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Uracil

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-303.1 ± 2.3kJ/molCcrNabavian, Sabbah, et al., 1977 

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid-424.4 ± 2.5kJ/molCcbWilson, Watson, et al., 1979ALS
Deltafsolid-429.56 ± 0.60kJ/molCcrNabavian, Sabbah, et al., 1977ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-1721.3 ± 2.2kJ/molCcbWilson, Watson, et al., 1979ALS
Deltacsolid-1716.14 ± 0.28kJ/molCcrNabavian, Sabbah, et al., 1977ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of solid

Cp,solid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
120.5298.Kilday, 1978DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub131. ± 5.kJ/molTE,GSBardi, Bencivenni, et al., 1980Based on data from 452. - 587. K.; AC
Deltasub126.5 ± 2.2kJ/molVNabavian, Sabbah, et al., 1977ALS
Deltasub84.kJ/molVClark, Peschel, et al., 1965ALS

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
125.3 ± 0.2425.QR,MEde Barros, Medina, et al., 2006Based on data from 315. - 435. K.; AC
101.3399. - 411.MESzterner, Kaminski, et al., 2002AC
127.0 ± 2.0439.TEBrunetti, Piacente, et al., 2000Based on data from 394. - 494. K.; AC
130.6 ± 4.0519.ME,TEBardi, Bencivenni, et al., 1980Based on data from 452. - 587. K.; AC
120.5 ± 1.3403.QRTeplitsky, Yanson, et al., 1980Based on data from 378. - 428. K.; AC
121.7425.MSYanson, Teplitsky, et al., 1979AC
134. ± 8.523.HSANowak, Szczepaniak, et al., 1978Based on data from 500. - 545. K.; AC
126.5 ± 2.2440.CNabavian, Sabbah, et al., 1977, 2AC
120.5 ± 5.2426.LEYanson and Teplitskii, 1975Based on data from 393. - 458. K. See also Yanson, Verkin, et al., 1974.; AC

Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Robert C. Dunbar

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

Sodium ion (1+) + Uracil = (Sodium ion (1+) bullet Uracil)

By formula: Na+ + C4H4N2O2 = (Na+ bullet C4H4N2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar135. ± 3.kJ/molCIDTRodgers and Armentrout, 2000 
Deltar141.kJ/molCIDCCerda and Wesdemiotis, 1996 

Potassium ion (1+) + Uracil = (Potassium ion (1+) bullet Uracil)

By formula: K+ + C4H4N2O2 = (K+ bullet C4H4N2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar101.kJ/molCIDCCerda and Wesdemiotis, 1996 

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
MM - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner)
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)872.7kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity841.7kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
0.07502N/ADesfrancois, Abdoul-Carime, et al., 1999B
0.0860 ± 0.0080LPESSchiedt, Weinkauf, et al., 1998B
0.054 ± 0.035N/ADesfrancois, Abdoul-Carime, et al., 1996B
0.0930 ± 0.0070LPESHendricks, Lyapustina, et al., 1996 Aflatooni, Gallup, et al., 1998: vertical attachment EA = -0.22 eV; B
2.49 ± 0.10LPESLi, Bowen, et al., 2007valence state of rare tautomer(N3-H to C5) inferred from calculations; B

Proton affinity at 298K

Proton affinity (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
858.Wolken and Turecek, 2000PA calculated by B3YLP, MP2, QCSID, QCISD(T)6-31G(d,p) to 6-311+G(3df,2p) methods. The results, and comparison with experimental PA of thymine suggest the cited value, probbaly more accurate than 1975 Wilson and McCoskey bracketing value.; MM

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.2PEYu, O'Donnell, et al., 1981LLK
9.4 ± 0.1EIVerkin, Sukodub, et al., 1976LLK
9.53 ± 0.02EIZaretskii, Sadovskaya, et al., 1971LLK
9.8 ± 0.1EILifschitz, Bergmann, et al., 1967RDSH
9.68PEPalmer, Simpson, et al., 1980Vertical value; LLK
9.60PEDougherty, Wittel, et al., 1976Vertical value; LLK
9.45PELauer, Schafer, et al., 1975Vertical value; LLK
9.50 ± 0.03PEHush and Cheung, 1975Vertical value; LLK
9.59PEPadva, LeBreton, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK

Ion clustering data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Robert C. Dunbar

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

Potassium ion (1+) + Uracil = (Potassium ion (1+) bullet Uracil)

By formula: K+ + C4H4N2O2 = (K+ bullet C4H4N2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar101.kJ/molCIDCCerda and Wesdemiotis, 1996 

Sodium ion (1+) + Uracil = (Sodium ion (1+) bullet Uracil)

By formula: Na+ + C4H4N2O2 = (Na+ bullet C4H4N2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar135. ± 3.kJ/molCIDTRodgers and Armentrout, 2000 
Deltar141.kJ/molCIDCCerda and Wesdemiotis, 1996 

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1998.
NIST MS number 292112

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Stimson, 1949
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 10472
Instrument n.i.g.
Melting point 338

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Nabavian, Sabbah, et al., 1977
Nabavian, P.M.; Sabbah, R.; Chastel, R.; Laffitte, M., Thermodynamique de composes azotes. II. Etude thermochimique des acides aminobenzoiques, de la pyrimidine, de l'uracile et de la thymine., J. Chim. Phys., 1977, 74, 115-126. [all data]

Wilson, Watson, et al., 1979
Wilson, S.R.; Watson, I.D.; Malcolm, G.N., Enthalpies of formation of solid cytosine, L-histidine, and uracil, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1979, 11, 911-912. [all data]

Kilday, 1978
Kilday, M.V., Enthalpies of solution of the nucleic acid bases. 4. Uracil in water, J. Res., 1978, NBS 83, 547-554. [all data]

Bardi, Bencivenni, et al., 1980
Bardi, G.; Bencivenni, L.; Ferro, D.; Martini, B.; Nunziante Cesaro, S.; Teghil, R., Thermodynamic study of the vaporization of uracil, Thermochimica Acta, 1980, 40, 2, 275-282, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(80)87229-7 . [all data]

Clark, Peschel, et al., 1965
Clark, L.B.; Peschel, G.G.; Tinoco, I., Jr., Vapor spectra and heats of vaporization of some purine and pyrmidine bases, J. Phys. Chem., 1965, 69, 3615. [all data]

de Barros, Medina, et al., 2006
de Barros, A.L.F.; Medina, A.; Zappa, F.; Pereira, J.M.; Bessa, E.; Martins, M.H.P.; Coelho, L.F.S.; Wolff, W.; de Castro Faria, N.V., A simple experimental arrangement for measuring the vapour pressures and sublimation enthalpies by the Knudsen effusion method: Application to DNA and RNA bases, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 2006, 560, 2, 219-223, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2006.01.026 . [all data]

Szterner, Kaminski, et al., 2002
Szterner, Piotr; Kaminski, Miron; Zielenkiewicz, Anna, Vapour pressures, molar enthalpies of sublimation and molar enthalpies of solution in water of five halogenated derivatives of uracil, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 2002, 34, 7, 1005-1012, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.2000.0987 . [all data]

Brunetti, Piacente, et al., 2000
Brunetti, Bruno; Piacente, Vincenzo; Portalone, Gustavo, Sublimation Enthalpies of Some Methyl Derivatives of Uracil from Vapor Pressure Measurements, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2000, 45, 2, 242-246, https://doi.org/10.1021/je9902802 . [all data]

Teplitsky, Yanson, et al., 1980
Teplitsky, A.B.; Yanson, I.K.; Glukhova, O.T.; Zielenkiwicz, A.; Zielenkiewicz, W.; Wierzchowski, K.L., Thermochemistry of aqueous solutions of alkylated nucleic acid bases, Biophysical Chemistry, 1980, 11, 1, 17-21, https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-4622(80)85003-4 . [all data]

Yanson, Teplitsky, et al., 1979
Yanson, I.K.; Teplitsky, A.B.; Sukhodub, L.F., Experimental studies of molecular interactions between nitrogen bases of nucleic acids, Biopolymers, 1979, 18, 5, 1149-1170, https://doi.org/10.1002/bip.1979.360180510 . [all data]

Nowak, Szczepaniak, et al., 1978
Nowak, M.J.; Szczepaniak, K.; Barski, A.; Shugar, D.Z., Z. Naturforsch. C, 1978, 33C, 876. [all data]

Nabavian, Sabbah, et al., 1977, 2
Nabavian, M.; Sabbah, R.; Chastel, R.; Laffitte, M., J. Chim. Phys.Phys.-Chim. Biol., 1977, 74, 115. [all data]

Yanson and Teplitskii, 1975
Yanson, I.K.; Teplitskii, A.B., Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1975, 49, 736. [all data]

Yanson, Verkin, et al., 1974
Yanson, I.K.; Verkin, B.I.; Shklyarevskii, O.I.; Teplitskii, A.B., Stud. Biophys., 1974, 46, 1, 29. [all data]

Rodgers and Armentrout, 2000
Rodgers, M.T.; Armentrout, P.B., Noncovalent Interactions of Nucleic Acid Bases (Uracil, Thymine, and Adenine) with Alkali Metal Ions. Threshold Collision-Induced Dissociation and Theoretical Studies, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2000, 121, 35, 8548, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja001638d . [all data]

Cerda and Wesdemiotis, 1996
Cerda, B.A.; Wesdemiotis, C., PAs of Peptides, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1996, 118, 11884. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Desfrancois, Abdoul-Carime, et al., 1999
Desfrancois, C.; Abdoul-Carime, H.; Carles, S.; Periquet, V.; Schermann, J.P.; Smith, D.M.A.; Adamowicz, L., Experimental and theoretical ab initio study of the influence of N-methylation on the dipole-bound electron affinities of thymine and uracil, J. Chem. Phys., 1999, 110, 24, 11876-11883, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.479175 . [all data]

Schiedt, Weinkauf, et al., 1998
Schiedt, J.; Weinkauf, R.; Neumark, D.M.; Schlag, E.W., Anion spectroscopy of uracil, thymine and the amino-oxo and amino-hydroxy tautomers of cytosine and their water clusters, Chem. Phys., 1998, 239, 1-3, 511-524, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0104(98)00361-9 . [all data]

Desfrancois, Abdoul-Carime, et al., 1996
Desfrancois, C.; Abdoul-Carime, H.; Schermann, J.P., Electron Attachment to Isolated Nucleic Acid Bases, J. Chem. Phys., 1996, 104, 19, 7792, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.471484 . [all data]

Hendricks, Lyapustina, et al., 1996
Hendricks, J.H.; Lyapustina, S.A.; de Clercq, H.L.; Snodgrass, J.T.; Bowen, K.H., Dipole bound, nucleic Acid Base Anions Studied via Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 1996, 104, 19, 7788, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.471482 . [all data]

Aflatooni, Gallup, et al., 1998
Aflatooni, K.; Gallup, G.A.; Burrows, P.D., Electron Attachment Energies of the DNA Bases, J. Phys. Chem., 1998, 102, 31, 6205, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp980865n . [all data]

Li, Bowen, et al., 2007
Li, X.; Bowen, K.H.; Haranczyk, M.; Bachorz, R.A.; Mazurkiewicz, K.; Rak, J.; Gutowski, M., Photoelectron spectroscopy of adiabatically bound valence anions of rare tautomers of the nucleic acid bases, J. Chem. Phys., 2007, 127, 17, 174309, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2795719 . [all data]

Wolken and Turecek, 2000
Wolken, J.K.; Turecek, F., Proton affinity of uracil. A computational study of protonation sites, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 2000, 11, 1065. [all data]

Yu, O'Donnell, et al., 1981
Yu, C.; O'Donnell, T.J.; LeBreton, P.R., Ultraviolet photoelectron studies of volatile nucleoside models. Vertical ionization potential measurements of methylated uridine, thymidine, cytidine, and adenosine, J. Phys. Chem., 1981, 85, 3851. [all data]

Verkin, Sukodub, et al., 1976
Verkin, B.I.; Sukodub, L.F.; Yanson, I.K., Ionization potentials of nitrogenous bases of of nucleic acids, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1976, 228, 1452. [all data]

Zaretskii, Sadovskaya, et al., 1971
Zaretskii, V.I.; Sadovskaya, V.L.; Wulfson, N.S.; Sizoy, V.F.; Merimson, V.G., Mass spectrometry of steroid systems-XXI. Appearance and ionization potentials for the stereoisomers of the D-homoestrane series, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1971, 5, 1179. [all data]

Lifschitz, Bergmann, et al., 1967
Lifschitz, C.; Bergmann, E.D.; Pullman, B., The ionization potentials of biological purines and pyrimidines, Tetrahedron Lett., 1967, 4583. [all data]

Palmer, Simpson, et al., 1980
Palmer, M.H.; Simpson, I.; Platenkamp, R.J., The electronic structure of flavin derivatives, J. Mol. Struct., 1980, 66, 243. [all data]

Dougherty, Wittel, et al., 1976
Dougherty, D.; Wittel, K.; Meeks, J.; McGlynn, S.P., Photoelectron spectroscopy of carbonyls. Ureas, uracils, and thymine, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1976, 98, 3815. [all data]

Lauer, Schafer, et al., 1975
Lauer, G.; Schafer, W.; Schweig, A., Functional subunits in the nucleic acid bases uracil and thymine, Tetrahedron Lett., 1975, 45, 3939. [all data]

Hush and Cheung, 1975
Hush, N.S.; Cheung, A.S., Ionization potentials and donor properties of nucleic acid bases and related compounds, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1975, 34, 11. [all data]

Padva, LeBreton, et al., 1974
Padva, A.; LeBreton, P.R.; Dinerstein, R.J.; Ridyard, J.N.A., UV photoelectron studies of biological pyrimidines: The electronic structure of uracil, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1974, 60, 1262. [all data]

Stimson, 1949
Stimson, M.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1949, 71, 1470. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References