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Acetaldehyde

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Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
RCD - Robert C. Dunbar

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C2H3O- + Hydrogen cation = Acetaldehyde

By formula: C2H3O- + H+ = C2H4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar366.42 ± 0.81kcal/molD-EAMead, Lykke, et al., 1984gas phase; Uncertainty: 6 millical/mol (0.26 micro-eV).Dipolebound state at ca. 14.3 cal/mol (5 cm-1); B
Deltar365.8 ± 2.2kcal/molG+TSBartmess, Scott, et al., 1979gas phase; Acid: ethanal. The enol is 9.6 kcal/mol more acidic: Holmes and Lossing, 1982; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Deltar366.5 ± 2.9kcal/molG+TSCumming and Kebarle, 1978gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar359.6 ± 1.2kcal/molH-TSMead, Lykke, et al., 1984gas phase; Uncertainty: 6 millical/mol (0.26 micro-eV).Dipolebound state at ca. 14.3 cal/mol (5 cm-1); B
Deltar359.0 ± 2.0kcal/molIMREBartmess, Scott, et al., 1979gas phase; Acid: ethanal. The enol is 9.6 kcal/mol more acidic: Holmes and Lossing, 1982; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Deltar359.7 ± 2.0kcal/molIMRECumming and Kebarle, 1978gas phase; B

C2H5O+ + Acetaldehyde = (C2H5O+ bullet Acetaldehyde)

By formula: C2H5O+ + C2H4O = (C2H5O+ bullet C2H4O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bonds of the type OH-O between organics

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar29.0kcal/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar26.2cal/mol*KN/ALarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar21.2kcal/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M

C2H7O+ + Acetaldehyde = (C2H7O+ bullet Acetaldehyde)

By formula: C2H7O+ + C2H4O = (C2H7O+ bullet C2H4O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bonds of the type OH-O between organics

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar31.2kcal/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar26.9cal/mol*KN/ALarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar23.2kcal/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M

C2H5O+ + Acetaldehyde = (C2H5O+ bullet Acetaldehyde)

By formula: C2H5O+ + C2H4O = (C2H5O+ bullet C2H4O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bonds of the type OH-O between organics

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar31.9kcal/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar29.0cal/mol*KN/ALarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar23.3kcal/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984; M

C2H3O- + Hydrogen cation = Acetaldehyde

By formula: C2H3O- + H+ = C2H4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar393.19 ± 0.96kcal/molD-EANimlos, Soderquist, et al., 1989gas phase; B
Deltar391.0 ± 2.1kcal/molG+TSDePuy, Bierbaum, et al., 1985gas phase; B
Deltar387.0 ± 8.0kcal/molCIDTGraul and Squires, 1990gas phase; B
Deltar<382.00kcal/molCIDTGraul and Squires, 1988gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar385.4 ± 1.1kcal/molH-TSNimlos, Soderquist, et al., 1989gas phase; B
Deltar383.3 ± 2.0kcal/molIMRBDePuy, Bierbaum, et al., 1985gas phase; B
Deltar<374.25 ± 0.60kcal/molH-TSGraul and Squires, 1988gas phase; B

Chlorine anion + Acetaldehyde = (Chlorine anion bullet Acetaldehyde)

By formula: Cl- + C2H4O = (Cl- bullet C2H4O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar14.4 ± 2.0kcal/molIMRELarson and McMahon, 1984gas phase; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar21.7cal/mol*KN/ALarson and McMahon, 1984gas phase; switching reaction(Cl-)t-C4H9F, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Larson and McMahon, 1984, 2; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar7.9 ± 2.0kcal/molIMRELarson and McMahon, 1984gas phase; B,M

MeCO2 anion + Acetaldehyde = (MeCO2 anion bullet Acetaldehyde)

By formula: C2H3O2- + C2H4O = (C2H3O2- bullet C2H4O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bonds of deprotonated acids to ketones/

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar16.3 ± 1.0kcal/molTDAsMeot-ner, 1988gas phase; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar21.7cal/mol*KPHPMSMeot-ner, 1988gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar9.8 ± 2.0kcal/molTDAsMeot-ner, 1988gas phase; B

Hydrogen + Acetaldehyde = Ethanol

By formula: H2 + C2H4O = C2H6O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-19.44 ± 0.34kcal/molChydWiberg, Crocker, et al., 1991liquid phase; solvent: Triglyme; ALS
Deltar-16.51 ± 0.10kcal/molChydDolliver, Gresham, et al., 1938gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -16.8 ± 0.1 kcal/mol; At 355 °K; ALS

(C2H5O- bullet 4294967295Acetaldehyde) + Acetaldehyde = C2H5O-

By formula: (C2H5O- bullet 4294967295C2H4O) + C2H4O = C2H5O-

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar37.7 ± 1.0kcal/molN/ARamond, Davico, et al., 2000gas phase; B
Deltar39.5 ± 2.2kcal/molTherBartmess, Scott, et al., 1979gas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B

Nitric oxide anion + Acetaldehyde = (Nitric oxide anion bullet Acetaldehyde)

By formula: NO- + C2H4O = (NO- bullet C2H4O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar39.1kcal/molICRReents and Freiser, 1981gas phase; switching reaction,Thermochemical ladder(NO+)C2H5OH, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Farid and McMahon, 1978; M

Lithium ion (1+) + Acetaldehyde = (Lithium ion (1+) bullet Acetaldehyde)

By formula: Li+ + C2H4O = (Li+ bullet C2H4O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar41.3kcal/molICRStaley and Beauchamp, 1975gas phase; switching reaction(Li+)H2O, Keesee and Castleman, 1986 from Berman and Beauchamp, 1986; Dzidic and Kebarle, 1970 interpolated; M

3Acetaldehyde = Paraldehyde

By formula: 3C2H4O = C6H12O3

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-21. ± 1.kcal/molCmKrasnov, Ozherel'eva, et al., 1983liquid phase; solvent: Nonaqueous; Trimerization; ALS
Deltar-23.4kcal/molEqkBusfield, Lee, et al., 1973gas phase; ALS

Magnesium ion (1+) + Acetaldehyde = (Magnesium ion (1+) bullet Acetaldehyde)

By formula: Mg+ + C2H4O = (Mg+ bullet C2H4O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar63. ± 5.kcal/molICROperti, Tews, et al., 1988gas phase; switching reaction,Thermochemical ladder(Mg+)CH3OH; M

Ethane, 1,1-dimethoxy- + Water = 2Methyl Alcohol + Acetaldehyde

By formula: C4H10O2 + H2O = 2CH4O + C2H4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar8.622 ± 0.015kcal/molCmWiberg, 1980liquid phase; solvent: Water; Hydrolysis; ALS

1,1-Dimethoxyethane + Water = 2Methyl Alcohol + Acetaldehyde

By formula: C4H10O2 + H2O = 2CH4O + C2H4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar8.54 ± 0.07kcal/molCmBirley and Skinner, 1970liquid phase; Heat of hydrolysis; ALS

Ethane, 1,2-dimethoxy- + Water = 2Methyl Alcohol + Acetaldehyde

By formula: C4H10O2 + H2O = 2CH4O + C2H4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar8.6 ± 0.2kcal/molEqkWiberg, Morgan, et al., 1994liquid phase; ALS

2Methyl Alcohol + Acetaldehyde = Ethane, 1,2-dimethoxy- + Water

By formula: 2CH4O + C2H4O = C4H10O2 + H2O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-14.8 ± 0.3kcal/molCmWiberg, Morgan, et al., 1994gas phase; ALS

Acetaldehyde + Iodine = Hydrogen iodide + Acetyl iodide

By formula: C2H4O + I2 = HI + C2H3IO

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar0.7 ± 0.5kcal/molEqkWalsh and Benson, 1966gas phase; ALS

Water + Acetaldehyde, phenylhydrazone = Hydrazine, phenyl- + Acetaldehyde

By formula: H2O + C8H10N2 = C6H8N2 + C2H4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-14.6kcal/molCmLandrieu, 1905solid phase; ALS

Paraldehyde = 3Acetaldehyde

By formula: C6H12O3 = 3C2H4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar23.4kcal/molEqkBusfield, Lee, et al., 1973gas phase; At 292-313 K; ALS

Sodium ion (1+) + Acetaldehyde = (Sodium ion (1+) bullet Acetaldehyde)

By formula: Na+ + C2H4O = (Na+ bullet C2H4O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar27.1 ± 0.8kcal/molCIDTArmentrout and Rodgers, 2000RCD

Silver ion (1+) + Acetaldehyde = (Silver ion (1+) bullet Acetaldehyde)

By formula: Ag+ + C2H4O = (Ag+ bullet C2H4O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.5 ± 4.5kcal/molRAKHo, Yang, et al., 1997RCD

References

Go To: Top, Reaction thermochemistry data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Mead, Lykke, et al., 1984
Mead, R.D.; Lykke, K.R.; Lineberger, W.C.; Marks, J.; Brauman, J.I., Spectroscopy and Dynamics of the Dipole-Bound State of Acetaldehyde Enolate., J. Chem. Phys., 1984, 81, 11, 4883., https://doi.org/10.1063/1.447515 . [all data]

Bartmess, Scott, et al., 1979
Bartmess, J.E.; Scott, J.A.; McIver, R.T., Jr., The gas phase acidity scale from methanol to phenol, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, 101, 6047. [all data]

Holmes and Lossing, 1982
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P., Heats of formation of the ionic and neutral enols of acetaldehyde and acetone, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 2648. [all data]

Cumming and Kebarle, 1978
Cumming, J.B.; Kebarle, P., Summary of gas phase measurements involving acids AH. Entropy changes in proton transfer reactions involving negative ions. Bond dissociation energies D(A-H) and electron affinities EA(A), Can. J. Chem., 1978, 56, 1. [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1982
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Formation, Thermochemistry, and Relative Stabilities of Proton - Bound dimers of Oxygen n - Donor Bases from Ion Cyclotron Resonance Solvent - Exchange Equilibria Measurements, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 23, 6255, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00387a016 . [all data]

Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973
Grimsrud, E.P.; Kebarle, P., Gas Phase Ion Equilibria Studies of the Solvation of the Hydrogen Ion by Methanol, Dimethyl Ether and Water. Effect of Hydrogen Bonding, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1973, 95, 24, 7939, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00805a002 . [all data]

Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984
Lias, S.G.; Liebman, J.F.; Levin, R.D., Evaluated gas phase basicities and proton affinities of molecules heats of formation of protonated molecules, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1984, 13, 695. [all data]

Keesee and Castleman, 1986
Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W., Jr., Thermochemical data on Ggs-phase ion-molecule association and clustering reactions, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1986, 15, 1011. [all data]

Nimlos, Soderquist, et al., 1989
Nimlos, M.R.; Soderquist, J.A.; Ellison, G.B., Spectroscopy of CH3CO- and CH3CO, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 20, 7675, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00202a001 . [all data]

DePuy, Bierbaum, et al., 1985
DePuy, C.H.; Bierbaum, V.M.; Damrauer, R.; Soderquist, J.A., Gas-phase reactions of the acetyl anion, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107, 3385. [all data]

Graul and Squires, 1990
Graul, S.T.; Squires, R.R., Gas-Phase Acidities Derived from Threshold Energies for Activated Reactions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1990, 112, 7, 2517, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00163a007 . [all data]

Graul and Squires, 1988
Graul, S.T.; Squires, R.R., On the Existence of Alkyl Carbanions in the Gas Phase, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 2, 607, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00210a054 . [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1984
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Hydrogen bonding in gas phase anions. An experimental investigation of the interaction between chloride ion and bronsted acids from ICR chloride exchange equilibria, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1984, 106, 517. [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1984, 2
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Gas phase negative ion chemistry of alkylchloroformates, Can. J. Chem., 1984, 62, 675. [all data]

Meot-ner, 1988
Meot-ner, M., Ionic Hydrogen Bond and Ion Solvation. 6. Interaction Energies of the Acetate Ion with Organic Molecules. Comparison of CH3COO- with Cl-, CN-, and SH-, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 12, 3854, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00220a022 . [all data]

Wiberg, Crocker, et al., 1991
Wiberg, K.B.; Crocker, L.S.; Morgan, K.M., Thermochemical studies of carbonyl compounds. 5. Enthalpies of reduction of carbonyl groups, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 3447-3450. [all data]

Dolliver, Gresham, et al., 1938
Dolliver, M.A.; Gresham, T.L.; Kistiakowsky, G.B.; Smith, E.A.; Vaughan, W.E., Heats of organic reactions. VI. Heats of hydrogenation of some oxygen-containing compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1938, 60, 440-450. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Ramond, Davico, et al., 2000
Ramond, T.M.; Davico, G.E.; Schwartz, R.L.; Lineberger, W.C., Vibronic structure of alkoxy radicals via photoelectron spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 112, 3, 1158-1169, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.480767 . [all data]

Reents and Freiser, 1981
Reents, W.D.; Freiser, B.S., Gas-Phase Binding Energies and Spectroscopic Properties of NO+ Charge-Transfer Complexes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 2791. [all data]

Farid and McMahon, 1978
Farid, R.; McMahon, T.B., Gas-Phase Ion-Molecule Reactions of Alkyl Nitrites by Ion Cyclotron Resonance Spectroscopy, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1978, 27, 2, 163, https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7381(78)80037-0 . [all data]

Staley and Beauchamp, 1975
Staley, R.H.; Beauchamp, J.L., Intrinsic Acid - Base Properties of Molecules. Binding Energies of Li+ to pi - and n - Donor Bases, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1975, 97, 20, 5920, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00853a050 . [all data]

Berman and Beauchamp, 1986
Berman, D.W.; Beauchamp, J.L., Quoted in Keesee and Castleman, 1986, 1986. [all data]

Dzidic and Kebarle, 1970
Dzidic, I.; Kebarle, P., Hydration of the Alkali Ions in the Gas Phase. Enthalpies and Entropies of Reactions M+(H2O)n-1 + H2O = M+(H2O)n, J. Phys. Chem., 1970, 74, 7, 1466, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100702a013 . [all data]

Krasnov, Ozherel'eva, et al., 1983
Krasnov, V.L.; Ozherel'eva, N.K.; Trub, E.P.; Tsvetkov, V.G.; Bodrikov, I.V., Trimerization of aldehydes under the action of sulfur dioxide, J. Gen. Chem. USSR, 1983, 53, 2135-2138. [all data]

Busfield, Lee, et al., 1973
Busfield, W.K.; Lee, R.M.; Merifold, D., Gas phase equilibrium between acetaldehyde and paraldehyde, thermodynamic values for the trimerisation of acetaldehyde and the polymerisability of paraldehyde, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1, 1973, 69, 936-940. [all data]

Operti, Tews, et al., 1988
Operti, L.; Tews, E.C.; Freiser, B.S., Determination of Gas-Phase Ligand Binding Energies to Mg+ by FTMS Techniques, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 12, 3847, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00220a020 . [all data]

Wiberg, 1980
Wiberg, K.B., Energies of organic compounds, Rept. DOE-E(11-1)4060 Prepared for US Dept. of Energy by Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. Avail. NTIS, 1980, 1-24. [all data]

Birley and Skinner, 1970
Birley, G.I.; Skinner, H.A., Enthalpies of hydrolysis of dimethoxymethane and 1,1-dimethoxyethane, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1970, 66, 791-793. [all data]

Wiberg, Morgan, et al., 1994
Wiberg, K.B.; Morgan, K.M.; Maltz, H., Thermochemistry of carbonyl reactions. 6. A study of hydration equilibria, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1994, 116, 11067-11077. [all data]

Walsh and Benson, 1966
Walsh, R.; Benson, S.W., The heats of formation of acetyl iodide and the acetyl radical, J. Phys. Chem., 1966, 70, 3751-3753. [all data]

Landrieu, 1905
Landrieu, M.Ph., Thermochimie. - Thermochimie des hydrazones, Compt. Rend., 1905, 141, 358-361. [all data]

Armentrout and Rodgers, 2000
Armentrout, P.B.; Rodgers, M.T., An Absolute Sodium Cation Affinity Scale: Threshold Collision-Induced Dissociation Experiments and ab Initio Theory, J. Phys. Chem A, 2000, 104, 11, 2238, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp991716n . [all data]

Ho, Yang, et al., 1997
Ho, Y.-P.; Yang, Y.-C.; Klippenstein, S.J.; Dunbar, R.C., Binding Energies of Ag+ and Cd+ Complexes from Analysis of Radiative Association Kinetics, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1997, 101, 18, 3338, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp9637284 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Reaction thermochemistry data, References