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titanium


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas473. ± 3.kJ/molReviewCox, Wagman, et al., 1984CODATA Review value
Deltafgas473.63kJ/molReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in June, 1979
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas,1 bar180.298 ± 0.010J/mol*KReviewCox, Wagman, et al., 1984CODATA Review value
gas,1 bar180.30J/mol*KReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in June, 1979

Gas Phase Heat Capacity (Shomate Equation)

Cp° = A + B*t + C*t2 + D*t3 + E/t2
H° − H°298.15= A*t + B*t2/2 + C*t3/3 + D*t4/4 − E/t + F − H
S° = A*ln(t) + B*t + C*t2/2 + D*t3/3 − E/(2*t2) + G
    Cp = heat capacity (J/mol*K)
    H° = standard enthalpy (kJ/mol)
    S° = standard entropy (J/mol*K)
    t = temperature (K) / 1000.

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View table.

Temperature (K) 3630.956 - 6000.
A 9.274255
B 6.092113
C 0.577095
D -0.110364
E 6.504405
F 483.0093
G 204.1566
H 473.6288
ReferenceChase, 1998
Comment Data last reviewed in June, 1979

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid13.65kJ/molReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in June, 1979
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid,1 bar39.18J/mol*KReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in June, 1979
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
solid,1 bar30.72 ± 0.10J/mol*KReviewCox, Wagman, et al., 1984CODATA Review value

Liquid Phase Heat Capacity (Shomate Equation)

Cp° = A + B*t + C*t2 + D*t3 + E/t2
H° − H°298.15= A*t + B*t2/2 + C*t3/3 + D*t4/4 − E/t + F − H
S° = A*ln(t) + B*t + C*t2/2 + D*t3/3 − E/(2*t2) + G
    Cp = heat capacity (J/mol*K)
    H° = standard enthalpy (kJ/mol)
    S° = standard entropy (J/mol*K)
    t = temperature (K) / 1000.

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View table.

Temperature (K) 1939. - 3630.956
A 47.23694
B 1.975192×10-8
C -5.335145×10-9
D 4.904109×10-10
E 1.564855×10-8
F -22.05273
G 66.20218
H 13.65202
ReferenceChase, 1998
Comment Data last reviewed in June, 1979

Solid Phase Heat Capacity (Shomate Equation)

Cp° = A + B*t + C*t2 + D*t3 + E/t2
H° − H°298.15= A*t + B*t2/2 + C*t3/3 + D*t4/4 − E/t + F − H
S° = A*ln(t) + B*t + C*t2/2 + D*t3/3 − E/(2*t2) + G
    Cp = heat capacity (J/mol*K)
    H° = standard enthalpy (kJ/mol)
    S° = standard entropy (J/mol*K)
    t = temperature (K) / 1000.

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View table.

Temperature (K) 298. - 700.700. - 1700.298. - 1939.
A 22.6194244.3717423.05660
B 18.98795-44.092255.541331
C -18.1873531.70602-2.055881
D 7.0807920.0522091.611745
E -0.1434570.036168-0.056075
F -7.922279-12.72011-0.433228
G 52.4096293.0877264.12691
H 0.0000000.0000006.860003
ReferenceChase, 1998Chase, 1998Chase, 1998
Comment «alpha» phase; Data last reviewed in June, 1979 «alpha» phase; Data last reviewed in June, 1979 «beta» phase; Data last reviewed in June, 1979

Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 11titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 12titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 11Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 12Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
469.9 CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 17titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 18titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 17Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 18Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
449.8 CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 10titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 11titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 10Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 11Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
406. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 12titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 13titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 12Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 13Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
321. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 13titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 14titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 13Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 14Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
400. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 14titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 15titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 14Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 15Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
360. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 15titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 16titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 15Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 16Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
344. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 16titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 17titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 16Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 17Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
318. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 18titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 19titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 18Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 19Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
409. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 19titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 20titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 19Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 20Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
395. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 20titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 21titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 20Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 21Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
410. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 9titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 10titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 9Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 10Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
344. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 2titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 3titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 2Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 3Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
338. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 3titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 4titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 3Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 4Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
340. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 4titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 5titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 4Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 5Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
354. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 5titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 6titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 5Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 6Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
400. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 6titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 7titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 6Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 7Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
278. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 7titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 8titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 7Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 8Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
346. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 8titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 9titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 8Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 9Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
335. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 2titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 2Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
230. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

Titanium ion (1+) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet titanium)

By formula: Ti+ + Ti = (Ti+ bullet Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
244. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Ion clustering data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

View reactions leading to Ti+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)6.8282eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)876.kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity853.7kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
0.0870 ± 0.0070EFDIlin, Sakharov, et al., 1987B
0.080 ± 0.014LPESFeigerle, Corderman, et al., 1981B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
6.8282EVALLide, 1992LL
6.8282LSPage and Gudeman, 1990LL
6.82SKelly, 1987LBLHLM
6.820 ± 0.006SSugar and Corliss, 1985LBLHLM
6.01PEDyke, Gravenor, et al., 1984LBLHLM
6.8 ± 0.2EIBanon, Chatillon, et al., 1982LBLHLM
6.78 ± 0.02EIRauh and Ackermann, 1979LLK
6.7EIHildenbrand, 1977LLK
6.8 ± 0.1EIRauh and Ackermann, 1974LLK
7.3 ± 0.6EICocke and Gingerich, 1974LLK
7.3 ± 0.6EICocke and Gingerich, 1972LLK
7.4 ± 0.5EIBalducci, De Maria, et al., 1972LLK
6.6 ± 0.5EIEdwards, Franzen, et al., 1971LLK
6.8204SMoore, 1970RDSH
6.6 ± 0.2EIMesnard, Uzan, et al., 1966RDSH

Ion clustering data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

Titanium ion (1+) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet titanium)

By formula: Ti+ + Ti = (Ti+ bullet Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
244. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 2titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 2Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
230. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 2titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 3titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 2Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 3Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
338. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 3titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 4titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 3Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 4Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
340. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 4titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 5titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 4Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 5Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
354. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 5titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 6titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 5Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 6Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
400. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 6titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 7titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 6Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 7Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
278. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 7titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 8titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 7Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 8Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
346. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 8titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 9titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 8Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 9Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
335. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 9titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 10titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 9Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 10Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
344. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 10titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 11titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 10Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 11Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
406. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 11titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 12titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 11Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 12Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
469.9 CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 12titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 13titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 12Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 13Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
321. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 13titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 14titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 13Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 14Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
400. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 14titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 15titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 14Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 15Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
360. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 15titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 16titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 15Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 16Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
344. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 16titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 17titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 16Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 17Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
318. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 17titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 18titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 17Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 18Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
449.8 CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 18titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 19titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 18Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 19Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
409. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 19titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 20titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 19Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 20Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
395. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

(Titanium ion (1+) bullet 20titanium) + titanium = (Titanium ion (1+) bullet 21titanium)

By formula: (Ti+ bullet 20Ti) + Ti = (Ti+ bullet 21Ti)

Enthalpy of reaction

DeltarH° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
410. CIDArmentrout and Kickel, 1994gas phase; guided ion beam CID

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Cox, Wagman, et al., 1984
Cox, J.D.; Wagman, D.D.; Medvedev, V.A., CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York, 1984, 1. [all data]

Chase, 1998
Chase, M.W., Jr., NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, Fourth Edition, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 9, 1998, 1-1951. [all data]

Armentrout and Kickel, 1994
Armentrout, P.B.; Kickel, B.L., Gas Phase Thermochemistry of Transition Metal Ligand Systems: Reassessment of Values and Periodic Trends, in Organometallic Ion Chemistry, B. S. Freiser, ed, 1994. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Ilin, Sakharov, et al., 1987
Ilin, R.N.; Sakharov, V.I.; Serenkov, I.T., Study of Titanium Negative Ion Using Method of Electron Detachment by an Electric Field, Opt. Spectros. (USSR), 1987, 62, 578. [all data]

Feigerle, Corderman, et al., 1981
Feigerle, C.S.; Corderman, R.R.; Bobashev, S.V.; Lineberger, W.C., Binding Energies and Structure of Transition Metal Negative Ions, J. Chem. Phys., 1981, 74, 3, 1580, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.441289 . [all data]

Lide, 1992
Lide, D.R. (Editor), Ionization potentials of atoms and atomic ions in Handbook of Chem. and Phys., 1992, 10-211. [all data]

Page and Gudeman, 1990
Page, R.H.; Gudeman, C.S., Completing the iron period: Double-resonance, fluorescence-dip rydberg spectroscopy and ionization potentials of titanium, vanadium, iron, cobalt, and nickel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 1990, 1761. [all data]

Kelly, 1987
Kelly, R.L., Atomic and ionic spectrum lines of hydrogen through kryton, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1987, 16. [all data]

Sugar and Corliss, 1985
Sugar, J.; Corliss, C., Atomic energy levels of the iron period elements: Potassium through nickel, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1985, 14. [all data]

Dyke, Gravenor, et al., 1984
Dyke, J.M.; Gravenor, B.W.J.; Josland, G.D.; Lewis, R.A.; Morris, A., A gas phase investigation of titanium monoxide and atomic titanium using high temperature photoelectron spectroscopy, Mol. Phys., 1984, 53, 465. [all data]

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Notes

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