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Pentane, 2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
33.100200.Scott D.W., 1974Recommended values were obtained from the consistent correlation scheme for alkanes [ Scott D.W., 1974, 2, Scott D.W., 1974]. This approach gives a good agreement with experimental data available for alkanes. However, large uncertainties could be expected at high temperatures.
46.489273.15
50.68 ± 0.48298.15
50.989300.
66.310400.
79.520500.
90.901600.
100.80700.
109.40800.
116.90900.
123.601000.
129.501100.
134.801200.
140.001300.
144.001400.
148.001500.

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-1463.10 ± 0.36kcal/molCcbJohnson, Prosen, et al., 1947Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -66.51 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid80.02cal/mol*KN/AFinke, Messerly, et al., 1976DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
64.89298.15Finke, Messerly, et al., 1976T = 10 to 400 K.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
CAL - James S. Chickos, William E. Acree, Jr., Joel F. Liebman, Students of Chem 202 (Introduction to the Literature of Chemistry), University of Missouri -- St. Louis
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil413.42 ± 0.04KAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus263. ± 1.KAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple263.4KN/AFinke, Messerly, et al., 1976, 2Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc607.5 ± 0.5KN/ADaubert, 1996 
Tc607.55KN/AAmbrose and Townsend, 1968Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; extrapolated back to zero time to correct for decomposition; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc27.0 ± 0.4atmN/ADaubert, 1996 
Pc27.05atmN/AAmbrose and Townsend, 1968Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.20 atm; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap9.85kcal/molN/AReid, 1972See also Labbauf, Greenshields, et al., 1961.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
9.37343.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 328. - 415. K. See also Forziati, Norris, et al., 1949.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (atm)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
330.98 - 414.443.951031399.478-59.218Forziati, Norris, et al., 1949, 2Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
0.557263.4Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
10.0174.5Domalski and Hearing, 1996CAL
2.1263.4

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
1.75083174.45crystaline, IIcrystaline, IFinke, Messerly, et al., 1976DH
0.55751263.40crystaline, IliquidFinke, Messerly, et al., 1976DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
10.04174.45crystaline, IIcrystaline, IFinke, Messerly, et al., 1976DH
2.12263.40crystaline, IliquidFinke, Messerly, et al., 1976DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference Comment
0.00016 QN/A missing citation give several references for the Henry's law constants but don't assign them to specific species.

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
State gas
Instrument HP-GC/MS/IRD

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, IR Spectrum, Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1990.
NIST MS number 114372

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySqualane100.856.Heinzen, Soares, et al., 1999 
CapillarySqualane50.851.7Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillarySqualane70.857.1Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillaryDB-160.847.7Lubeck and Sutton, 1983Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.264 mm
CapillaryDB-160.847.8Lubeck and Sutton, 198360. m/0.259 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillarySqualane60.855.Chretien and Dubois, 1976 
CapillarySqualane60.855.8Chretien and Dubois, 1976 
CapillarySqualane50.852.Rijks and Cramers, 1974N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.858.Rijks and Cramers, 1974N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.852.7Dimov and Schopov, 1971Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane60.856.Matukuma, 1969N2; Column length: 91.4 m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane30.847.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane50.850.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.853.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryApiezon L862.Louis, 1971N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 60. C

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySqualane854.Korol and Lysyuk, 1980Program: not specified

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH844.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone50.852.N/AN2; Column length: 74.6 m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH849.Supelco, 2012100. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 20. C @ 15. min, 15. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillarySE-54852.Guan, Li, et al., 199560. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101855.Du and Liang, 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane856.Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Scott D.W., 1974
Scott D.W., Chemical Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Substances. Properties of the Alkane Hydrocarbons, C1 through C10 in the Ideal Gas State from 0 to 1500 K. U.S. Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 666, 1974. [all data]

Scott D.W., 1974, 2
Scott D.W., Correlation of the chemical thermodynamic properties of alkane hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Phys., 1974, 60, 3144-3165. [all data]

Johnson, Prosen, et al., 1947
Johnson, W.H.; Prosen, E.J.; Rossini, F.D., Heats of combustion and isomerization of six nonanes, J. Res. NBS, 1947, 38, 419-422. [all data]

Finke, Messerly, et al., 1976
Finke, H.L.; Messerly, J.F.; Douslin, D.R., Low-temperature thermal quantities for five alkyl-substituted pentanes, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1976, 8, 965-983. [all data]

Finke, Messerly, et al., 1976, 2
Finke, H.L.; Messerly, J.F.; Douslin, D.R., Low-Temp. Thermal Quantities for Five Alkyl-Substituted Pentanes, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1976, 8, 965. [all data]

Daubert, 1996
Daubert, T.E., Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties of Elements and Compounds. 5. Branched Alkanes and Cycloalkanes, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1996, 41, 365-372. [all data]

Ambrose and Townsend, 1968
Ambrose, D.; Townsend, R., Critical Temperatures and Pressures of Some Alkanes, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1968, 64, 2622. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Labbauf, Greenshields, et al., 1961
Labbauf, A.; Greenshields, J.B.; Rossini, F.D., Heats of formation, combustion, and vaporization of the 35 nonanes and 75 decanes, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1961, 6, 261-263. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Forziati, Norris, et al., 1949
Forziati, Alphonse F.; Norris, William R.; Rossini, Frederick D., Vapor pressures and boiling points of sixty API-NBS hydrocarbons, J. RES. NATL. BUR. STAN., 1949, 43, 6, 555-17, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.043.050 . [all data]

Forziati, Norris, et al., 1949, 2
Forziati, A.F.; Norris, W.R.; Rossini, F.D., Vapor Pressures and Boiling Points of Sixty API-NBS Hydrocarbons, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), 1949, 43, 6, 555-563, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.043.050 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Heinzen, Soares, et al., 1999
Heinzen, V.E.F.; Soares, M.F.; Yunes, R.A., Semi-empirical topological method for the prediction of the chromatographic retention of cis- and trans-alkene isomers and alkanes, J. Chromatogr. A, 1999, 849, 2, 495-506, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00530-0 . [all data]

Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988
Lunskii, M.Kh.; Paizanskaya, I.L., Identification of hydrocarbons C1-C9 of petrol fractions of oils and condensates in the use of capillary columns with dinonylphthalate, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1988, 43, 127-135. [all data]

Lubeck and Sutton, 1983
Lubeck, A.J.; Sutton, DL., Kovats retention indices of selected hydrocarbons through C10 on bonded phase fused silica capillaries, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1983, 6, 6, 328-332, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240060612 . [all data]

Chretien and Dubois, 1976
Chretien, J.R.; Dubois, J.-E., New Perspectives in the Prediction of Kovats Indices, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 171-189, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84071-1 . [all data]

Rijks and Cramers, 1974
Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A., High precision capillary gas chromatography of hydrocarbons, Chromatographia, 1974, 7, 3, 99-106, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02269819 . [all data]

Dimov and Schopov, 1971
Dimov, N.; Schopov, D., Empirische korrektion der physikalisch-chemischen retentionsindexe von kohlenwasserstoffen auf squalan, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 63, 223-228, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)85634-X . [all data]

Matukuma, 1969
Matukuma, A., Retention indices of alkanes through C10 and alkenes through C8 and relation between boiling points and retention data, Gas Chromatogr., Int. Symp. Anal. Instrum. Div Instrum Soc. Amer., 1969, 7, 55-75. [all data]

Tourres, 1967
Tourres, D.A., Structure moléculaire et rétention en chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Influence de la température sur l'indice de rétention d'alcanes isomères, J. Chromatogr., 1967, 30, 357-377, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)84168-0 . [all data]

Louis, 1971
Louis, R., Kovats-index-tafeln zur gaschromatographischen analyse von kohlenwasserstoffgemischen, Erdoel Kohle Erdgas Petrochem., 1971, 24, 2, 88-94. [all data]

Korol and Lysyuk, 1980
Korol, A.N.; Lysyuk, L.S., A New Thermodynamic Method for Calculating the Retention Indices of Isoalkanes on Squalane, Theor. Exp. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 1980, 6, 577-584. [all data]

White, Hackett, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Hackett, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Kail, S.; Spock, P.S., Linear temperature programmed retention indices of gasoline range hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons on cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 105-120, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150211 . [all data]

Supelco, 2012
Supelco, CatalogNo. 24160-U, Petrocol DH Columns. Catalog No. 24160-U, 2012, retrieved from http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Supelco/Datasheet/1/w97949.Par.0001.File.tmp/w97949.pdf. [all data]

Guan, Li, et al., 1995
Guan, Y.; Li, L.; Zhou, L., Live retention database for compound identification in capillary gas chromatography, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 1995, 13, 5, 851-857. [all data]

Du and Liang, 2003
Du, Y.; Liang, Y., Data mining for seeking accurate quantitative relationship between molecular structure and GC retention indices of alkanes by projection pursuit, Comput. Biol. Chem., 2003, 27, 3, 339-353, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1476-9271(02)00081-6 . [all data]

Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003
Junkes, B.S.; Castanho, R.D.M.; Amboni, C.; Yunes, R.A.; Heinzen, V.E.F., Semiempirical Topological Index: A Novel Molecular Descriptor for Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship Studies, Internet Electronic Journal of Molecular Design, 2003, 2, 1, 33-49. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References