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Isobutane

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Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryCP Sil 260.361.1Estel, Mohnke, et al., 1995100. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB20.366.Do and Raulin, 199225. m/0.15 mm/2. «mu»m, H2
CapillarySqualane50.366.7Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillarySqualane70.367.4Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillarySE-3060.365.Bredael, 1982Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm
CapillaryOV-120.365.Nijs and Jacobs, 1981He; Column length: 150. m; Column diameter: 0.50 mm
CapillarySqualane50.364.6Schröder, 1980 
CapillarySqualane100.366.Lulova, Leont'eva, et al., 1976He; Column length: 120. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane40.371.Matukuma, 1969N2; Column length: 91.4 m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane27.365.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane49.366.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane67.366.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane86.366.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSE-3070.369.Widmer, 1967Diatoport S; Column length: 7.9 m
PackedSqualane26.363.Zulaïca and Guiochon, 1966Column length: 10. m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-100366.Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)
CapillaryDB-1362.Hoekman, 199360. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He; Program: -40 C for 12 min; -40 - 125 C at 3 deg.min; 125-185 C at 6 deg/min; 185 - 220 C at 20 deg/min; hold 220 C for 2 min

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedCarbowax 20M130.369.Widmer, 1967Diatoport P; Column length: 7.9 m
PackedCarbowax 20M70.372.Widmer, 1967Diatoport P; Column length: 7.9 m

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101354.2Yin, Liu, et al., 2001N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 80. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 130. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH353.99Subramaniam, Bochniak, et al., 1994100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH353.53White, Douglas, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH353.53White, Douglas, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH353.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101354.Wu and Lu, 1984Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone50.366.N/AN2; Column length: 74.6 m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm
PackedMethyl Silicone50.364.Huguet, 1961Nitrogen, Celite C-22; Column length: 2.5 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB359.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryPetrocol DH354.Supelco, 2012100. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 20. C @ 15. min, 15. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillaryPONA354.Zhang, Ding, et al., 200950. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen, 35. C @ 15. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillaryOV-1354.8Krkosova, Kubinec, et al., 2007100. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 5. K/min, 310. C @ 5. min; Tstart: 30. C
CapillaryBP-1364.Health Safety Executive, 200050. m/0.22 mm/0.75 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-1355.Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 199260. m/0.32 mm/1.2 «mu»m, He, 30. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 240. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone366.Chen and Feng, 2007Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone362.Blunden, Aneja, et al., 200560. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: -50 0C (2 min) 8 0C/min -> 200 0C (7.75 min) 25 0C -> 225 0C (8 min)
CapillaryOV-101366.Du and Liang, 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryPONA368.Perkin Elmer Instruments, 2002Column length: 100. m; Phase thickness: 0.50 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes354.Yin, Guo, et al., 2001Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone354.Spieksma, 1999Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1354.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes366.Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes366.Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1354.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillarySPB-1370.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1370.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified
PackedApieson L350.Kojima, Fujii, et al., 1980Chromosorb W; Column length: 20. m; Program: not specified
PackedSE-30368.Robinson and Odell, 1971N2, Chromosorb W; Column length: 6.1 m; Program: 50C910min) => 20C/min => 90(6min) => 10C/min => 150C(hold)

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Estel, Mohnke, et al., 1995
Estel, D.; Mohnke; Biermans; Rotzsche, The analysis of C4-C11 hydrocarbons in naphtha and reformate with a new apolar fused silica column, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1995, 18, 7, 403-412, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240180703 . [all data]

Do and Raulin, 1992
Do, L.; Raulin, F., Gas chromatography of Titan's atmosphere. III. Analysis of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and nitriles with a CP-Sil-5 CB WCOT capillary column, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 591, 1-2, 297-301, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)80247-R . [all data]

Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988
Lunskii, M.Kh.; Paizanskaya, I.L., Identification of hydrocarbons C1-C9 of petrol fractions of oils and condensates in the use of capillary columns with dinonylphthalate, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1988, 43, 127-135. [all data]

Bredael, 1982
Bredael, P., Retention indices of hydrocarbons on SE-30, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1982, 5, 6, 325-328, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240050610 . [all data]

Nijs and Jacobs, 1981
Nijs, H.H.; Jacobs, P.A., On-Line Single Run Analysis of Effluents from a Fischer-Tropsch Reactor, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1981, 19, 1, 40-45, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/19.1.40 . [all data]

Schröder, 1980
Schröder, I.H., Retention Indices of Hydrocarbons up to C14 for the Stationary Phase Squalane, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1980, 3, 1, 38-44, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240030115 . [all data]

Lulova, Leont'eva, et al., 1976
Lulova, N.I.; Leont'eva, S.A.; Timofeeva, A.N., Gas-chromatographic method of determination of individual hydrocarbons in catalytic cracking gasolines in Proceedings of All-Union Research Institute on Oil Processes. Vol.18, All-Union Research Institute on Oil Processes, Moscow, 1976, 30-53. [all data]

Matukuma, 1969
Matukuma, A., Retention indices of alkanes through C10 and alkenes through C8 and relation between boiling points and retention data, Gas Chromatogr., Int. Symp. Anal. Instrum. Div Instrum Soc. Amer., 1969, 7, 55-75. [all data]

Hively and Hinton, 1968
Hively, R.A.; Hinton, R.E., Variation of the retention index with temperature on squalane substrates, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1968, 6, 4, 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/6.4.203 . [all data]

Widmer, 1967
Widmer, H., Gas chromatographic identification of hydrocarbons using retention indices, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1967, 5, 10, 506-510, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/5.10.506 . [all data]

Zulaïca and Guiochon, 1966
Zulaïca, J.; Guiochon, G., Analyse des hauts polymères par chromatographie en phase gazeuse de leurs produits de pyrolyse. II. Application à quelques hydrocarbures macromoléculaires purs, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1966, 4, 1351-1363. [all data]

Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997
Haagen-Smit Laboratory, Procedure for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasolines by single column high efficiency (capillary) column gas chromatography, SOP NO. MLD 118, Revision No. 1.1, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, El Monte, California, 1997, 22. [all data]

Hoekman, 1993
Hoekman, S.K., Improved gas chromatography procedure for speciated hydrocarbon measurements of vehicle emissions, J. Chromatogr., 1993, 639, 2, 239-253, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(93)80260-F . [all data]

Yin, Liu, et al., 2001
Yin, C.; Liu, W.; Li, Z.; Pan, Z.; Lin, T.; Zhang, M., Chemometrics to chemical modeling: structural coding in hydrocarbons and retention indices of gas chromatography, J. Sep. Sci., 2001, 24, 3, 213-220, https://doi.org/10.1002/1615-9314(20010301)24:3<213::AID-JSSC213>3.0.CO;2-4 . [all data]

Subramaniam, Bochniak, et al., 1994
Subramaniam, B.; Bochniak, D.; Snavely, K., Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media, Lawrence Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (DOE/PC/92532--T7), United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA, 1994, 8, retrieved from http://www.NTIS.gov. [all data]

White, Douglas, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Douglas, L.J.; Hackett, J.P.; Anderson, R.R., Characterization of synthetic gasoline from the chloromethane-zeolite reaction, Energy Fuels, 1992, 6, 1, 76-82, https://doi.org/10.1021/ef00031a012 . [all data]

White, Hackett, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Hackett, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Kail, S.; Spock, P.S., Linear temperature programmed retention indices of gasoline range hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons on cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 105-120, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150211 . [all data]

Wu and Lu, 1984
Wu, J.; Lu, W., Hydrocarbon analysis by open-tubular column chromatography with programmed temperature for straight run gasoline, Anal. Chem., 1984, 12, 7, 572-578. [all data]

Huguet, 1961
Huguet, M., Kovats retention indices in the qualitative analysis of light hydrocarbons by gas chromatography, Journees internationales d'etude des methodes de separation immediate et de chromatographie, 1961, 69. [all data]

Bramston-Cook, 2013
Bramston-Cook, R., Kovats indices for C2-C13 hydrocarbons and selected oxygenated/halocarbons with 100 % dimethylpolysiloxane columns, 2013, retrieved from http://lotusinstruments.com/monographs/List .... [all data]

Supelco, 2012
Supelco, CatalogNo. 24160-U, Petrocol DH Columns. Catalog No. 24160-U, 2012, retrieved from http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Supelco/Datasheet/1/w97949.Par.0001.File.tmp/w97949.pdf. [all data]

Zhang, Ding, et al., 2009
Zhang, X.; Ding, L.; Sun, Z.; Song, L.; Sun, T., Study on quantitative structure-retention relationships for hydrocarbons in FCC gasoline, Chromatographia, 2009, 70, 3/4, 511-518, https://doi.org/10.1365/s10337-009-1174-0 . [all data]

Krkosova, Kubinec, et al., 2007
Krkosova, Z.; Kubinec, R.; Addova, G.; Jurdakova, H.; Blasko, J.; Ostrovsky, I.; Sojak, L., Gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric characterization of monomethylalkanes from fuel diesel, Petroleum Coal, 2007, 49, 3, 51-62. [all data]

Health Safety Executive, 2000
Health Safety Executive, MDHS 96 Volatile organic compounds in air - Laboratory method using pumed solid sorbent tubes, solvent desorption and gas chromatography in Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances (MDHS) guidance, Crown, Colegate, Norwich, 2000, 1-24, retrieved from http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/mdhs/pdfs/mdhs96.pdf. [all data]

Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 1992
Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Frattoni, M.; Liberti, A., Use of carbon adsorption traps combined with high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for the analysis of polar and non-polar C4-C14 hydrocarbons involved in photochemical smog formation, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 75-84, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150205 . [all data]

Chen and Feng, 2007
Chen, Y.; Feng, C., QSPR study on gas chromatography retention index of some organic pollutants, Comput. Appl. Chem. (China), 2007, 24, 10, 1404-1408. [all data]

Blunden, Aneja, et al., 2005
Blunden, J.; Aneja, V.P.; Lonneman, W.A., Characterization of non-methane volatile organic compounds at swine facilities in eastern North Carolina, Atm. Environ., 2005, 39, 36, 6707-6718, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.03.053 . [all data]

Du and Liang, 2003
Du, Y.; Liang, Y., Data mining for seeking accurate quantitative relationship between molecular structure and GC retention indices of alkanes by projection pursuit, Comput. Biol. Chem., 2003, 27, 3, 339-353, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1476-9271(02)00081-6 . [all data]

Perkin Elmer Instruments, 2002
Perkin Elmer Instruments, Detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHAX) Model 4015, 2002, retrieved from http://www.perkinelmer.com/instruments. [all data]

Yin, Guo, et al., 2001
Yin, C.; Guo, W.; Lin, T.; Liu, S.; Fu, R.; Pan, Z.; Wang, L., Application of wavelet neural network to the prediction of gas chromatographic retention indices of alkanes, J. Chinese Chem. Soc., 2001, 48, 739-749. [all data]

Spieksma, 1999
Spieksma, W., Determination of vapor liquid equilibrium from the Kovats retention index on dimethylsilicone using the Wilson mixing tool, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1999, 22, 10, 565-588, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4168(19991001)22:10<565::AID-JHRC565>3.0.CO;2-2 . [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996
Zenkevich, I.G.; Chupalov, A.A., New Possibilities of Chromato Mass Pectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds Using Increments of Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices of Molecular Structural Fragments, Zh. Org. Khim. (Rus.), 1996, 32, 5, 656-666. [all data]

Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992
Strete, P.J.; Ruprah, M.; Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning, Analyst, 1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9921701111 . [all data]

Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982
Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood by Headspace Gas Chromatography as an Aid to the Diagnosis of Solvent Abuse, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 240, 2, 423-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)99622-5 . [all data]

Kojima, Fujii, et al., 1980
Kojima, T.; Fujii, T.; Hosaka, Y., Thermal decomposition products of sterepisomeric polypropylenes, Mass Spectrometry, 1980, 28, 4, 335-341. [all data]

Robinson and Odell, 1971
Robinson, P.G.; Odell, A.L., A system of standard retention indices and its uses. The characterisation of stationary phases and the prediction of retention indices, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 57, 1-10, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(71)80001-8 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, References