolarized
dpDepolarized
FRFermi resonance with an overtone or a combination tone indicated in the parentheses.
C3~6 cm-1 uncertainty
D6~15 cm-1 uncertainty
E15~30 cm-1 uncertainty

Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB318.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryBP-1311.Health Safety Executive, 200050. m/0.22 mm/0.75 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone314.Blunden, Aneja, et al., 200560. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: -50 0C (2 min) 8 0C/min -> 200 0C (7.75 min) 25 0C -> 225 0C (8 min)
CapillaryPorapack Q320.Zenkevich and Rodin, 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1313.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillarySPB-1313.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillarySPB-1305.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1305.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, Site Links, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Chase, 1998
Chase, M.W., Jr., NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, Fourth Edition, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 9, 1998, 1-1951. [all data]

Kolesov, Zenkov, et al., 1963
Kolesov, V.P.; Zenkov, I.D.; Skuratov, S.M., Standard enthalpies of formation of chlorotrifluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 1963, 37, 378-379. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Wartenberg and Schiefer, 1955
Wartenberg, H.V.; Schiefer, J., Bildungswarmen von fluor-chlor-kohlenstoff-verbindungen, Z. Anorg. Chem., 1955, 278, 326-332. [all data]

Kirkbride and Davidson, 1954
Kirkbride, F.W.; Davidson, F.G., Heats of formation of gaseous fluoro- and fluorochloro-carbons, Nature (London), 1954, 174, 79-80. [all data]

Buffington and Fleischer, 1931
Buffington, R.M.; Fleischer, J., Thermodynamic properties of dichlorodifluoromethane, a new refrigerant. IV. Specific heat of liquid and vapor and latent heat of vaporization, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1931, 23, 1290-1292. [all data]

Streng, 1971
Streng, A.G., Miscibility and Compatibility of Some Liquid and Solidified Gases at Low Temperature, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1971, 16, 357. [all data]

Anonymous, 1968
Anonymous, X., Chemicals and Plastics Physical Properties, 1968, Union Carbide Corp., product bulletin, 1968. [all data]

Blanke and Weiss, 1991
Blanke, W.; Weiss, R., Thermodynamic properties of refrigerants. Part I: the triple points of the refrigerants R11, R12, R22, R142b, and 152a, PTB-Mitt., 1991, 101, 337-9. [all data]

Krauss and Stephan, 1989
Krauss, R.; Stephan, K., Thermal Conductivity of Refrigerants in a Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1989, 18, 43. [all data]

Altunin, Geller, et al., 1987
Altunin, V.V.; Geller, V.Z.; Kremenvskaya, E.A.; Perel'shtein, I.I.; Petrov, E.K., Thermophysical Properties of Freons, Methane Ser. Part 2, Vol. 9, NSRDS-USSR, Selover, T. B., Ed., Hemisphere, New York, 1987. [all data]

Higashi, Okazaki, et al., 1984
Higashi, Y.; Okazaki, S.; Takaishi, Y.; Uematsu, M.; Watanabe, K., Measurements of the Vapor-Liquid Coexistence Curve for the Binary R12 + R22 System in the Critical Region, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1984, 29, 31-6. [all data]

Michels, Wassenaar, et al., 1966
Michels, A.; Wassenaar, T.; Wolkers, G.J.; Prins, Chr.; van de Klundert, L., P-v-t data and thermodynamical properties of freon-12 (ccl(2)f(2)) and freon-13 (cclf(3)) fluorocarbons at temperatures between 0 and 150c and at pressures up to 400 atm, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1966, 11, 449. [all data]

Okada, Uematsu, et al., 1986
Okada, M.; Uematsu, M.; Watanabe, K., Orthobaric liquid densities of trichloro-fluoromethane, dichlorodi-fluoromethane, chlorodifluoromethane, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, 1,2-dichlorotetrafluoroethane, and of the azeotropic mixtur, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1986, 18, 527. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Kudchadker, Kudchadker, et al., 1979
Kudchadker, A.P.; Kudchadker, S.A.; Shukla, R.P.; Patnaik, P.R., Vapor pressures and boiling points of selected halomethanes, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1979, 8, 2, 499, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555600 . [all data]

Stull, 1947
Stull, Daniel R., Vapor Pressure of Pure Substances. Organic and Inorganic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1947, 39, 4, 517-540, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50448a022 . [all data]

Pearson and McConnell, 1975
Pearson, C.R.; McConnell, G., Chlorinated C1 and C2 Hydrocarbons in the Marine Environment, Proc. R. Soc. London, B, 1975, 189, 305-332. [all data]

Dispert and Lacmann, 1978
Dispert, H.; Lacmann, K., Negative ion formation in collisions between potassium and fluoro- and chloromethanes: Electron affinities and bond dissociation energies, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1978, 28, 49. [all data]

Kischlat and Morgner, 1985
Kischlat, W.; Morgner, H., Comparative study of He(23S)-penning ionization and He(I) photoionization of CF4, CCl4, and the chlorofluoromethanes by electron-ion coincidence, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1985, 35, 273. [all data]

Wang and Leroi, 1983
Wang, F.C.-Y.; Leroi, G.E., Photoionization and fragmentation of halogenated methanes, Ann. Isr. Phys. Soc., 1983, 6, 210. [all data]

Jochims, Lohr, et al., 1976
Jochims, H.-W.; Lohr, W.; Baumgartel, H., Photoreactions of small organic molecules V. Absorption-, photoion- and resonancephotoelectron-spectra of CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, CFCl3 in the energy range 10-25 eV, Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem., 1976, 80, 130. [all data]

Ajello, Huntress, et al., 1976
Ajello, J.M.; Huntress, W.T., Jr.; Rayermann, P., A photoionization mass spectrometer study of CFCl3, CF2Cl2 and CF3Cl, J. Chem. Phys., 1976, 64, 4746. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Baker and Tate, 1938
Baker, R.F.; Tate, J.T., Ionization and dissociation by electron impact in CCl2F2 and in CCl4 vapor, Phys. Rev., 1938, 53, 683. [all data]

Jadrny, Karlsson, et al., 1977
Jadrny, R.; Karlsson, L.; Mattsson, L.; Siegbahn, K., Valence electron spectra of the chlorofluoromethanes CF3Cl, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3, Phys. Scr., 1977, 16, 235. [all data]

Doucet, Sauvageau, et al., 1973
Doucet, J.; Sauvageau, P.; Sandorfy, C., Vacuum ultraviolet and photoelectron spectra of fluoro-chloro derivatives of methane, J. Chem. Phys., 1973, 58, 3708. [all data]

Zayats, Perov, et al., 1985
Zayats, A.Yu.; Perov, A.A.; Simonov, A.P., Formation of long-lived Rydberg atoms upon excitation of NF3 and CF2Cl2 molecules by electron impact, Sov. J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 2, 1906. [all data]

Schenk, Oertel, et al., 1979
Schenk, H.; Oertel, H.; Baumgartel, H., Photoreactions of small organic molecules VII Photoionization studies on the ion-pair formation of the fluorochloromethanes CF2Cl2, CF3Cl, and CFCl3, Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem., 1979, 83, 683. [all data]

Leyland, Majer, et al., 1970
Leyland, L.M.; Majer, J.R.; Robb, J.C., Heat of formation of the CF2Cl. radical, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans., 1970, 66, 898. [all data]

Shimanouchi, 1972
Shimanouchi, T., Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies Consolidated Volume II, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1972, 6, 3, 993-1102. [all data]

Bramston-Cook, 2013
Bramston-Cook, R., Kovats indices for C2-C13 hydrocarbons and selected oxygenated/halocarbons with 100 % dimethylpolysiloxane columns, 2013, retrieved from http://lotusinstruments.com/monographs/List .... [all data]

Health Safety Executive, 2000
Health Safety Executive, MDHS 96 Volatile organic compounds in air - Laboratory method using pumed solid sorbent tubes, solvent desorption and gas chromatography in Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances (MDHS) guidance, Crown, Colegate, Norwich, 2000, 1-24, retrieved from http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/mdhs/pdfs/mdhs96.pdf. [all data]

Blunden, Aneja, et al., 2005
Blunden, J.; Aneja, V.P.; Lonneman, W.A., Characterization of non-methane volatile organic compounds at swine facilities in eastern North Carolina, Atm. Environ., 2005, 39, 36, 6707-6718, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.03.053 . [all data]

Zenkevich and Rodin, 2004
Zenkevich, I.G.; Rodin, A.A., Gas chromatographic identification of some volatile toxic fluorine containing compounds by precalculated retention indices, J. Ecol. Chem. (Rus.), 2004, 13, 1, 22-28. [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992
Strete, P.J.; Ruprah, M.; Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning, Analyst, 1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9921701111 . [all data]

Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982
Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood by Headspace Gas Chromatography as an Aid to the Diagnosis of Solvent Abuse, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 240, 2, 423-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)99622-5 . [all data]


Notes

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