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Ethyl Chloride

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - D.R. Burgess
ALS - H.Y. Afeefy, J.F. Liebman, and S.E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-109. ± 8.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacgas-1413.1 ± 0.59kJ/molCcbFletcher and Pilcher, 1971ALS
Deltacgas-1430. ± 10.kJ/molCcbCasey and Fordham, 1951ALS

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - D.R. Burgess
DH - E.S. Domalski and E.D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-137. ± 1.kJ/molReviewManion, 2002derived from recommended «DELTA»fHgas° and «DELTA»vapH°; DRB
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid186.27J/mol*KN/AGordon and Giauque, 1948DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
103.3290.Gordon and Giauque, 1948T = 13 to 287 K.; DH
109.6288.Kurbatov, 1948T = -67 to 15°C; mean Cp, three temperatures.; DH
108.8298.Riedel, 1941T = -48 to 45°C.; DH
108.8298.1Riedel, 1940T = -48 to 46°C.; DH
107.70298.Jenkin and Shorthose, 1924T = -30 to 40°C.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - R.L. Brown and S.E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, M. Frenkel director
DRB - D.R. Burgess
DH - E.S. Domalski and E.D. Hearing
AC - W.E. Acree, Jr., J.S. Chickos
ALS - H.Y. Afeefy, J.F. Liebman, and S.E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil289. ± 10.KAVGN/AAverage of 8 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus136.75KN/ATimmermans, 1952Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Tfus133.KN/AAwbery, 1941Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Tfus137.KN/ATimmermans and Hennaut-Roland, 1937Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Tfus132.3KN/ATimmermans, 1911Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple134.82KN/AGordon and Giauque, 1948, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc460.35KN/ABerthoud, 1917Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc52.4053barN/ABerthoud, 1917Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4053 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap24.6 ± 0.3kJ/molReviewManion, 2002weighted average of several measurements plus a correction for non-ideality; DRB

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
24.652285.42N/AGordon and Giauque, 1948P = 101.325 kPa; DH
25.1300.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 285. - 344. K.; AC
24.4349.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 334. - 413. K.; AC
24.4418.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 403. - 460. K.; AC
27.8222.A,EStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 207. - 305. K. See also Li and Rossini, 1961 and Dykyj, 1970.; AC
25.9270.N/AGordon and Giauque, 1948Based on data from 218. - 285. K.; AC
24.83294.CYates, 1926ALS

Entropy of vaporization

DeltavapS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
86.37285.42Gordon and Giauque, 1948P; DH

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
217.21 - 285.664.161811052.821-32.078Gordon and Giauque, 1948Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
4.452134.82Gordon and Giauque, 1948DH
4.45134.8Acree, 1991AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
33.02134.82Gordon and Giauque, 1948DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - J.E. Bartmess
ALS - H.Y. Afeefy, J.F. Liebman, and S.E. Stein
M - M. M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and S. G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

Chlorine anion + Ethyl Chloride = (Chlorine anion bullet Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: Cl- + C2H5Cl = (Cl- bullet C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar51.9 ± 4.2kJ/molTDAsLi, Ross, et al., 1996gas phase; B
Deltar61. ± 19.kJ/molIMRBRiveros, Breda, et al., 1973gas phase; Anchored: Larson and McMahon, 1984; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.5 ± 0.84kJ/molTDAsLi, Ross, et al., 1996gas phase; B

Ethyl Chloride = Ethylene + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C2H5Cl = C2H4 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.0kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979liquid phase; ALS
Deltar71.5kJ/molEqkLevanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979gas phase; ALS
Deltar72.6 ± 2.1kJ/molEqkHowlett, 1955gas phase; ALS
Deltar71.5kJ/molEqkLane, Linnett, et al., 1953gas phase; ALS

(C2H5+ bullet 2Ethyl Chloride) + Ethyl Chloride = (C2H5+ bullet 3Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: (C2H5+ bullet 2C2H5Cl) + C2H5Cl = (C2H5+ bullet 3C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar20.kJ/molHPMSLuczynski and Wincel, 1974gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar32.J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski and Wincel, 1974gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M

(C2H5+ bullet Ethyl Chloride) + Ethyl Chloride = (C2H5+ bullet 2Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: (C2H5+ bullet C2H5Cl) + C2H5Cl = (C2H5+ bullet 2C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.kJ/molHPMSLuczynski and Wincel, 1974gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar36.J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski and Wincel, 1974gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M

Bromine anion + Ethyl Chloride = (Bromine anion bullet Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: Br- + C2H5Cl = (Br- bullet C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar46.9 ± 4.2kJ/molTDAsLi, Ross, et al., 1996gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.4 ± 0.84kJ/molTDAsLi, Ross, et al., 1996gas phase; B

Methyl cation + Ethyl Chloride = (Methyl cation bullet Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: CH3+ + C2H5Cl = (CH3+ bullet C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar300.kJ/molPHPMSSharma, Meza de Hojer, et al., 1985gas phase; from Et+ + CH3Cl; Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Rosenstock, Buff, et al., 1982; Sen Sharma and Kebarle, 1978; M

C4H9+ + Ethyl Chloride = (C4H9+ bullet Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: C4H9+ + C2H5Cl = (C4H9+ bullet C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar38.kJ/molPHPMSSharma, Meza de Hojer, et al., 1985gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar68.2J/mol*KPHPMSSharma, Meza de Hojer, et al., 1985gas phase; M

Hydrogen + Ethyl Chloride = Ethane + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: H2 + C2H5Cl = C2H6 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-69.3 ± 0.4kJ/molChydLacher, Emery, et al., 1956gas phase; ALS

Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: R. Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference Comment
0.0842900.LN/A 
0.14 QN/A missing citation give several references for the Henry's law constants but don't assign them to specific species. Value at T = 293. K.
0.0802600.XN/A 
0.0893100.MGossett, 1987 
0.068750.XN/A 
0.51 LN/A 
0.088 VN/A 
0.12 VN/A 

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - E.P. Hunter and S.G. Lias
L - S.G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
MM - M. Mautner
LL - S.G. Lias and J.F. Liebman
LBLHLM - S.G. Lias, J.E. Bartmess, J.F. Liebman, J.L. Holmes, R.D. Levin, and W.G. Mallard
LLK - S.G. Lias, R.D. Levin, and S.A. Kafafi
RDSH - H.M. Rosenstock, K. Draxl, B.W. Steiner, and J.T. Herron

View reactions leading to C2H5Cl+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)10.98 ± 0.02eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)693.4kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity666.9kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Proton affinity at 298K

Proton affinity (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
679.5 ± 1.4Bouchoux, Caunan, et al., 2001T = 300K; MM

Gas basicity at 298K

Gas basicity (review) (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
655.6 ± 1.4Bouchoux, Caunan, et al., 2001T = 300K; MM

Protonation entropy at 298K

Protonation entropy (J/mol*K) Reference Comment
28.5Bouchoux, Caunan, et al., 2001T = 300K; MM

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
10.95ESTLuo and Pacey, 1992LL
11.04 ± 0.05EIHolmes and Lossing, 1991LL
11.0PEOhno, Imai, et al., 1983LBLHLM
10.98 ± 0.02PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
10.98 ± 0.01PIMatsunaga, 1961RDSH
10.97 ± 0.02PIWatanabe, 1957RDSH
11.06PEOhno, Imai, et al., 1985Vertical value; LBLHLM
11.01PEUtsunomiya, Kobayashi, et al., 1980Vertical value; LLK
11.01PEHoppilliard and Solgadi, 1980Vertical value; LLK
11.06 ± 0.02PEKatsumata and Kimura, 1975Vertical value; LLK
11.01PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1973Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
CH2Cl+13.2 ± 0.2CH3EIHarrison and Shannon, 1962RDSH
CH2Cl+13.6 ± 0.2CH3EIIrsa, 1957RDSH
CH3+15.9 ± 0.3?EIIrsa, 1957RDSH
C2H4+11.38 ± 0.02HClEIMaccoll and Mathur, 1980LLK
C2H4+11.33HClEIBaldwin, Maccoll, et al., 1966RDSH
C2H5+11.67ClPITraeger and McLoughlin, 1981LLK
C2H5+11.83 ± 0.06ClEIBaldwin, Maccoll, et al., 1966RDSH
Cl+23.4 ± 0.3?EIIrsa, 1957RDSH

Ion clustering data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - J.E. Bartmess
M - M. M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and S. G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

Bromine anion + Ethyl Chloride = (Bromine anion bullet Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: Br- + C2H5Cl = (Br- bullet C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar46.9 ± 4.2kJ/molTDAsLi, Ross, et al., 1996gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.4 ± 0.84kJ/molTDAsLi, Ross, et al., 1996gas phase; B

Methyl cation + Ethyl Chloride = (Methyl cation bullet Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: CH3+ + C2H5Cl = (CH3+ bullet C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar300.kJ/molPHPMSSharma, Meza de Hojer, et al., 1985gas phase; from Et+ + CH3Cl; Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Rosenstock, Buff, et al., 1982; Sen Sharma and Kebarle, 1978; M

(C2H5+ bullet Ethyl Chloride) + Ethyl Chloride = (C2H5+ bullet 2Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: (C2H5+ bullet C2H5Cl) + C2H5Cl = (C2H5+ bullet 2C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.kJ/molHPMSLuczynski and Wincel, 1974gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar36.J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski and Wincel, 1974gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M

(C2H5+ bullet 2Ethyl Chloride) + Ethyl Chloride = (C2H5+ bullet 3Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: (C2H5+ bullet 2C2H5Cl) + C2H5Cl = (C2H5+ bullet 3C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar20.kJ/molHPMSLuczynski and Wincel, 1974gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar32.J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski and Wincel, 1974gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M

C4H9+ + Ethyl Chloride = (C4H9+ bullet Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: C4H9+ + C2H5Cl = (C4H9+ bullet C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar38.kJ/molPHPMSSharma, Meza de Hojer, et al., 1985gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar68.2J/mol*KPHPMSSharma, Meza de Hojer, et al., 1985gas phase; M

Chlorine anion + Ethyl Chloride = (Chlorine anion bullet Ethyl Chloride)

By formula: Cl- + C2H5Cl = (Cl- bullet C2H5Cl)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar51.9 ± 4.2kJ/molTDAsLi, Ross, et al., 1996gas phase; B
Deltar61. ± 19.kJ/molIMRBRiveros, Breda, et al., 1973gas phase; Anchored: Larson and McMahon, 1984; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.5 ± 0.84kJ/molTDAsLi, Ross, et al., 1996gas phase; B

IR Spectrum

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Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spec Data Center, S.E. Stein, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spec Data Center, S.E. Stein, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
NIST MS number 19016

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Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: T. Shimanouchi

Symmetry:   Cs     Symmetry Number sigma = 1


 Sym.   No   Approximate   Selected Freq.  Infrared   Raman   Comments 
 Species   type of mode   Value   Rating   Value  Phase  Value  Phase

a' 1 CH2 s-str 2967  D 2977 M sln. 2967 M p liq.
a' 2 CH3 d-str 2946  C 2946 S gas 2934 M p liq.
a' 3 CH3 s-str 2881  C 2881 S gas 2883 W p liq.
a' 4 CH3 d-deform 1463  D 1463 S sln.
a' 5 CH2 scis 1448  D 1448 S gas 1453 M dp liq. OV(«nu»14)
a' 6 CH3 s-deform 1385  C 1385 S gas 1383 W dp liq.
a' 7 CH2 wag 1289  C 1289 VS gas 1283 W p liq.
a' 8 CH3 rock 1081  D 1081 VW gas 1072 M p liq.
a' 9 CC str 974  D 974 VS gas 969 W dp liq. OV(«nu»16)
a' 10 CCl str 677  C 677 VS gas 659 VS p liq.
a' 11 CCCl deform 336  C 336 M gas 337 S p liq.
a 12 CH2 a-str 3014  D 3014 VS gas 3013 W liq.
a 13 CH3 d-str 2986  D 2986 VS gas 2978 W liq.
a 14 CH3 d-deform 1448  D 1448 S gas 1453 M dp liq. OV(«nu»5)
a 15 CH2 twist 1251  D 1251 VW gas 1248 W dp liq.
a 16 CH3 rock 974  D 974 VS gas 969 W dp liq. OV(«nu»9)
a 17 CH2 rock 786  B 786 M gas
a 18 Torsion 251  B 251 W gas MW: «nu»251

Source: Shimanouchi, 1972

Notes

VSVery strong
SStrong
MMedium
WWeak
VWVery weak
pPolarized
dpDepolarized
OVOverlapped by band indicated in parentheses.
MWTorsional Frequency calculated from microwave spectroscopic data.
B1~3 cm-1 uncertainty
C3~6 cm-1 uncertainty
D6~15 cm-1 uncertainty

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spec Data Center, S.E. Stein, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-150.441.Villalobos, 199530. m/0.32 mm/0.96 «mu»m
PackedOV-1100.431.Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedOV-1125.431.Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedOV-175.431.Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedSqualane80.416.Pacáková, Vojtechová, et al., 1988N2, Chezasorb AW-HMDS; Column length: 1.2 m
PackedSqualane27.414.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane49.415.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane67.416.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane86.417.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedApiezon L130.427.von Kováts, 1958Celite (40:60 Gewichtsverhaltnis)
PackedApiezon L70.432.von Kováts, 1958Celite (40:60 Gewichtsverhaltnis)

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M50.668.Villalobos, 199530. m/0.32 mm/0.54 «mu»m, He
PackedSP-1000100.661.08Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedSP-1000125.661.45Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedSP-100075.661.48Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH423.96White, Douglas, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH424.09White, Douglas, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH424.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedApiezon L100.455.Kavan, 1973Column length: 3.2 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101430.Zenkevich, 200525. m/0.20 mm/0.10 «mu»m, N2/He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryBP-1434.Health Safety Executive, 200050. m/0.22 mm/0.75 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillarySE-54446.Huang, Liang, et al., 199636. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 5. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryOV-101432.Dimov and Milina, 1989H2, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 280. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes430.Zenkevich, Eliseenkov, et al., 2006Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone430.Zenkevich, 1999Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone430.Zenkevich, 1998Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1426.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes430.Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes432.Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1426.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillarySPB-1447.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1447.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M668.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Fletcher and Pilcher, 1971
Fletcher, R.A.; Pilcher, G., Measurements of heats of combustion by flame calorimetry. Part 7.-Chloromethane, chloroethane, 1-chloropropane, 2-chloropropane, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1971, 67, 3191-3201. [all data]

Casey and Fordham, 1951
Casey, D.W.H.; Fordham, S., An all-glass calorimeter, and the heat of combustion of ethyl chloride, J. Chem. Soc., 1951, 2513-2516. [all data]

Manion, 2002
Manion, J.A., Evaluated Enthalpies of Formation of the Stable Closed Shell C1 and C2 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2002, 31, 1, 123-172, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1420703 . [all data]

Gordon and Giauque, 1948
Gordon, J.; Giauque, W.F., The entropy of ethyl chloride. Heat capacity from 18 to 287K. Vapor pressure. Heats of fusion and vaporization, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1948, 70, 1506-1510. [all data]

Kurbatov, 1948
Kurbatov, V.Ya., Heat capacity of liquids. 2. Heat capacity and the temperature dependence of heat capacity from halogen derivatives of acylic hydrocarbons, Zh. Obshch. Kim., 1948, 18, 372-389. [all data]

Riedel, 1941
Riedel, L., Determination of the specific heat of liquid ethyl chloride and liquid methylene chloride, Bull. Int. Inst., Refrig. Annex 22, 1941, No4, 1-3. [all data]

Riedel, 1940
Riedel, L., Bestimmung der spezifischen Wärme von Äthychlorid und Methylenchlorid im flüssigen Zustand, Z. ges. Kalte-Ind., 1940, 47, 87. [all data]

Jenkin and Shorthose, 1924
Jenkin, C.F.; Shorthose, D.N., Thermal properties of ethyl chloride, 1924, 347-349. [all data]

Timmermans, 1952
Timmermans, J., Freezing points of organic compounds. VVI New determinations., Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg., 1952, 61, 393. [all data]

Awbery, 1941
Awbery, J.H., Philos. Mag., 1941, 31, 247. [all data]

Timmermans and Hennaut-Roland, 1937
Timmermans, J.; Hennaut-Roland, M., Works from International Bureau at Physical-Chemical Standards. VIII. Physical constants of 20 organic compounds, J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol., 1937, 34, 693. [all data]

Timmermans, 1911
Timmermans, J., Researches on the freezing point of organic liquid compounds, Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg., 1911, 25, 300. [all data]

Gordon and Giauque, 1948, 2
Gordon, J.; Giauque, W.F., The Entropy of Ethyl Chloride. Heat Capacity from 13 to 287 K. Vapor Pressure. Heats of Fusion and Vaporization, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1948, 70, 1506. [all data]

Berthoud, 1917
Berthoud, A., Determination of Critical Temperatures and Pressures of Amines and Alkyl Chlorides, J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol., 1917, 15, 3. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Li and Rossini, 1961
Li, J.C.M.; Rossini, F.D., Vapor Pressures and Boiling Points of the l-Fluoroalkanes, l-Chloroalkanes, l-Bromoalkanes, and l-Iodoalkanes, C 1 to C 20 ., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1961, 6, 2, 268-270, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60010a025 . [all data]

Dykyj, 1970
Dykyj, J., Petrochemica, 1970, 10, 2, 51. [all data]

Yates, 1926
Yates, G.W.C., LXXIV. Latent heats of vaporization of ethyl and methyl chlorides, Philos. Mag., 1926, 2, 817-826. [all data]

Acree, 1991
Acree, William E., Thermodynamic properties of organic compounds: enthalpy of fusion and melting point temperature compilation, Thermochimica Acta, 1991, 189, 1, 37-56, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(91)87098-H . [all data]

Li, Ross, et al., 1996
Li, C.; Ross, P.; Szulejko, J.; McMahon, T.B., High-Pressure Mass Spectrometric Investigations of the Potential Energy Surfaces of Gas-Phase Sn2 Reactions., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1996, 118, 39, 9360, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja960565o . [all data]

Riveros, Breda, et al., 1973
Riveros, J.M.; Breda, A.C.; Blair, L.K., Formation and relative stability of chloride ion clusters in the gas phase by ICR spectroscopy, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1973, 95, 4066. [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1984
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Fluoride and chloride affinities of main group oxides, fluorides, oxofluorides, and alkyls. Quantitative scales of lewis acidities from ion cyclotron resonance halide-exchange equilibria, J. Phys. Chem., 1984, 88, 1083. [all data]

Levanova, Bushneva, et al., 1979
Levanova, s.V.; Bushneva, I.I.; Rodova, R.M.; Rozhnov, A.M.; Treger, Yu.A.; Aprelkin, A.S., Thermodynamic stability of chloroethanes in dehydrochlorination reactions, J. Appl. Chem. USSR, 1979, 52, 1439-1442. [all data]

Howlett, 1955
Howlett, K.E., The use of equilibrium constants to calculate thermodynamic quantities. Part II, J. Chem. Soc., 1955, 1784-17. [all data]

Lane, Linnett, et al., 1953
Lane, M.R.; Linnett, J.W.; Oswin, H.G., A study of the C2H4+HCl=C2H5Cl and C2H4+Hbr=C2H5Br equilibria, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A, 1953, 216, 361-374. [all data]

Luczynski and Wincel, 1974
Luczynski, Z.; Wincel, H., Ion - Molecule Reactions in Ethyl Chloride, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1974, 14, 1, 29, https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7381(74)80059-8 . [all data]

Sharma, Meza de Hojer, et al., 1985
Sharma, D.M.S.; Meza de Hojer, S.; Kebarle, P., Stabilities of halonium ions from a study of gas-phase equilibria R+ + XR' = (RXR')+, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107, 13, 3757, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00299a002 . [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Academic Press, New York, 1970. [all data]

Rosenstock, Buff, et al., 1982
Rosenstock, H.M.; Buff, R.; Ferreira, M.A.A.; Lias, S.G.; Parr, A.C.; Stockbauer, R.L.; Holmes, J.L., Fragmentation mechanism and energetics of some alkyl halide ions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 2337. [all data]

Sen Sharma and Kebarle, 1978
Sen Sharma, D.K.; Kebarle, P., Binding Energies and Stabilities of Chloronium Ions from Study of the Gas - Phase Equilibria: R1+ + ClR2 = R1ClR2+, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 18, 5826, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00486a039 . [all data]

Lacher, Emery, et al., 1956
Lacher, J.R.; Emery, E.; Bohmfalk, E.; Park, J.D., Reaction heats of organic compounds. IV. A high temperature calorimeter and the hydrogenation of methyl ethyl and vinyl chlorides, J. Phys. Chem., 1956, 60, 492-495. [all data]

Gossett, 1987
Gossett, J.M., Measurement of Henry's Law Constants for C1 and C2 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Environ. Sci. Technol., 1987, 21, 202-208. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Bouchoux, Caunan, et al., 2001
Bouchoux, G.; Caunan, F.; Leblanc, D.; Nguyen, M.T.; Salpin, J.Y., Protonation thermochemistry of ethyl halides, Chem Phys. Phys. Chem., 2001, 10, 604-610. [all data]

Luo and Pacey, 1992
Luo, Y.-R.; Pacey, P.D., Effects of alkyl substitution on ionization energies of alkanes and haloalkanes and on heats of formation of their molecular cations. Part 2. Alkanes and chloro-, bromo- and iodoalkanes, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1992, 112, 63. [all data]

Holmes and Lossing, 1991
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P., Ionization energies of homologous organic compounds and correlation with molecular size, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1991, 26, 537. [all data]

Ohno, Imai, et al., 1983
Ohno, K.; Imai, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Harada, Y., Penning ionization electron spectroscopy of C2H5X (X = NH2, OH, H, Cl, I) relative reactivity of orbital localizing on functional groups upon electrophilic attack by metastable helium atoms, J. Phys. Chem., 1983, 87, 4346. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Matsunaga, 1961
Matsunaga, F.M., Photoionization yield of several molecules in the Schumann region, Contribution No. 27, Hawaii Institute of, 1961, Geophysics, Honolulu. [all data]

Watanabe, 1957
Watanabe, K., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Chem. Phys., 1957, 26, 542. [all data]

Ohno, Imai, et al., 1985
Ohno, K.; Imai, K.; Harada, Y., Variations in reactivity of lone-pair electrons due to intramolecular hydrogen bonding as observed by penning ionization electron spectroscopy, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107, 8078. [all data]

Utsunomiya, Kobayashi, et al., 1980
Utsunomiya, C.; Kobayashi, T.; Nagakura, S., Photoelectron angular distribution measurements for some aliphatic alcohols, amines, halides, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1980, 53, 1216. [all data]

Hoppilliard and Solgadi, 1980
Hoppilliard, Y.; Solgadi, D., Conformational analysis of 2-haloethanols and 2-methoxyethylhalides in a photoelectron spectrometer, Tetrahedron, 1980, 36, 377. [all data]

Katsumata and Kimura, 1975
Katsumata, S.; Kimura, K., Photoelectron spectra and sum rule consideration. Effect of chlorine substitution on ionization energies for chloroethanes, chloroacetaldehydes and chloroacetyl chlorides, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1975, 6, 309. [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1973
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Achiba, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Nagakura, S., Photoelectron spectra and orbital structures of higher alkyl chlorides, bromides, and iodides., Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1973, 46, 373. [all data]

Harrison and Shannon, 1962
Harrison, A.G.; Shannon, T.W., An electron impact study of chloromethyl and dichloromethyl derivatives, Can. J. Chem., 1962, 40, 1730. [all data]

Irsa, 1957
Irsa, A.P., Electron impact studies on C2H5Cl, C2H5Br, and C2H5I, J. Chem. Phys., 1957, 26, 18. [all data]

Maccoll and Mathur, 1980
Maccoll, A.; Mathur, D., Hydrogen chloride elimination from the molecular ions of alkyl chlorides, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1980, 15, 483. [all data]

Baldwin, Maccoll, et al., 1966
Baldwin, M.; Maccoll, A.; Miller, S.I., Ionization and appearance potentials from a study of alkyl chlorides, Advan. Mass Spectrom., 1966, 3, 259. [all data]

Traeger and McLoughlin, 1981
Traeger, J.C.; McLoughlin, R.G., Absolute heats of formation for gas phase cations, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 3647. [all data]

Shimanouchi, 1972
Shimanouchi, T., Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies Consolidated Volume I, National Bureau of Standards, 1972, 1-160. [all data]

Villalobos, 1995
Villalobos, R., A window diagram for key component analysis in on-line gas chromatography, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1995, 18, 6, 343-347, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240180604 . [all data]

Castello and Gerbino, 1988
Castello, G.; Gerbino, T.C., Effect of Temperature on the Gas Chromatographic Separation of Halogenated Compounds on Polar and Non-Polar Stationary Phases, J. Chromatogr., 1988, 437, 33-45, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)90369-8 . [all data]

Pacáková, Vojtechová, et al., 1988
Pacáková, V.; Vojtechová, H.; Coufal, P., Reaction gas chromatography: study of the photodecomposition of halogenated hydrocarbons, Chromatographia, 1988, 25, 7, 621-626, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02327659 . [all data]

Hively and Hinton, 1968
Hively, R.A.; Hinton, R.E., Variation of the retention index with temperature on squalane substrates, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1968, 6, 4, 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/6.4.203 . [all data]

von Kováts, 1958
von Kováts, E., 206. Gas-chromatographische Charakterisierung organischer Verbindungen. Teil 1: Retentionsindices aliphatischer Halogenide, Alkohole, Aldehyde und Ketone, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1958, 41, 7, 1915-1932, https://doi.org/10.1002/hlca.19580410703 . [all data]

White, Douglas, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Douglas, L.J.; Hackett, J.P.; Anderson, R.R., Characterization of synthetic gasoline from the chloromethane-zeolite reaction, Energy Fuels, 1992, 6, 1, 76-82, https://doi.org/10.1021/ef00031a012 . [all data]

White, Hackett, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Hackett, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Kail, S.; Spock, P.S., Linear temperature programmed retention indices of gasoline range hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons on cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 105-120, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150211 . [all data]

Kavan, 1973
Kavan, I., Analysis of odorants, Sbornik Praci UVP, 1973, 26, 128-144. [all data]

Zenkevich, 2005
Zenkevich, I.G., Experimentally measured retention indices., 2005. [all data]

Health Safety Executive, 2000
Health Safety Executive, MDHS 96 Volatile organic compounds in air - Laboratory method using pumed solid sorbent tubes, solvent desorption and gas chromatography in Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances (MDHS) guidance, Crown, Colegate, Norwich, 2000, 1-24, retrieved from http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/mdhs/pdfs/mdhs96.pdf. [all data]

Huang, Liang, et al., 1996
Huang, C.; Liang, H.; Han, S., The analysis of organic compounds in waste water by gas extraction/thermal desorption/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 1996, 14, 6, 421-424. [all data]

Dimov and Milina, 1989
Dimov, N.; Milina, R., Precalculation of gas chromatographic retention indices of linear 1-halogenoalkanes, J. Chromatogr., 1989, 463, 159-164, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84464-2 . [all data]

Zenkevich, Eliseenkov, et al., 2006
Zenkevich, I.G.; Eliseenkov, E.V.; Kasatochkin, A.N., Application of Retention Indices in GC-MS Identification of Halogenated Organic Compounds, Mass Spectromery (Rus.), 2006, 3, 2, 131-140. [all data]

Zenkevich, 1999
Zenkevich, I.G., Mutual Correlation between Gas-Chromatographic Retention Indices of Organic Compounds from Different Series, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1999, 54, 12, 1272-1279. [all data]

Zenkevich, 1998
Zenkevich, I.G., Reciprocally Unambiguous Conformity Between GC Retention Indices and Boiling Points within Two- and Multidimensional Taxonomic Groups of Organic Compounds, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1998, 21, 10, 565-568, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4168(19981001)21:10<565::AID-JHRC565>3.0.CO;2-6 . [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996
Zenkevich, I.G.; Chupalov, A.A., New Possibilities of Chromato Mass Pectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds Using Increments of Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices of Molecular Structural Fragments, Zh. Org. Khim. (Rus.), 1996, 32, 5, 656-666. [all data]

Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992
Strete, P.J.; Ruprah, M.; Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning, Analyst, 1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9921701111 . [all data]

Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982
Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood by Headspace Gas Chromatography as an Aid to the Diagnosis of Solvent Abuse, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 240, 2, 423-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)99622-5 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References